ArticleLiterature Review

Illicium verum: A review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology

Authors:
Article

Illicium verum: A review on its botany, traditional use, chemistry and pharmacology

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

The fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Chinese star anise) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine and food industry with the actions of dispelling cold, regulating the flow of Qi and relieving pain. A bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing recognized books including Chinese herbal classic, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched for the available information on I. verum. I. verum is an aromatic evergreen tree of the family Illiciaceae. It is sometimes contaminated with highly toxic Japanese star anise (I. anisatum L.) and poisonous star anise (I. lanceolatum A. C. Smith), which contain several neurotoxic sesquiterpenes. Traditional uses of I. verum are recorded throughout Asia and Northern America, where it has been used for more than 10 types of disorders. Numerous compounds including volatiles, seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, lignans, flavonoids and other constituents have been identified from I. verum. Modern pharmacology studies demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological actions, especially in antimicrobial, antioxidant, insecticidal, analgesic, sedative and convulsive activities. In addition, it is the major source of shikimic acid, a primary ingredient in the antiflu drug (Tamiflu). This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of I. verum together with the toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for future research of I. verum.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... 17 Its common name has many synonyms in different areas: Chinese star anise or Bajiaohuixiang in China; Anis de la Chine, Anise etoile or Badiane in France; Dai-uikyo or Hakkaku-uikyo in Japan; Sternanis in Germany; Anicestellato in Italy; Sonf or Anasphal in India; Anis estrellado in Spain; Bunga lawing in Indonesia and Malaysia. 18 Chinese star anise is one of the flavors used in China five spices. 19 In traditional Chinese medicine, it is known as warming yang for dispelling cold, as well as regulating the flow of Qi to relieve pain or common cold. ...
... 19 In traditional Chinese medicine, it is known as warming yang for dispelling cold, as well as regulating the flow of Qi to relieve pain or common cold. 18 The crude fruits and its powders were used in traditional teas to treat nervousness and sleeplessness and also as a sedative. 18 Dried ripe, star anise fruit and seed are used as important spice in Asian cooking especially in Chinese, Vietnamese and Indian cuisines. ...
... 18 The crude fruits and its powders were used in traditional teas to treat nervousness and sleeplessness and also as a sedative. 18 Dried ripe, star anise fruit and seed are used as important spice in Asian cooking especially in Chinese, Vietnamese and Indian cuisines. Vietnam produces more than 5000 tonne of star anise seeds per annum and it is estimated that the combined production of China and Vietnam is more than 25,000 tonne per annum. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Star anise has traditional usages and multiple applications in botany, chemistry, pharmacology and therapy. Chinese star anise has antioxidant, antibacterial, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and anti-nociceptive effects. Methods: A literature search was conducted in Medline, PubMed, Science direct and Google scholar databases. Results: The seeds are good source of the minerals calcium, iron, copper, potassium, manganese, zinc and magnesium. The seeds are also a good source of the essential B-complex vitamins pyridoxine, niacin, riboflavin and thiamin. Chinese star anise is also a good source of anti-oxidant vitamins including Vitamin-C and Vitamin-A. The essential oil of Chinese star anise contains anethole which has shown several functional properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and oestrogenic properties. Chinese star anise also contains shikimic acid, which has become a major weapon against global influenza. Moreover, it contains bioactive compounds possessing insecticidal properties which can be used as natural grain protectants. The most important compounds of Chinese star anise are α
... Illicium verum, a spice usually known as star anise, is a medium-sized evergreen tree obtained from the star-shaped pericarps of the fruit (Patra et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2011). The extracts from the plant illicium verum form a major component of shikimic acid production, which is required as an intermediate constituent for the synthesis of the drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which is effective against the influenza virus (Ghosh et al., 2012;Singh, Gupta, et al., 2020). ...
... Illiverin A 16091585 (Song et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2011) ...
... Illicinole 16729375 (Song et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2011) ...
Article
SARS-CoV-2, the causing agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first broke out in Wuhan and rapidly spread worldwide, resulting in a global health emergency. The lack of specific drugs against the coronavirus has made its spread challenging to control. The main protease (M pro ) is a key enzyme of SARS-CoV-2 and has an essential role in processing pp1a and pp1ab polyproteins. Thus, it serves as a key target in drug discovery against the coronavirus. Medicines derived from plant phytoconstituents have been widely exploited to treat various diseases. The present study has evaluated the potential of Illicium verum (star anise) phytoconstituents against M pro by implementing a computational approach. We performed molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation study with a set of 60 compounds to identify their potential to inhibit the main protease (M pro ) of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the DFT study and post dynamics free energy calculations were also performed to strengthen our findings. The docking study identified four compounds, Verimol G (-8.60Kcal/mol), Veranisatin A (-7.42 Kcal/mol), Verimol E (7.90 Kcal/mol), and Veranisatin B (- 7.12 Kcal/mol), which exhibited the highest potential as compared to other phytoconstituents. Further, density functional theory (DFT) calculation, molecular dynamics simulation and post dynamics MM-GBSA energy calculation predicted Verimol-G as a potential compound, which formed stable interactions through the catalytic dyad residues. The HOMO orbital energy (0.250038) from DFT and the post dynamics binding free energy calculation (-73.33 Kcal/mol) correlate, suggesting Verimol-G is the best inhibitor compared to the other phytoconstituents. This compound also complies with the ADME properties of drug likeliness. Thus, based on a computational study, we suggest that Verimol G may be developed as a potential inhibitor against the main protease to combat COVID-19.
... Illicium verum Hook f. (star anise, Chinese star anise) is a woody species commonly known as ba jiao hui xiang in China and is used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a therapeutic agent [1]. In line with the guidelines of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia [2], contemporary Chinese medicine recommends I. verum as a valuable medicinal plant. ...
... The recent scientific studies have proven that the fruit and essential oil of I. verum are characterized by biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects [4]. The plant is also widely used in the food industry as a spice [1]. ...
... The species can be found in natural habitats in southeastern China and Vietnam. However, for commercial purposes, it is widely cultivated in China [1] as well as in Morocco, India, the Philippines, and some European countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy [11]. Its seeds were collected and brought to Europe from the Philippines for the first time by English sailor Thomas Cavendish in 1578 [8,11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Illicium verum Hook f. (star anise) is considered an important species in Traditional Chinese Medicine and is also used in contemporary medicine in East Asian countries. It occurs in natural habitats in southeastern parts of China and Vietnam, and is cultivated in various regions in China. The raw materials - Anisi stellati fructus and Anisi stellati aetheroleum obtained from this species exhibit expectorant and spasmolytic activities. The European Pharmacopoeia (4th edition) indicates that these raw materials have been used in allopathy since 2002. The biological activities of the above-mentioned raw materials are determined by the presence of valuable secondary metabolites such as monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and flavonoids. Recent pharmacological studies on fruit extracts and the essential oil of this species have confirmed their antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and thus their medicinal and cosmetic value. The aim of this review was to examine the progress of phytochemical and pharmacological studies that focused on possible cosmetic applications. In addition to fruit extracts and essential oil, the current consensus on the safety of trans-anethole, which is the main compound of essential oil used in cosmetology, is underlined here.
... Początkowo I. verum był zaliczany do rodziny Magnoliaceae. Dopiero John Smith zaklasyfikował I. verum do odrębnej rodziny (Illiciaceae), na podstawie morfologii kwiatów i anatomii organów wegetatywnych rośliny [1]. W 2009 r. rodzina Illiciaceae została włączona do rodziny Schisandraceae (Cytryńcowate) [9,10]. ...
... Rdzenne obszary występowania I. verum to tereny Chin Południowych oraz Wietnamu Północnego. Obecnie gatunek występuje naturalnie prawie wyłącznie w południowych Chinach, Indochinach i w Japonii [1,2]. W celach komercyjnych jest uprawiany głównie w Chinach. ...
... Dominującym składnikiem olejku eterycznego z owoców I. verum jest związek fenolowytrans-anetol. Związek pod względem chemicznym należy do grupy fenylopropanoidów. Jego średnia zawartość w olejku przekracza 86% [1]. W dalszej części pracy przedstawiono szczegółową charakterystykę trans-anetolu. ...
Article
Full-text available
The growing requirements imposed on cosmetic products are associated with the need for continuous selection of natural raw materials to meet the changing trends on the cosmetics market. The appearance of newer and newer targeted actives reflects the dynamics in the skincare field. Certain trends, however, despite the passage of time, remain unchanged and will always constitute a solid basis in the canon of maintaining good skin condition. Regardless of the type of skin, its age or condition, it is extremely important for the cosmetic to provide adequate antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory protection. Few raw materials combine such a diverse biologically active activity, which is why star anise (Illicium verum) deserves special attention. It is the raw material relatively well known and used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TMC) as a therapeutic agent. It also has an important position as a food and fragrance plant. In the European Pharmacopoeia 4.0 since 2002 and in the Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII (Farmakopea Polska VIII), since 2008 there are two monographs of raw materials obtained from I. verum: fruit - Anisi stellati fructus, and essential oil - Anisi stellati aetheroelum. Moreover, I. verum also appears in various forms as a source of raw materials for the production of cosmetics in the created by European Commission, CosIng database (Cosmetic Ingredients database). I. verum is a rich source of valuable biologically active compounds, such as: monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and flavonoids, which determine the biological activity of these raw materials. In medicine, their expectorant and spasmolytic effects are mainly used. The documented by the latest scientific research; anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant of fruit extracts and / or essential oil, determine the use of this species in the production of cosmetics. Trans-anethole (E-anethole) is recognized to be the most important compound in the essential oil of I. verum, determining its activity. The valuable sensory features (aromatic, sweet taste) and biological properties (antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory) of this compound, are used in the food, cosmetic, perfume and pharmaceutical industries. Opinion-forming organizations such as: FEMA (Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association) and FDA (Food Drug Administration) have granted both I. verum and trans-anethole the status of safe raw materials. This multifunctional biological effect makes anise an extremely interesting raw material in cosmetic formulations, however, its potential is still underestimated.
... Anisi stellati fructus (ASF) is the star-shaped fruit of Illicium verum Hook F. (Chinese star anise), which belongs to the Illiciaceae family [56], but the former is reported to be a member of the Schisandraceae family [57]. I. verum is a highly regarded Chinese medicinal herb which is also mentioned in the Chinese Pharmacopeia [58]. ...
... ere are various species in the genus, which demonstrate variance due to their distinctive morphology, composition, and growth habitat. I. verum is an aromatic, medium-sized tree which is grown in areas native to Jamaica, Laos, Japan, Indonesia, Philippines, and north-east and south-west Vietnam and China, respectively [56,59], and is widely distributed in many regions of Asia and North America [60]. In various regions all over the world, it goes by different local names, including "B� adiy� an" (Persian), "Badiyaan" and "Badiyaan ka phool" (Urdu), "Phoolchakri" (Hindi), "Badiane" (French), and star anise (English). ...
Article
Full-text available
Anisi stellati fructus (ASF) is the fruit of Illicium verum Hook F. (Chinese star anise), which is native to many countries, and is a significant Chinese medicinal herb. Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the major fatal types of cancers with multiple stages and a poor prognosis. The present review aims to discuss the bioactive properties of ASF and its phytocompounds against GC, with a particular insight into the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in its anti-GC mechanism. Furthermore, it highlights the potential mechanism of action of major phytocompounds of ASF against GC. Clinical studies (in vitro and in vivo) regarding the action of ASF and its major bioactive compounds such as quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, d-limonene, and honokiol against GC were reviewed. For this review, search of literature was performed in Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus related to ASF and its phytocompounds, from which only relevant studies were chosen. Major bioactive compounds of ASF and their extracts have proven to be effective against GC due to the mechanistic action of these compounds involving signaling pathways that target cancer cell apoptosis, proliferation, and tumor metastasis in GC cells. Existing reports of these compounds and their combinatory effects with other modern anticancer agents have also been reviewed. From its traditional use to its role as an anticancer agent, ASF and its bioactive phytocompounds have been observed to be effective in modern research, specifically against GC. However, further studies are required for the identification of molecular targets and pharmacokinetic potential and for the formulation of anti-GC drugs.
... An EO from I. verum, an aromatic evergreen plant of the family Illiciaceae, and its major constituent, trans-anethole, were reported to possess a high insecticidal activity against M. domestica and Ae. aegypti (Wang et al., 2011;Sinthusiri and Soonwera, 2014;Pavela, 2015a;Pandiyan et al., 2019;Gomes da Rocha Voris et al., 2018). Belonging to the family Myristicaceae, Myristica fragrans Houtt and its major constituent, α-pinene, have also been reported to have high insecticidal activity against M. domestica, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Ae. ...
... Among them, trans-anethole (94.0 %) was the most abundant. This finding is in good agreement with findings reported by Wang et al. (2011) that the percentage of trans-anethole in the chemical composition was 70-94 %. As for M. fragrans EO, it was composed of 22 constituents, accounting for 99.8 % of the total composition. ...
Article
This study attempted to find safe and effective green insecticidal agents against Musca domestica L., which is a major public health pest in tropical and subtropical countries that have already developed resistance to synthetic pesticides. Plant essential oil-based insecticides are new, effective, and eco-friendly alternatives. Today, they are a housefly control method of choice. The study evaluated the insecticidal effect against M. domestica adults of essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf.), Illicium verum Hook. f., and Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) as well as their major active chemical constituents. Formulations of these individual and combined compounds were evaluated to see whether they were synergistic against M. domestica. Chemical compositions of these EOs were also analyzed by GC–MS. The major constituent of C. citratus was found to be geranial (45.4 %); that of I. verum was trans-anethole (94.0 %), and that of M. fragrans was α-pinene (21.6 %). Formulation CB3 (0.5 % I. verum EO + 0.5 % geranial) exhibited the highest synergistic effect (SI = 0.04), with 100 % knockdown and mortality rates, a 50 % knockdown time (KT50) of 4.0 min, and a 50 % lethal time (LT50) of 6.0 min. CB3 was more effective than 1% w/v cypermethrin, followed by CB5 (0.5 % M. fragrans EO + 0.5 % geranial), CB7 (0.5 % α-pinene + 0.5 % geranial), and CB8 (0.5 % geranial + 0.5 % trans-anethole). To conclude, some formulations of combined C. citratus, I. verum, and M. fragrans were strongly synergistic against M. domestica and more effective than cypermethrin. Moreover, since they have been long used as natural food ingredients and in traditional medicine, they are also safe for humans, non-target organisms, and the environment.
... Star anise (Illicium verum) is an evergreen small medium sized shrub from the plant family Illiciaceae [19]. It is used in a variety of dishes from beverages to deserts and savoury stews. ...
... Star anise has been utilized widely in Indian dishes, it is a principle constituent of garam masala [20]. Numerous medicinal activities shown by essential oil of star anise include: anti-microbial [21], insecticidal activity [22], anti-cancer activity [23], anti-viral, anti-inflammatory [24], anti-diarrheal activity [25], anti-fungal activity [26], and analgesic, sedative and convulsive activity [19]. ...
... Star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.) is an aromatic evergreen tree native to western China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, Indonesia, the Philippines and other subtropical regions. Its fruits are not only an important Chinese medicine, treating vomiting, stomachache, insomnia, skin inflammation and rheumatism [3,4], but also a common spice in cooking [5], being introduced into Europe in the 17th century. Its unique licorice flavors are the result of a compound called anisole [4,6]. ...
... Its fruits are not only an important Chinese medicine, treating vomiting, stomachache, insomnia, skin inflammation and rheumatism [3,4], but also a common spice in cooking [5], being introduced into Europe in the 17th century. Its unique licorice flavors are the result of a compound called anisole [4,6]. Moreover, its bark, seeds, leaves, branches and fruits are rich in fennel oil with antibacterial [7], antiviral [8], and antioxidant [9] functions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the effects of weed control on crop yield, quality and soil fertility have been increasingly investigated. However, soil microorganism diversity under weed control, especially for aromatic plants, is little studied. Mechanical weeding effects on soil fertility and microbial diversity in star anise plantations remain unknown, limiting improvements in crop quality and yield through weed control. Therefore, mechanical weeding (MW) and no weeding (NW) zones were randomly designed in the same star anise plantation to study the mechanical weeding impacts on soil biological properties and microbial diversity. The phosphatase activity of MW soil was significantly higher than that of NW soil; however, aminopeptidase activity was significantly lower than that under NW. There was no significant difference in β -glucosidase activity between MW and NW. Moreover, soil microbial biomass C and N in MW soil were significantly higher than those of NW, but soil microbial biomass P was significantly lower than that of NW. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, WPS-2, Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia were the predominant bacterial phyla in MW and NW soils. Specifically, Bacteroidetes was enriched in MW soil, being the unique dominant bacteria. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, unclassified_k_Fungi, Rozellomycota and Mortierellomycota were the predominant fungi in MW and NW soils. The numbers of dominant bacterial genera (> 1%) were 26 and 23 for NW and MW soils, respectively. Among them, norank_f__norank_o__norank_c__Subgroup_ 6, 1921–2 and norank_f__norank_o__B 12 -WMSP 1 went undetected in MW soil. Moreover, the numbers of dominant fungi in soils of star anise plantations were 11 and 9 for NW and MW, respectively. Among them, only unclassified_f__Clavicipitaceae and Mortierella went undetected in MW soils. Thus, soil microbial community structures are not significantly altered by mechanical weeding. The above results suggest that soil fertility can be improved and soil heath can be maintained by mechanical weeding in star anise plantations. Moreover, soil-borne diseases maybe easily occurred under NW treatment in star anise plantation.
... The Illicium Verum is a vital traditional Chinese medicine for treating stomachaches, skin problems like inflammations, vomiting, sleeplessness in different formulations including crude drug, powders and essential oils that have sedative effects and also is used as a condiment to add flavor in the food industry. In terms of phytochemistry, shikimic acid (C7H10O5) Chinese star anise encompasses many active chemical constituents, such as essential oils, preylated C6-C3 compounds, Phenylpropanoids and lignans (polyphenols in plants), sesquiterpenes and flavonoids (can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6) [37,38]. The essential oil from star anise fruits mainly contains (E)anethole (the dominant component), estragole (methyl chevicol), limonene, (Z)anethole and pinene [39][40][41][42]. ...
... Traditionally, Illicium verum has been used to treat anxiety, insomnia, pain, emesis, stomach aches, insomnia, colic, gastro-intestinal afflictions, rheumatism, joint and lower back pain. It is also traditionally used as sedative and carminative (Wang et al., 2011). The hydroethanolic extract of I. verum was inhibited with an IC 50 of 58.67 ± 0.16 μg/ml, suggesting that it might be beneficial in the treatment of AD (Bhadra et al., 2011;Patel et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a serine hydrolase, is the crucial enzyme in the hydrolysis of one of the most extensively known neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh) that has been associated with the pathophysiology of AD. From this perspective, enzymatic inhibition of AChE activity has been an auspicious treatment strategy for AD. Different natural products extracted from various plant sources have begun to gain popularity worldwide as a potential inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChEi), and thus, could be used as a therapeutic option for AD treatment. Purpose The present study congregates and discusses the hitherto scattered data of medicinal plants used for the treatment of AD worldwide. The already existing drugs of AD have been discussed. This study aims to highlight species with assessed efficacy, usable tissues, model organisms, and extraction information, to point out species of interest for further study. A critical assessment and examination of plants were done for the potential pharmacological evaluations. Materials and methods This review surveys all the published literature (research and review articles) between 2000 and 2021 using numerous search engines and publication houses viz. Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, Google scholar, Taylor and Francis imprints, Chemspider, Wiley and NCBI (National Centre for Biotechnology Information). The literature search was conducted using the following keywords in different combinations: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, plant extract and Alzheimer disease. More than 300 studies were recovered from which 107 were considered final summarization. Latin names of the identified plant species were validated at The Plant List (2013); version 1.1.; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed 15th August 2018). Results A bulk amount of research has revealed a comprehensive inventory of plant-based acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to date. Due to the lack of promising, effective, and safe inhibitors, this broad array of phytochemicals has captured the focus of research on the inhibition-based treatment of AD. From the literature search, sixteen plant species were found to have high potency with IC50 values ranging from 0.08 µg/mL to 18.9 µg/mL. Conclusion This review broadly discusses the existing approved drugs against AD along with natural products extracted from several plant sources with potential AChEi potential. Species with higher AChEi potency could be evaluated further for pharmacological application.
... The significant reduction in numbers of oral microorganism also inhibits the growth of various potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This may be due to the presence of supercritical CO 2 and ethanol extracts in Illicium verum which exert substantial antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and this fact was stated by Wang et al. [12] and Benmalek et al. [13] in their respective studies. Singh et al. [14], Chouksey et al. [1], and Peruma et al. [15] conducted a study and proven that the Illicium verum was found to be highly effective against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Illicium verum commonly known as star anise has been widely used in many Asian countries for pharmaceutical treatment for many diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, astringent, and antimicrobial properties of an Illicium verum mouthwash. Methods: The present double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted on fifty subjects, divided into groups A and B. Illicium verum mouthwash (group A) and placebo (group B) were provided to subjects for 21 days; after 14 days, washout period mouthwashes were switched as per crossover design between groups for 21 days. The gingival index (GI), papillary bleeding index (PBI), and oral microbial count were recorded at each stage of study. Results: The significant intragroup difference was observed, before crossover in group A and after crossover in group B for GI, PBI, and oral microbial count at different stages of study. On comparing both group A and group B at the first and second follow-up for GI, PBI, and oral microbial count, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed. A statistically highly significant mean intergroup and intragroup difference was seen for all the clinical parameters at different stages of study. Conclusion: The study revealed that the Illicium verum/star anise has potent antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and astringent properties.
... The compositions of essential oil from star anise were considered by using water distillation method and water distillation combined headspace solvent micro-extraction method (Gholivand et al., 2009). The star anise extract had high value of bioactivities, namely the antioxidant (Wang et al., 2011), anti-bacterial (Zhang et al., 2018) and anti-inflammatory (Deng et al., 2016). Today, many reports confirm the antifungal, antibacterial and anticancer properties of spices. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on the extraction of the essential oil and extract from star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.) and the evaluation of the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of these products. This study was conducted by one-factor-at-a-time method on the factors affecting on the extraction yield of essential oil and the antioxidant activity of the extract. The optimized conditions for the separating process of the essential oil were raw material size (8 mm), solid/solvent ratio (1/8 w/v), extracting temperature (130 °C) and material non-compression within 180 min. The optimized conditions for the extraction process were two-times extractions at extracting temperature (50 °C), ethanol 60 % and solid/solvent ratio (1/6 w/v) during 75 min. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity (IC50) of star anise extract were 120.69 ± 0.97 mg GAE/g dried and 36.8 ± 0.4 µg/mL. Star anise essential oil (with 94.7 % of anethole) showed lower antioxidant activity than the extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil and extracts was studied by their ability to inhibit protein denaturation. IC20 value of star anise essential oil, extract were 935.5 ± 1.2 µg/mL and 122.4 ± 0.8 µg/mL.
... Prior to that, the results found by us indicated that inclusion of SAO tended to quadratically increased ADFI of laying hens (Yu et al., 2018). This may be due to the aromatic anise flavor of SAO which could stimulate appetite, thereby increasing the ADFI Wang et al., 2011). Moreover, the experimental conditions, hygiene, animal age, diet type, and altered microbiota may also affect the performance response of broilers to TA (Goel et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary trans-anethole (TA) at 5 levels (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg of diet) on the growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility and intestinal barrier function in broilers. 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into the 5 dietary treatments with 8 replicates each for 42 d. Dietary TA supplementation increased (P < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), but had no effects (P > 0.05) on average daily gain (ADG), feed/gain (F/G) and body weight (BW) of broilers throughout the entire experimental period. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), the total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE) showed a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) with the increasing TA concentration in the diet. The apparent ileal digestibility of Lys, Met, Leu, Thr, Ala, Tyr, and Pro were higher (P < 0.05) in birds fed TA diets compared with control group. Dietary supplementation of 400 mg/kg of TA increased (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of jejunal and ileal Na+/glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) on d 21 and d 42, oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1) on d 42, and ileal mRNA expressions of occludin (OCLN), claudin-1 (CLDN-1), and mucin 2 (MUC2), villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and VH:CD on d 21, as well as jejunal zonula-occludens-1 (ZO-1) and ileal mucin 2 on d 42. Linear or quadratic responses of the jejunal CD and villus VH:CD ratio occurred (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary TA concentration on d 42. The inclusion of 400 mg/kg TA decreased (P < 0.05) cecal Escherichia coli population on d 21 and d 42, but increased (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium population on d 21 and ileal Bifidobacterium on d 42. In conclusion, 400 mg/kg of TA is the optimum concentration for increasing nutrient utilization and intestinal barrier function of broilers.
... Also results of this study indicated that birds fed diets inclusion Anise and Caraway significantly improved feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The increased feed intake due to supplementation Anise and Caraway is likely attribute to a stimulating effect of appetite as a result of aromatic flavour (Wang et al., 2011). In this connection, Al- Kassie (2008) showed that broilers fed on a diet containing 1% Anise had higher feed intake than those recorded for the control group. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying levels of Anise and Caraway seeds powder on laying performance, some blood constituents, egg quality traits, yolk cholesterol content, immunity response and total count aerobic bacteria of Mandurah laying chicken. For this purpose, a total number of 140 Mandurah laying chickens at 26 weeks of age were used in this experiment having a completely randomized design, with 7 equal treatment groups, which replicated 4 times with 5 hens per replicate. Each bird was housed in individual wire cage measuring (50 × 50 × 45Cm 2), where each bird in each cage allowing 510 Cm 2 space/hen). A basal control diet was formulated and supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % Anise and 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % Caraway seeds in powder form. Birds were fed on isocaloric (2751 Kcal ME /Kg) and isonitrogenous (16.14% CP) diets. Results showed that laying performance significantly (P<0.05) improved when inclusion Anise and Caraway seeds powder compared with the control group. However, it was clearly observed that plasma lipids were significantly reduced (P <0.05) by supplementing diets with different levels of anise and caraway seeds. In the same trend, the addition of Anise and Caraway seeds powder led to a clear and significant decrease in egg yolk and blood cholesterol compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, Anise and Caraway seed powder incorporation caused positive effects on the parameters related to immune response and overall total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared with the control group. While, total count aerobic bacteria significantly (P < 0.05) decreased for birds fed diets inclusion Anise and Caraway seeds powder as compared with the control group. 532 AYMAN SOLIMAN et al. Conclusively, Anise and Caraway seeds powder can be included in the diet of laying hens as a safe and effective feed additive to improve laying performance and reduce total blood lipids and thus reduce cholesterol content in egg yolk.
... It should be noted that we investigated the effects of TA on growth performance in broilers in a previous study, and found that TA administration had no remarkable effect on growth performance, but significantly increased the average daily feed intake (ADFI) when supplemented at 400 and 600 mg/kg in the grower phase. To the best of our knowledge, SAO with aromatic anise flavor could stimulate appetite thus increase the ADFI of broilers (Wang et al., 2011). Consisted with that, we found that laying hens consumed SAO containing diets tended to have a higher ADFI of laying hens (Yu et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of trans-anethole (TA) supplementation on the carcass characteristics, meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles of breast muscle in broilers. A total of 40 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Arbor Acres) were randomly allocated to 5 treatments, respectively, fed a corn-soybean basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg TA/kg diet for 42 d. 600 mg/kg of TA supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) serum triglycerides (TG) on d 21 and d 42, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration on d 21, but increased (P < 0.01) serum HDL-C concentration on d 42. Dietary supplementation of TA increased (P < 0.01) the half chamber rate (HCR) and eviscerated rate (ER) of broilers. The drip loss (storing 24&48 h) and cooking loss of breast muscle in 600 mg/kg TA groups were lower (P < 0.05) than those in control group. The concentration of palmitoleic acid, daturic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, α-Linolenic acid, eicostrienoic acid, and pentosapentanoic acid (EPA), MUFA and PUFA in the breast muscle were higher (P < 0.05) in the 600 mg/kg of TA group compared with other groups. Dietary inclusion of 600 mg/kg of TA also increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of Met, Thr, Asp, Ser and Glu in breast muscle, tended to increase (P = 0.069) the Lys concentration. In conclusion, results indicated that TA inclusion improved the lipid metabolism, meat quality, fatty acid composition, and amino acid profile of breast muscle in broilers.
... The SHA pathway in plants is responsible for generating numerous secondary metabolites [42]. It plays an important role as an intermediary for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) and has extensive biotechnological applications, with analgesic, antioxidant, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, neuroprotective effects and as material for the synthesis of antivirals [43][44][45][46][47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The cambuci is a native Brazilian fruit from the Atlantic Forest biome. A soft and astringent pulp, a green color, and a sweet aroma are its main characteristics. Classical food quality attributes (fresh fruit mass, fruit height, diameters, total soluble solid, titratable acidity, and ratio) and the metabolic profile from ten accessions from three different locations were analyzed herein by analytical methods (refractometry and neutralization titration) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Concerning sugar content, sucrose was the predominant compound, with glucose and fructose alternating in second, depending on the accession. Citric acid was the most relevant acid, followed by shikimic and quinic acids in quite variable amounts. These three main acids vary in amounts for each accession. Ascorbic acid content emerges as an important quality attribute and makes this fruit nutritionally attractive, due to values comparable to those contained in citric fruits. The main amino acids identified in cambuci were glutamic acid individually or in comprising the tripeptide glutathione (glutamic acid, cysteine, glycine). The quality diversity of the evaluated accessions suggests the potentiality of cambuci use in future breeding programs.
... Also results of this study indicated that birds fed diets inclusion Anise and Caraway significantly improved feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The increased feed intake due to supplementation Anise and Caraway is likely attribute to a stimulating effect of appetite as a result of aromatic flavour (Wang et al., 2011). In this connection, Al- Kassie (2008) showed that broilers fed on a diet containing 1% Anise had higher feed intake than those recorded for the control group. ...
... Therefore, alternative and effective agents for OA treatment are urgently needed. SA, which is extracted from Illicium verum, is a natural ingredient that shows a potential value for disease treatment due to its antiinflammatory effects (Wang et al., 2011;Ghosh et al., 2012). In this study, we revealed that SA exerted protective effects against IL-1βinduced inflammation and cartilage degeneration via activation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and restoration of impaired autophagy in chondrocytes (Figure 9). ...
Article
Full-text available
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of cartilage pain and limited mobility in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The degeneration of cartilage induced by inflammation and cartilage anabolic and catabolic disorder plays a key role in OA. Shikimic acid (SA), a natural ingredient extracted from Illicium verum, has been shown to exert notable anti-inflammatory effects in previous studies, suggesting its potential effects in the treatment of OA. In this study, we revealed that the pretreatment of SW1353 human chondrocytes with SA before interleukin 1β (IL-1β) stimulation effectively decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP3 and MMP13), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-5, type X collagen, and p62; increased the expression of type II collagen, ATG7, Beclin-1, and LC3; and increased the autophagic flux. Mechanistically, we found that SA suppressed the IL-1β-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathways. Furthermore, the results of safranin O staining and toluidine blue staining of primary rat cartilage chondrocytes and a trauma-induced rat model of OA showed that SA alleviated progression of OA in vivo. Collectively, our research enhances understanding of the mechanism of protective effect of SA against the progression of OA, which involves amelioration of cartilage degeneration, thereby providing new evidence for the use of SA as a therapy to prevent the development of OA.
... The Illicium Verum is a vital traditional Chinese medicine for treating stomachaches, skin problems like inflammations, vomiting, sleeplessness in different formulations including crude drug, powders and essential oils that have sedative effects and also is used as a condiment to add flavor in the food industry. In terms of phytochemistry, shikimic acid (C7H10O5) Chinese star anise encompasses many active chemical constituents, such as essential oils, preylated C6-C3 compounds, Phenylpropanoids and lignans (polyphenols in plants), sesquiterpenes and flavonoids (can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6) [37,38]. The essential oil from star anise fruits mainly contains (E)anethole (the dominant component), estragole (methyl chevicol), limonene, (Z)anethole and pinene [39][40][41][42]. ...
... The Illicium Verum is a vital traditional Chinese medicine for treating stomachaches, skin problems like inflammations, vomiting, sleeplessness in different formulations including crude drug, powders and essential oils that have sedative effects and also is used as a condiment to add flavor in the food industry. In terms of phytochemistry, shikimic acid (C7H10O5) Chinese star anise encompasses many active chemical constituents, such as essential oils, preylated C6-C3 compounds, Phenylpropanoids and lignans (polyphenols in plants), sesquiterpenes and flavonoids (can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6) [37,38]. The essential oil from star anise fruits mainly contains (E)anethole (the dominant component), estragole (methyl chevicol), limonene, (Z)anethole and pinene [39][40][41][42]. ...
Article
Shikimic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid) is considered as an essential biochemical metabolite in autotrophic organisms, such as plants and some bacteria, which is used to procreate the anti-influenza drug oseltamivir. Generally speaking, there are three main methods to produce shikimic acid, which are included in the chemical synthesis and microbial fermentation as well as extraction from natural plants. This review focused on the extraction of shikimic acid from Chinese star anise as the main industrial source for shikimic acid production and presents some of the conducted studies for the extraction of shikimic acid from Chinese star anise and its purification and determination over the last decade.
... Star anise belongs to the Schisandraceae family. About 166 varieties exist, and 42 species are grown in East and Southeast Asia [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Star anise belongs to the Schisandraceae family. About 166 varieties exist, and 42 species are grown in the tropics of East Asia and Southeast Asia. Many beneficial effects of star anise have been established, including ameliorating the symptoms of rheumatism and joint pain, warding off insects (insect repellant), lessening cold and flu symptoms, and potentially acting as an antioxidant against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting apoptosis, preventing DNA damage, and expressing a DPPHH radical scavenging effect. Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, star anise has been used as a natural immune-booster and antiviral in teas and aerosol sprays. (Star anise oil is used for fragrance in soap, cosmetics, and perfume manufacturing.) However, more in-depth and extensive research needs to be conducted, investigating the efficacy of star anise's purported beneficial properties. This review discusses the distinctions between the varieties of anise, indications and beneficial effects, modes of application and administration, and contraindications and precautions.
... It can be dried, stored, transported without difficult. The product is the base for the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Wang et al., 2011) but is also regularly used as a flavour enhancer in day-to-day household cooking. The point is, that not all innovations must be highly capital intensive. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we examine, against the background of the government’s poverty alleviation agenda, issues that influence (negatively or positively) the widespread adoption of entrepreneurial initiatives by farmers, foresters, fisherman and others that could contribute to defeating poverty. We summarize trends in poverty levels, the inequality ‘gap’ and touch on government-led initiatives. These include inputs to modernize farm equipment, to provide start-up capital to returning entrepreneurial migrant workers and to foster digital marketing of locally produced (but in demand) commodities.
... Star anise (Illicium verum) belongs to the plant family Illiciaceae. 55 The generic name llicium comes from a Latin word, 'alluring' meansfragrance. The plant is known by different local names in different regions of the world like phoolchakri (Hindi), badiane (French), badian (Urdu), and star anise (English). ...
Article
Spices are natural plant products enriched with the history of being used as herbal medicine for prevention of diseases. India is also known as "Land of Spices". Out of 109 spices recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) world more than 52-60 spice crops are grown in India. The major spices exported by India are Turmeric, Cumin, Coriander, Fenugreek, Peppers etc. The Indian spices are divided into three era viz. early period, middle age and early modern period. Spices are used in beverages, liquors, and pharmaceutical, cosmetic and Perfumery products. The major issue with spices is their handling and storage. This review article mainly focuses on two aspects: At the outset the handling and storage of the spices is essential factor as spices are available in different forms like raw, processed, fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried. So the need of processing, packaging, storage and handling of the spices is important as spices deterioration can leads to the loss of its therapeutic activity. Furthermore many herbal constituents have the capability to enhance the bioavailability of drugs. So an attempt has been made to throw a light on the bio enhancer activity and therapeutic activity along with their mechanism of action of the some Indian Spices which are regularly used for cooking purpose on the daily basis to enhance the taste of food. The spices suggested by ministry of AYUSH which is relevant to its medicinal and biological property in treatment and prevention from COVID-19 are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Potential of the trimmings possessing active biological properties would enable greatly enhance the value of I. verum cultivation. Numerous literature reports have demonstrated that I. verum fruits exert significant antimicrobial activity against various different types of microorganism while the main component, transanithole, plays a critical role in various bioactivities observed from the fruit [10][11][12][13]. In this study, experimental results from utilizing the SFE extracts obtained from leaves and twigs of I. verum indicated that the extracts are capable of inducing significant antimicrobial activities against the clinical drug resistant pathogens. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have revealed the numerous biological activities of the fruits of Illicium verum; however, the activities of its leaves and twigs have remained undiscovered. The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical components and antibacterial activity of the various extracts from the leaves and twigs of Illicium verum. The herbal extracts were prepared by supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) and 95% ethanol extraction, followed by partition extraction based on solvent polarity. Analysis of antimicrobial activity was conducted through the usage of nine clinical antibiotic- resistant isolates, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Among the tested samples, the SFE extracts exhibited broader and stronger antibacterial activities against the test strains, with a range of MIC between 0.1–4.0 mg/mL and MBC between 0.2–4.5 mg/mL. Observations made through scanning electron microscopy revealed potential mechanism of the antimicrobial activities involved disruption of membrane integrity of the test pathogens. Evaluation of the chemical composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated the presence of anethole, anisyl aldehyde, anisyl acetone and anisyl alcohol within the SFE extracts, demonstrating significant correlations with the antibacterial activities observed. Therefore, the leaves and twigs of Illicium verum hold great potential in being developed as new natural antibacterial agents.
... Illicium verum is an important herb in Asia, and as well as in the traditional Chinese medicine. Oil of Illicium verum is extracted from the pericarps of its fruit that possesses different biological activities, such as antifungal, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties [4][5][6]. Idm'hand and coworkers reported I. verum as one of the Moroccan plants with antidiabetic potentials. They reported different traditional antidiabetic remedies (decoction and maceration) from different parts of medicinal plants including Illicium verum [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Chronic hyperglycemic triggers the non-enzymatic glycation of biomolecules, resulting in the production of advanced glycation endproducts, that lead to several micro- and macrovascular complications. Therefore, the discovery of new, effective, and safe anti-glycation agents is an important need. One of the best choices for the management of diabetes is to use complementary and alternative medicinal therapies. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the anti-glycation activity of ethanolic extract of Illicium verum Hook. f. (Star anise, a frequently used spice and medicinally important herb). Methods The anti-glycation activity of ethanolic extract of Illicium verum Hook. f. was determined by using both in-vitro and in-vivo assays. HSA-fructose glycation model was employed to assess the in-vitro inhibition of protein glycation, additionally cross-linked AGEs (formed by incubating lysozyme with fructose) were assessed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Dual inhibitory mechanisms, i.e., antioxidant and metal chelating activities, were also evaluated by using DPPH, ABTS, and Fe (II)-chelation assays. Acute toxicity of I. verum extract was also performed (by administrating different doses i.e. 2,000, 1,500, 1,000, and 500 mg/kg of body weight). Finally, in-vivo anti-glycation potential was evaluated by 7 weeks of administration of I. verum extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results In HSA-fructose glycation model, extract of I. verum showed a good inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.11±0.001 mg/mL, as compared to the standard inhibitor, rutin (IC50 = 0.02±0.01 mg/mL). Extract of I. verum showed inhibitory activity in DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging assays with IC50 values of 130±1.0, and 57±2.0 μg/mL, respectively, while it was found to be inactive in the Fe⁺²-chelation assay. The extract was found to be non-toxic, and reduce the elevated blood glucose, urea, lipid, liver function parameters, and renal AGEs levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that I. verum supplementation might help to reduce the burden of AGEs, and may have potential in preventing diabetes-associated complications.
... Chinese star anise (CSA), the seedpod of an evergreen tree (Illicium verum) grown in East Asia, is an edible fruit that has been commonly regarded as being safe and nontoxic. It is widely used as a spice and in traditional medicine [6,7]. Most previous studies were focused on the fruit peel essential oil, but there is not enough information on the whole seedpod unconventional oil of Chinese star anise (CSAO). ...
Article
Full-text available
Lipid-based drug delivery systems are widely used for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, following oral intake, lipid excipients often undergo gastrointestinal lipolysis, which drastically affects drugs solubility and bioavailability. That's why developing new lipid excipients which are resistant to digestion would be of great interest. We studied here the potential role of the unconventional Chinese star anise whole seedpod oil (CSAO) as an alternative multifunctional lipid excipient. Pancreatic lipase-mediated digestion of the extracted crude oil emulsion was assessed in vitro. Pancreatic lipase, being a strict sn-1,3-regioselective lipase, showed a high (16-fold) olive oil to CSAO activity ratio, which could be attributed to fatty acids composition and triglycerides intramolecular structure. For the sake of comparison, the non-regioselective lipase Novozyme® 435 exhibited higher activity than pancreatic lipase on CSAO emulsion, perhaps due to its ability to release fatty acids from the internal sn-2 position of TAGs. Apart counteracting lipolysis, CSAO oil also showed additional biopharmaceutical benefits including moderate antioxidant and antihypertensive activities. Altogether, these findings highlight for the first time the potential use of star anise unconventional whole seedpod oil as a multifunctional lipid excipient for the development of new lipid formulations.
... In contrast to the harmful temephos, EOs from Z. limonella and I. verum as well as their main constituents-d-limonene and trans-anethole-have already been used safely since ancient time in Asian countries as food and traditional medicine (Wongkattiya et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2011). This conclusion was supported by studies by Benelli and Pavela (2018) and Pavela and Benelli (2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive uses of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito’s populations have induced the insects to develop resistance against them, rendering them ineffective today. Moreover, they cause serious impacts on human health and the ecosystem. Therefore, safe and effective natural alternatives are needed. This study evaluated the larvicidal and pupicidal activities of essential oils (EOs) from Illicium verum and Zanthoxylum limonella and the major constituents against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes as well as recorded their morphological aberrations at death. The GC-MS analysis showed that trans-anethole was the major constituent of I. verum EO, and limonene was the major constituent of Z. limonella EO. Both were more effective against the larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti than those of Ae. albopictus. A 2.5% I. verum EO + 2.5% trans-anethole combination showed the highest larvicidal and pupicidal effects against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus with an LT50 ranging from 0.2-6.9 h. Between the two tested constituents, trans-anethole exhibited stronger larvicidal and pupicidal activities (LC50 ranging 2.4-3.4%) against the two tested mosquito species than d-limonene (LC50 ranging 2.5-3.7%). Most importantly, 5% trans-anethole, 5% d-limonene, and 2.5% I. verum EO + 2.5% trans-anethole were more effective (LT50 ranging 0.1-0.3 h) than 1% (w/w) temephos (LT50 ranging 2.9-3.1 h). Morphological aberrations at death observed were such as color pigment and thorax shape abnormalities. To conclude, trans-anethole, d-limonene, and a combination of I. verum EO + trans-anethole, are natural compounds that not only are as effective as temephos at the time of this study, but should be also be much safer to human health.
... Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f.) is a tree of Illiciaceae family well known both for its EO used in liqueurs and the several medicinal properties, particularly in the traditional Chinese medicine [13]. ...
Article
Influenza viruses are transmitted from human to human via airborne droplets and can be transferred through contaminated environmental surfaces. Some works have demonstrated the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial and antiviral agents, but most of them examined the liquid phases, which are generally toxic for oral applications. In our study, we describe the antiviral activity of Citrus bergamia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Illicium verum and Eucalyptus globulus vapor EOs against influenza virus type A. In the vapor phase, C. bergamia and M. alternifolia strongly reduced viral cytopathic effect without exerting any cytotoxicity. The E. globulus vapor EO reduced viral infection by 78% with no cytotoxicity, while I. verum was not effective. Furthermore, we characterized the EOs and their vapor phase by the head-space gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technique, observing that the major component found in each liquid EO is the same one of the corresponding vapor phases, with the exception of M. alternifolia. To deepen the mechanism of action, the morphological integrity of virus particles was checked by negative staining transmission electron microscopy, showing that they interfere with the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope, leading to the decomposition of membranes. We speculated that the most abundant components of the vapor EOs might directly interfere with influenza virus envelope structures or mask viral structures important for early steps of viral infection.
... Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f.) is a tree of Illiciaceae family well known both for its EO used in liqueurs and the several medicinal properties, particularly in the traditional Chinese medicine [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza viruses are transmitted from human to human via airborne droplets and can be transferred through contaminated environmental surfaces. Some works have demonstrated the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial and antiviral agents, but most of them examined the liquid phases, which are generally toxic for oral applications. In our study, we describe the antiviral activity of Citrus bergamia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Illicium verum and Eucalyptus globulus vapor EOs against influenza virus type A. In the vapor phase, C. bergamia and M. alternifolia strongly reduced viral cytopathic effect without exerting any cytotoxicity. The E. globulus vapor EO reduced viral infection by 78% with no cytotoxicity, while I. verum was not effective. Furthermore, we characterized the EOs and their vapor phase by the head-space gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique, observing that the major component found in each liquid EO is the same one of the corresponding vapor phases, with the exception of M. alternifolia. To deepen the mechanism of action, the morphological integrity of virus particles was checked by negative staining transmission electron microscopy, showing that they interfere with the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope, leading to the decomposition of membranes. We speculated that the most abundant components of the vapor EOs might directly interfere with influenza virus envelope structures or mask viral structures important for early steps of viral infection.
... Extracts of star anise not contaminated with the Japanese variant of the plant could be well tolerated in animals to a large extent. However, oral use of up to 500 mg/kg of the ethylacetate extract has been linked with convulsion and lethal toxicity in mice as a result of the veranisatins phytoconstituents which, at lower dosages, are also responsible for the analgesic and sedative properties of the plant (Wang et al. 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virulent viral disease that has now become a public health emergency of global significance and still without an approved treatment regimen or cure. In the absence of curative drugs and with vaccines development still in progress, alternative approaches to stem the tide of the pandemic are being considered. The potential of a phytotherapeutic approach in the management of the dreaded disease has gained attention, especially in developing countries, with several claims of the development of anti-COVID-19 herbal formulations. This is a plausible approach especially with the increasing acceptance of herbal medicine in both alternative and orthodox medical practices worldwide. Also, the established efficacy of herbal remedies in the treatment of numerous viral diseases including those caused by coronaviruses, as well as diseases with symptoms associated with COVID-19, presents a valid case for serious consideration of herbal medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. However, there are legitimate concerns and daunting challenges with the use of herbs and herbal products. These include issues of quality control, unethical production practice, inadequate information on the composition, use and mechanisms, weak regulatory policies, herb-drug interactions and adverse reactions, and the tendency for abuse. This review discusses the feasibility of intervention with herbal medicine in the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to take proactive measures to protect public health by improving the quality and safety of herbal medicine deployed to combat the disease. Graphical abstract
... 44 Illicium verum has been used in a tea as the traditional remedy of rheumatism and the seeds are sometimes chewed after the meals to aid the digestion. 45 30 Inula racemosa, Asteraceae, Puskkaramulam ...
Article
Full-text available
Rheumatoid arthritis is an immune mediated inflammatory disease (IMID). Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when our immune system attacks the tissues near joints, this is due to release of certain chemicals and enzymes that begin to eat away the cartilage and bones. Rheumatoid arthritis affects all the joints in the body, some forms of arthritis can also affect the body’s internal organs. The symptoms of Rheumatoid arthritis include inflammation, pain, swelling and stiffness of the joints, it can also lead to deformity and disability of the joint in severe cases. There are several causes for Rheumatoid arthritis these causes are unknown but some include genetic factor, family history, age, environmental factors, hormones, smoking etc. This paper gives an overview of the medicinal plants with phytoconstituents which can be used in the treatment of RA and different treatments available for Rheumatoid arthritis. These medicinal plants can be extracted and phytoconstituents can be isolated, pharmacological studies can be carried out and the plants can be further explored for future studies. Even modern drugs used for the better improvement of the symptoms, offer only temporary relief and produce severe side effects, so researchers rely on natural remedies, for treatment of various diseases, with efficacy and safety, and with fewer side effects.
... It is also famous as the source of shikimic acid (3,4,5trihydroxy-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic acid; SA), a starting molecule for the synthesis of oseltamivir (Tamiflu), an antivirus drug treating influenza (20,21). SA exhibits several biological effects, such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, analgesic activity, anticoagulant activity, and antithrombotic activity (22,23). However, only a few studies focus on the effect of SA on microorganisms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Streptococcus mutans is known as an important oral pathogen causing dental caries, a widespread oral infectious disease. S. mutans synthesize exopolysaccharide (EPS) using glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), resulting in biofilm formation on the tooth surface. Bacterial cells in the biofilms become strongly resistant to a harsh environment, such as antibiotics and host defense mechanisms, making biofilm-based infections difficult to eliminate. Discovering novel antibiofilm agents, especially from natural products, helps to develop effective strategies against this kind of diseases. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of shikimic acid (SA), one abundant compound derived from Illicium verum extract, on the biofilm formation of S. mutans. We found SA can reduce the EPS synthesized by this oral pathogen and modulate the transcription of biofilm formation related genes, leading to fewer bacterial cells in its biofilm. SA also interacted with cell membrane and membrane proteins, causing damage to bacterial cells. Ex vivo testing of biofilm formation on bovine teeth showed SA strongly decreased the number of S. mutans cells and the number of EPS accumulated on dental enamel surfaces. Moreover, SA exhibits almost no toxicity to human oral cells evaluated by in vitro biocompatibility assay. In conclusion, shikimic acid exhibits remarkable antibiofilm activity against S. mutans and has the potential to be further developed as a novel anticaries agent. IMPORTANCE Natural products are an important and cost-effective source for screening antimicrobial agents. Here, we identified one compound, shikimic acid, from Illicium verum extract, exhibiting antimicrobial activity against S. mutans proliferation. It also inhibits biofilm formation of this bacteria through decreasing Gtf expression and EPS synthesis. Furthermore, this compound exhibits no significant cytotoxicity at its MIC against S. mutans, providing evidence for its clinical application.
... Phytochemical extraction for Clove spice was carried out using aqueous-ethanolic maceration as several studies revealed that 80% ethanol was able to extract most of the bioactive phytochemical compounds especially flavonoids effectively (Valle et al. 2016;Wang et al. 2011). Previous research compared different solvent extraction on spices and reported that 80% ethanolic extraction method showed highest inhibition towards both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (El-Maati et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is an exotic culinary spice that has been used for centuries due to its known antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The main aim of this study is to compare the antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity of clove ethanolic extract (CEE) and commercial clove essential oil (CEO) at a standardised eugenol content. Disk diffusion assay showed that CEE (2000 μg) was able to exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition against both Gram negative and Gram positive Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)-causing pathogens: Proteus mirabilis (19.7 ± 0.6 mm) > Staphylococcus epidermidis (18 mm) > Staphylococcus aureus (14.7 ± 0.6 mm) > Escherichia coli (12.7 ± 0.6 mm) > Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.3 ± 0.6 mm) (according to the size of inhibition zone). Interestingly, the comparison between CEE and commercial CEO revealed that the former demonstrated stronger antimicrobial and antioxidative properties at similar eugenol concentration. The EC50 of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and reducing power assay for CEE were determined as 0.037 mg/mL, 0.68 mg/mL and 0.44 mg/mL, respectively. Besides eugenol, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses identified the presence of kaempferol, gallic acid and catechin in CEE. As a conclusion, we concluded that there was a possible synergistic effect between eugenol and the others active compounds especially kaempferol which led to the observed bioactivities in CEE.
Article
Full-text available
Review Background: Herbs and spices have long been used for both food and medicinal purposes in different world civilizations. In Nepal, various herbs and spices are used for culinary purposes. In addition, a range of bioactive compounds present in herbs and spices have been associated with multiple beneficial health properties. This paper aims to illustrate the diverse availability of traditional herbs and spices used in Nepali cuisine with their traditional uses along with their major phytochemicals and pharmacological activities. Methods: Information related to traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities were compiled from the published research articles, books, and book chapters. Results: This study documented 50 herbs and spices with their traditional uses, the phytochemicals present and their medicinal application. Numerous bioactive compounds are reported such as polyphenols, quinines, organosulfur compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, polypeptides, etc. and these compounds possess diverse pharmacological activities. These herbs and spices were primarily studied for their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, and antipyretic activities. Conclusion: The different scientific studies highlighted in this review suggest that most of the health effects of herbs and spices are observed on various chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of culinary herbs and spices can act to improve the overall health system. There are nutraceutical potentials that may open new opportunities for herb and spices-based enterprises.
Article
Two new phenolic glycosides (1–2) and eleven known compounds (3–13) were isolated from the fruits of Illicium verum Hook.f. using silica-gel column and preparative middle pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). The structures of the compounds were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic data. Among them, compounds 3, 5, and 10 were isolated from the family Magnoliaceae for the first time. Additionally, all the compounds were evaluated for their anti-complementary activities against the classical pathway (CP) and the alternative pathway (AP).
Article
Plant extracts and probiotics play a vital role in maintaining animal intestinal health. However, their joint compatibility program still needs to be further explored. In our study, thirty two piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected to divided into four treatments, which included basal diet, basal diet + 1000 mg/kg probiotics with added glucose oxidase (PGO), basal diet + 500 mg/kg Illicium verum extracts (IVE), and basal diet + 500 mg/kg IVE + 1000 mg/kg PGO. All the piglets were housed individually for the 42-d trial period after 7-d adaptation. Results showed that dietary supplementation of PGO and IVE increased the digestibility of ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), and lysine (p < 0.05). Likewise, the net protein utilization (NPU) was also improved (p < 0.05). What is more, adding PGO and IVE reduced crypt depth, increased villus length, and chrionic gland ratio of piglets (p < 0.05). Additionally, IVE or PGO that was applied alone can increase the expression of Occludin, Zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), and Sodium-dependent glucose transporters 1 (SGLT1) in jejunum (p < 0.05). Our results strongly suggest that the combination of IVE and PGO can improve the nutrient digestibility of weaned piglets by increasing the expression of nutrient transport vectors (SGLT1 and CAT1) and tight junction proteins (Occludin and ZO-1) in the jejunum. In conclusion, the combination of plant extracts and probiotics is a vital strategy to improve animal health before the advent of antibiotic substitutes with absolute advantages.
Article
Plants are widely used to treat diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Every year, thousands of people die from HIV/AIDS, which reinforces the urgent need for innovative health technologies, including new medicines. Patents may be consulted in free databases, such as Espacenet of the European Patent Office. These documents are classified according to the International Patent Classification (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. The classification A61K36/00 refers to Medicinal preparations of undetermined constitution containing material from algae, lichens, fungi or plants, or derivatives thereof. The study aim was to carry out an initial review of patent applications of medicinal preparations/phytochemicals used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS under the classification IPC-A61K36/00. Patents relevant to IPC-A61K36/00 containing the keyword “HIV” in the title or abstract were browsed in Espacenet to identify patent applications over ten years between 2007 and 2017. Inclusion criteria: patent applications describing pharmaceutical preparations/phytochemicals used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Exclusion criteria included repeated applications. In total, 33 results were retrieved: 12 (36.4%) were excluded and 21 (63.6%) were selected and analyzed. Selected patents (n = 21) were classified as follows: from a single bioactive compound/phytochemical (n = 7), containing multiple bioactive compounds/phytochemicals (n = 10) and/or preparations for co-administration with other HIV treatments or for treating HIV/AIDS-related health problems (n = 4). Despite the few identified patents on this topic, bioactive compounds may be useful in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Additional research is recommended.
Article
Full-text available
Given that approximately 130 million babies are born worldwide each year, this study aims to help both, pregnant and breastfeeding women, to overcome the first impasse, namely the decrease or lack of lactation. To sustain this purpose, over the years were used many methods to improve lactation. A galactogogue is a substance, a food or a plant that has the ability to stimulate or increase lactation. Plants as fenugreek, fennel, anise, lemon balm, thyme, cumin, milk thistle and many others are widespread all over the globe and known as galactogogues. These plants can be used as ingredients in food or consumed in the form of herbal teas, which in turn can be obtained by different extraction methods. Even though these herbs possess many other beneficial properties for the human body, the main purpose of their use, alone or in combination, is to maintain or increase breast milk production. The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize data regarding the efficacy of galactogogues available worldwide for increasing breast milk production in food and feed nutrition.
Article
Full-text available
Star anise (Illicium verum) has been cultivated for centuries in southern China, and its fruit is an important seasoning spice, and can be used as a medicine (Wang et al. 2011). It is grown mainly in Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces, in China. Anthracnose is one of the important diseases of star anise, which seriously affects the yield and quality by infecting twigs, pedicels, fruit stalks and fruits (Liao et al. 2017). When leaf spots first appear, they are round, water-stained, small, dark brown spots, which expands into round separated spots, then the spots become yellowish brown with small black acervuli arranged in a circular pattern. On 22 August 2019, four leaf spot samples of star anise were collected, with two each from Shanglin County and Jinxiu County in Guangxi Province. The plantations in this area of around 8 ha had more than 80% leaf spot incidence. Small pieces of tissues (5 mm × 5 mm) were taken from the zone between symptomatic and healthy plant tissues, surface-disinfected in 75% ethanol for 10 s and 1% NaClO (sodium hypochlorite) for 1 min, and washed three times in sterilized distilled water. The sterilized leaf tissues were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 28°C in darkness for a week. Hyphae growing from tissue pieces were subcultured onto fresh PDA. Three of the four leaves yielded cultures resembling Colletotrichum spp. Four fungal isolates were obtained by a single-spore isolation method. The isolates JX1-2 and JX1-5 were collected from Jinxiu County while SL1-2 and SL2-1 were collected from Shanglin County. Genomic DNA was extracted from these four fungal isolates, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), actin (ACT), Apn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer, partial mating type (Mat1-2) (ApMat), calmodulin (CAL), chitin synthase (CHS-1), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (Weir et al. 2012). The sequences have been deposited in GenBank (ITS: MW301215 to MW301218; ACT: MW348965 to MW348968; ApMat: MW348973 to MW348976; CAL: MW348957 to MW348960; CHS-1: MW348969 to MW348972; GAPDH: MW348961 to MW348964). For phylogenetic analysis, MEGAX (Kumar et al. 2018) was used to produce a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree with 1000 bootstrap replicates, based on a concatenation of the sequenced genomic regions for each of the four isolates from this study as well as sequences of other Colletotrichum species obtained from GenBank. The results revealed that isolates JX1-2, JX1-5, and SL1-2 were C. horii, and SL2-1 was C. fructicola (Weir et al.2012). The resulting colonies were initially white with abundant aerial hyphae, and white-gray after three days at 28°C on PDA. Isolate SL2-1 eventually turned greenish-grey after 14 days, while the center of C. horii isolates turned iron-gray with white-gray marginal. Both species of Colletotrichum had hyaline conidia that were terete, smooth, apex obtuse, base truncate, and there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in conidial size between C. horii (10.5 to 33.6 × 3.6 to 9.3 μm) (n=300) and C. fructicola (13.1 to 16.2 × 4.7 to 7.1 μm) (n=100). Pathogenicity tests were conducted in the greenhouse on 1-year-old star anise seedlings, and performed with a conidial suspension (10 µL of 10 6 conidia/mL) containing 0.1% Tween 20 placed onto lightly wounded sites on healthy leaves. Light cross-shaped wounds were made with sterilized toothpicks, gently scratching the surface without piercing the leaf. Each isolate was inoculated onto three seedlings, with at least eight leaves per seedling inoculated in two spots after light wounding. Control seedlings were inoculated with water containing 0.1% Tween 20. All inoculated seedlings were maintained in the greenhouse (12 h/12 h light/dark, 25±2°C), and covered with plastic bags to maintain high humidity throughout. The wounded sites inoculated with C. horii darkened to greenish-brown after 24 h, and C. fructicola gave similar symptoms after 36 h. Then the wounds turned to light brown round spots, and after 5 days, the spots expanded to water-stained spots with dots of acervuli arranged in a circular pattern. No symptoms were observed for the non-inoculated control. Each fungal isolate was consistently re-isolated from inoculated leaves, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in aggressiveness between the two species, with C. horii showing larger diameter lesions (averaging 10.2 mm) than C. fructicola (averaging 8.4 mm). Anthracnose of star anise caused by C. horii (Liao et al. 2017) and C. coccdes (Wu et al. 2003) has been previously reported in China; however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fructicola infecting star anise in China. This study may provide reference for further epidemiological study and prevention of anthracnose on star anise.
Chapter
Full-text available
The present chapter is a review on ethno-botanical studies on medicinal trees of the biotype Sertão, which comprises 80% areal of Pernambuco,Brazil. Since 1990, interest for natural remedies has grown rapidly. The main reason is the development of antibiotic resistance. Another fact driving this interest are the costs for developing secure, active, non-harming medicines by working through organic syntheses. The scope of this review is to throw light on the huge treasure of public knowledge in applying herbs, trees and shrubs for the cure of many diseases. The consciousness what Nature can deliver practically free of costs and labor goes back for generations, transmitted within the tribes, between neighbors. Activities, toxicology, side-effects are all empirically gained wisdom. The Sertão has tropical climate and a diversified flora. The review is on emphasis on trees containing valuable second metabolites which have physiological, curing activity. This review may attract interest for inter-college collaboration within the scope of drug design guided by ethno-knowledge.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, a concern has been expressed about the impact of antibiotics and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to inhibit microbial growth and retard fat oxidation in foods. In addition, antibiotic resistance presents a serious menace to human and environmental ecosystems. This has led the food industry to use natural resources such as essential oils in the preparation of foods, this forming their sensory profile and increasing preservation time there. The objective of this work is to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of Illicium verum. The yield of essential oil extracted by hydro distillation is about 4.13%. The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the dried fruits of Illicium verum was studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS). Twenty-eight constituents, representing 99.74% of the essential oil were identified. The major compounds are: trans-anethole (83.46%), D-Limonene (4.56%), Estragole (3.47%) and Linalool (1.07%). Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH assay. The essential oils of Illicium verum showed low antioxidant activity with IC50= 286.19 ± 7.4 mg/mL, compared to Ascorbic acid IC50= 0.09 ± 0.01 mg/mL. The antibacterial effect of this essential oil was tested against six microorganisms, of which Staphylococcus aureus is the most sensitive with an MIC of about 1/1000 (v/v), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterobacter cloacae with an MIC equal to 1/100 (v/v).
Article
This study was aimed to investigate the effects of trans-anethole (TA) on intestinal antioxidant status, immune function and liver lipid metabolism in broilers. A total of 256 1-day-old Arbour Acres broilers were allocated to 4 treatment groups with 8 birds per replicate. TA was added to diets at a concentration of 0 (control), 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg for 42 days. Dietary supplementation of TA increased the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of birds throughout the entire period. TA supplemented at 400 mg/kg of diet contributed to the lowest jejunal and ileal malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration on d 42, and the highest ileal total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity on d 21 and d 42. TA supplementation at the concentration of 400 and 600 mg/kg of diet increased mRNA expression of ileal interleukin (IL)-4 on d 21, and intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) concentration on d 42. Supplementation of TA at the concentration up to 800 mg/kg of diet had adverse effects on intestinal antioxidant status, immune function and liver lipid metabolism compared with control group. Differently, TA supplemented at 400 mg/kg led to lower mRNA expression of liver ACC1, FASN, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1), and higher CPT1 on d 42. In conclusion, TA inclusion improved intestinal antioxidant status and immune function, and enhanced liver lipid metabolism of broilers.HIGHLIGHTS Supplementation of 400 mg/kg of TA increased intestinal antioxidant status and immune function, and promoted liver lipid metabolism of broilers compared with non-supplemented group. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Article
Full-text available
Compared with traditional liquid–liquid embedding method and solid–liquid embedding method of inclusion complexes of β‐cyclodextrin (β‐CD) inclusion of essential oil to form stable properties, the gas–liquid embedding method was applied to encapsulate vaporized illicium verum essential oil (IvEO), with β‐CD as wall materials so that core and wall materials molecules are in active state during complexing process. At optimal conditions with a mass ratio of 1:10, temperature of 80°C, time of 1 h, the β‐CD‐IvEO inclusion complexes (β‐CD‐IvEO‐ICs) had an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 84.55 ± 2.31%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the encapsulation of IvEO into inclusion complexes, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated the enhanced thermal stability of IvEO after embedding. Furthermore, the reducing power and 2‐phenyl‐4,4,5,5‐tetramethylimidazoline‐1‐oxyl‐3‐oxide (PTIO)‐scavenging capacity displayed certain capacity of antioxidation in a short time but stronger antioxidative activities as reaction time was extended. The diameter of growth zone (DGZ) indicated stronger antibacterial activity of β‐CD‐IvEO‐ICs against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the β‐CD‐IvEO‐ICs could induce the bacteria producing more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than IvEO, resulting in bacterial death. Compared with traditional liquid‐liquid enbedding method and solid‐liquid enbedding method of inclusion complexes of #x03B2;‐cyclodextrin (#x03B2;‐CD) inclusion of essential oil to form stable properties, gas‐liquid embedding method was applied to encapsulate vaporized illicium verum essential oil with #x03B2;‐CD (#x03B2;‐cyclodextrin) as wall materials so that core and wall materials molecules are in active state during complexing process. #x03B2;‐CD‐IvEO‐ICs showed stronger antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus#x00A0;epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus.
Chapter
Illness exists in situations of adverse health conditions disrupting the normal homeostasis often due to viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or compromised body immunity leading to clinically apparent disruption of normal operating procedure. A disease could be infectious or non‐infectious. An infectious disease may start through an interaction with pathogenic organisms, like bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, from infected persons or vectors, by ingesting contaminated consumables or exposure to a contaminated environment. Infectious diseases lead to a high mortality rate or substantial encumbrances of incapacitation on a population due to the rapid and unexpected nature of their spread with serious global impacts e.g. coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic. They include diphtheria, influenza, Ebola virus disease (EVD), COVID‐19, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), etc. STDs are contracted through sexual interactions with an infected individual and include gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chancroid, HIV/AIDS, and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU), like genital herpes, pubic lice, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), genital warts, etc. STDs could be diagnosed and treated with approved antibiotics or antiviral remedies. Owing to emerging strains of multidrug‐resistant (MDR) STDs due to antimicrobial‐resistant (AMR) bacteria, the phytochemicals and phytopharmaceuticals become considered as the source of bioactive ingredients to restore the purposes of synthetic antibiotics which became ineffective. Phytochemicals are chemical compounds of plant origin of primary or secondary metabolism retaining activities in biological systems and referred to as “bioactive phytochemicals”. They include carbohydrates, lipids, phenolics, terpenoids, alkaloids, and other nitrogen‐containing compounds. They constitute the antioxidants and free radical scavengers preventing oxidative damage. These activities abound in polyphenols. Since the key concern with synthetic drugs is their unwanted side effects, sometimes more harmful than the treated disease, phytopharmaceuticals emerged, addressing phytomedicines with efficacy derivable from plant bioactive ingredients in managing diseases within an indigenous healing practice. The approach of phytopharmaceutical therapy has numerous gains and drawbacks. The categories of antimicrobial compounds of plant origin considered as the sources of antimicrobial phytopharmaceuticals comprise the phenolics and polyphenols, quinones, flavones, flavonoids, flavonols, tannins, coumarins, terpenoids, essential oils, alkaloids, lecithins, polypeptides, etc. Several plants have been screened and could be potential sources of numerous antimicrobial agents, some being available commercially and gained ground globally and are depended upon by several economies.
Article
Full-text available
Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82.05%) and rose aqueous (73.86%). From a panel of twenty three plant extracts, some one dozen exhibit high or satisfactory anti-collagenase or anti-elastase activities, with nine having inhibitory activity against both enzymes. These included white tea which was found to have very high phenolic content, along with high TEAC and SOD activities.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the hydrodistillation-headspace solvent microextraction (HD-HSME) method was used for extraction and analysis of chemical components of star anise (Illicium verum). Effective parameters for HSME, such as the nature of the extracting solvent, headspace volume, particle size of the sample, and the extraction time, were studied and optimized, and the method's performance was evaluated. The chemical compositions of the HD-HSME and HD extracts were confirmed according to their retention indexes and mass spectra (EI, 70 eV), and quantitative analysis was performed by gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection (FID). Using HD-HSME followed by GC-MS, 49 compounds were separated and identified in star anise, which mainly included trans-anethole (81.4.0%), limonene (6.50%), chavicol (2.10%), and anisaldehyde (1.81%). The results of HD-HSME followed by GC-MS, in comparison with traditional the hydrodistillation method, shows that the proposed method is simple, rapid, and efficient for the determination of volatile compounds in star anise.
Article
Full-text available
In the last years intoxications after consumption of Illicium verum Hook. f. have been reported due to adulterations with I. anisatum L.. Many efforts have already been made to develop a simple method which would enable the detection of I. anisatum in powdered samples of I. verum. Since many controversial facts concerning the value of anatomic characters for differentiation have been published 13 botanically vouchered samples were re-examined by means of light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, SEM, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. All anatomical details show a great variability even between the follicles of a certain aggregate. This is also true for the cuticular striation which has been proposed in literature as reliable character. Special attention was paid to the structure of the aleurone grains of the endosperm and the shape of the calcium oxalate crystals in the testa. In contrast to previous assumptions these characters do not allow a certain differentiation either. However, the presence of hexagonal crystals can serve as indicator for samples of I. anisatum. At present a reliable proof of purity of powdered samples of I. verum seems to be possible by chemical analytical methods only.
Article
Full-text available
The antioxidant activity (AA) of ethyl acetate extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Paris polyphylla and Illicium verum were tested in refined peanut oil at 60 ± 0.5 °C. The concentrations of the extracts added were 0.20% (w/w). The rate of oxidation was assessed by the measurement of peroxide value (PV) and calculation of such characteristics as induction period (IP), when PV reaches 20 meq kg−1, protection factor (PF), which is the ratio of `IP of the sample with additive' and `IP of the sample without additive', and AA (the ratio of `IP increase of the sample with extract' and `IP increase of the sample with butylated hydroxytoluene'). All of C. sappan, L. erythrorhizon extracts and their combinations were found to be high effective in peanut oil. But the extracts of A. asphodeloides, P. polyphylla and I. verum slightly decrease the formation of peroxides in peanut oil as compared with pure oil.
Article
Full-text available
Total antioxidant capacities of 133 Indian medicinal plant species sampled from 64 families were assessed by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, and their total phenolic contents measured by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. These species exhibited a broad range of antioxidant activities, varying from 0.16 to 500.70 mmol TEAC/100 g DW in the ABTS assay. The antioxidant activity values similarly varied with the DPPH and FRAP assays. Significant and positive linear correlations were found between total antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents (R = 0.89–0.97), indicating that phenolics were the dominant antioxidant constituents in the tested medicinal plants. Preliminary identification of the major phenolic compounds from 83 selected medicinal plants by reversed-phase HPLC revealed phenolic acids, tannins, flavonoids, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans, and quinines. The fruit of Terminalia chebula, pericarp of Punica granatum and gall of Rhus succedanea showed very high levels of hydrolysable tannins, and the gum of Acacia catechu presented very high levels of catechin and epicatechin in addition to tannins. Major phenolics in many of the medicinal plants were identified for the first time (e.g., Euphorbia lathyrus, Ipomoea turpethum, and Picrorrhiza kurroa). This systematic investigation of a large number of Indian medicinal plants proved important for understanding their chemical constituents and functionality in Ayurvedic medicine, and contributes to the search for natural sources of potent antioxidants.
Article
Based on the theory of unsteady hydrodynamic lubrication and relevant basic theories of roll gap dynamics, a basic model for unsteady lubrication in the work zone in strip rolling was developed, through which the distribution information of pressure stress and friction stress in the work zone can be obtained. A numerical simulation of some model rolling mill was made. The influence of such parameters as back tension stress, angle frequency and reduction on the distribution of pressure stress and friction stress between the roll gap was analyzed qualitatively with numerical simulation. Simulation data proved definitely that the model and simulation analysis were correct and had some good guidance to avoid the vibration of rolling mill.
Article
Essential oils were extracted from dried fruits of Myristica fragrans and Illicium verum by hydrodistillation method and its toxic and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against wheat flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. These essential oils caused toxicity against larvae and adults of T. castaneum when fumigated. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) against the larvae were 12.67 μl and 18.43 μl and against adults were 14.23 μl and 19.87 μl for Myristica fragrans and Illicium verum oils respectively. These two oils reduced oviposition potential of the T. castaneum. Transformation of larvae into pupae and pupae into adults was inhibited by the essential oil vapours. Median effective concentrations (EC50) that reduced the transformation of larval population to pupa to half were 6.08 μl and 11.97 μl for Myristica fragrans and Illicium verum oils respectively. The developmental period of the insect was increased significantly when treated by these essential oils. All the responses were found dose-dependent.
Article
Two new sesquiterpene lactones, named anislactone A and B, were isolated from the pericarps of Illicium anisatum.The structure of anislactone A was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Anislactone B was the isomer of anislactone A, and its structure was determined by spectral data compared with those of anislactone A. They were considered to be the biological derivatives from anisatin of its derivative.
Article
Two new sesquiterpene lactones, isolated from the pericarps of Illicium majus together with anisatin, have been assigned structures with an anisatin skeleton on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and established by an X-ray diffraction method.
Article
The structure of pseudoanisatin, a non-toxic constituent of Japanese star anise has been revised from to by an X-ray crystallographic analysis.
Article
Two toxic compounds, anisatin (I) and neoanisatin (XXV) were isolated from Illicium Anisatum L. Extensive studies on noranisatin (II), an oxidation product of I were carried out by chemical and spectral methods. Two dihydrocoumarins (XI, XII) were obtained by stepwise degradation of II, the structures of which were firmly established. On the basis of the structures of XI and XII together with spectral evidence of important derivatives such as VII, VIII, IX and XV, the structure of II was determined as IIk. Based on the structure of II, anisatin was represented as If, which contains a stable β-lactone. The structure of neoanisatin was established as XXVa by a variety of oxidation reactions: a common oxidation product VII was obtained from both natural products, I and XXV. Some of the reactions of special interest are illustrated.
Article
At 153 °C feniculin (1) undergoes Claisen rearrangement to the 1,1-dimethylallylphenol (3), which is slowly converted into the 1,2-dimethylallylphenol (4); the products of abnormal Claisen rearrangement, phenol (4) and anisoxide (2), are formed at 185 °C. Anisoxide was shown by g.l.c. analysis to be absent in star anise oil and in the seeds of Illicium verum and Foeniculum vulgare, and is believed to have been obtained previously as a result of prolonged distillation of anise oil.
Article
The oil of star anise was examined by a combination of GC/MS and retention times. Quantitative data for twenty-seven of the thirty-six compounds identified is presented.
Article
The structure (II) has, by degradation, been established for anisoxide. This conclusion has been confirmed by the synthesis of anisoxide and some of its degradation products.
Article
An extract of the pericarps of Illicium merrillianum has yielded four new sesquiterpenes: 3 alpha -hydroxycycloparvifloralone (1), 1,2-dehydrocycloparvifloralone (2), (11) 7,14-ortholactone-3 alpha -hydroxyfloridanolide (3), and 11-O-debenzoyltashironin (4) along with cycloparvifloralone (5), merrillianone (6), and tashironin (7). The structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. 11-O-Debenzoyltashironin (4) showed neurotrophic activity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons at 0.1-10 muM. However, cycloparvifloralone-type sesquiterpenes (1, 2, 5, and 6) and tashironin (7) had no neurotrophic activity at these concentrations.
Article
Volatile oil was extracted from Illicium Verum Hook. f. by using steam distillation. 41 kinds of compounds were separated and identified by GC/MS, and their relative contents were determined by normalization method. Among 41 identified compounds, there are 14 hydrocarbon components and 22 oxygenated hydrocarbon derivatives, and a small amount of nitrogenous compounds. The main component is anethole, accounting for 76.23%, and the other components such as anisyl acetone, anisaldehyde, p-allylanisole, p-cumic aldehyde and p-allylpen take up more than 10%.
Article
Carbon-dioxide SCF extraction from herbaceous substrates produces nearly solid extracts because of simultaneous solubilization of essential oil components and cuticular waxes. Fractionation of the extract is required to isolate the essential oil.A mechanism is proposed to explain coextraction of essential oil and leaf and cuticular waxes, based on different mass transfer mechanisms for the two compound families. Cuticular waxes are hypothesized as mainly solubilized by leaching, while essential oil extraction is supposed dependent on complex diffusion phenomena.If extraction mechanisms operate as modeled, fractional separation of supercritical solution can be realized in a series of separators, taking advantage of the different solubilities of the two compound families and of their different concentrations in the solution.Marjoram leaf (Origanum Majorana L.) essential oil isolation by SCF has been studied as an application of fractional separation procedure. A nearly complete fractionation has been realized and a high quality essential is oil produced.
Article
The structure of tashironin (1), isolated from the wood of Illicium tashiroi, has been elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. Tashironin represents a presumed biosynthetic precursor of anisatintype sesquiterpenes which consists of a 2-oxatricyclo[4.3.1.04,9]heptane skeleton.
Article
A phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of Illicium arborescens yielded the two new phytoquinoid epimers, 2,3-didehydro-5-O-methyl-11-epiillifunone E (1) and 2,3-didehydro-5-O-methylillifunone E (2), as well as five new sesquiterpene lactones (8,9-secoprezizaane-type sesquiterpenes). Two of them, i.e., 3 and 4, were minwanensin-type sesquiterpenes, the other two, i.e., 5 and 6, had the anisatin-type (or floridanolide type) skeleton, and the fifth, i.e., 7, was a dunnianin-type sesquiterpene. Their structures were established by analyses of 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-MS, and chemical evidence. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of compounds 1–7 was tested against four human tumor cell lines, including HeLa (cervical epitheloid), WiDr (colon), Daoy (medulloblastoma), and Hep2 (liver carcinoma) human-tumor cells.
Article
The dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Illicium verum yielded the ring A-cleaved seco-cycloartane: 3,4-seco-(24Z)-cycloart-4(28),24-diene-3,26-dioic acid, 26-methyl ester, which is the 26-methyl ester of nigranoic acid. The structure of the new compound was deduced by 2D-NMR spectroscopy, which demonstrated conclusively that it is isomeric with the 3-methyl ester of nigranoic acid recently reported from Illicium dunnianum.
Summary Bay leaves and star anise fruits contained mainly the 3-rutinosides, further the 3-glucosides and 3-galactosides of kaempferol and quercetin. In bay leaves the 3-rhamnosides and 3-arabinosides of kaempferol and quercetin were also found, while quercetin-3-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-xyloside and free kaempferol and quercetin were present in the spice star anise.
Article
The 1,2-dimethylallyl derivative, anisoxide, is not present in star anise oil or in the seeds of Illicium verum; its synthesis from a 3,3-dimethylallyl ether present in the oil suggests that it was obtained earlier as a result of the isolation procedure.
Article
The oil of the Japanese star anise tree, Illiciumanisatum Linn., was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography. The major constituents were found to be cineole (18.1%), linalool (10.1%), methyleugenol (9.8%), α-terpenyl acetate (6.8%), safrole (6.6%), and a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon of unknown constitution (7.2%). The composition of this oil differs widely from that of the commercially used star anise oil obtained from Illiciumverum Hooker. The most striking difference between the two oils is found in the anethole content, which constitutes 88% of the commercial oil but only 1.2% of the oil here investigated.
Article
Clove bud and star anise volatile oils were isolated by supercritical CO2extraction coupled to a fractional separation technique. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the various fractions obtained in different extraction and fractionation conditions allowed the identification of the best operating conditions for the isolation of essential oil. A good extraction performance was obtained operating at 90 bar and 50 °C (for 630 min) for both the treated materials. The optimum fractionation was achieved in both cases by operating at 90 bar and −10 °C in the first separator and at 15 bar and 10 °C in the second. The influence of the extraction pressure and of the extraction time on the essential oil composition was also evaluated. A considerable difference in volatile oil composition was observed at increasing extraction times.
Article
Supercritical CO2 extraction of essential oil from lavender was performed on a laboratory apparatus as well as in a pilot plant. A two-stage separation procedure was used to induce the fractional separation of the extracts. Detailed CC-MS analysis of the products was performed to assess the best extraction and the best separation conditions. The lavender oil produced by supercritical extraction was compared to the oil obtained by hydrodistillation. The major difference between the two products was reflected in the linalyl acetate content. This compound was found to be 34.7% of the oil produced by supercritical fluid extraction and 12.1% of the hydrodistilled product. This difference can be ascribed to the hydrolysis of part of this compound during hydrodistillation. The oil yield of the extraction process was measured at various extraction lengths. It was modeled using a simple mathematical model.
Article
The essential oil of chamomile flowerheads was extracted by supercritical CO2, producing the fractional separation of the extract to enhance the process selectivity. The extract fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and SFC to assess the presence of undesirable compounds and to obtain the detailed oil composition. The best oil was obtained by extracting at p = 90 bar and T = 40 degrees C and fractionating the product in two separators in series operating at p = 90 bar, T = 0 degrees C, and p = 30 bar, T = -5 degrees C, respectively. All undesired compounds were precipitated in the first separator. The oil did not suffer thermal degradation: matricine was not converted to chamazulene. The other chamomile oil characteristic compounds (bisabolol oxides, alpha-bisabolol, and bisabolone oxide) contributed more than 75% and dicycloethers contributed about 13% to the oil composition. Organoleptic analysis confirmed the high quality of the product.
Article
Isocitrate lyase (ICL) catalyses the first step of the glyoxylate bypass pathway, which reversibly cleaves isocitrate into succinate and glyoxylate. This pathway occurs in a wide range of pathogens and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) suggesting that it may represent a drug target for the treatment of tuberculosis. ICL was cloned, expressed, and purified, and a high-throughput screen (HTS) developed to screen active extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for inhibition of ICL. A colorimetric assay based on the formation of glyoxylate-phenylhydrazone was used to measure ICL activity. The assay had signal to noise (S/N) of 12.74 and Z′ factor of 0.72, indicating that the assay was suitable for HTS. Screening of a collection of 465 extracts derived from TCMs resulted in the identification of two extracts from Illicium verum Hook.f (Illiciaceae, XHD-1) and Zingiber officinale Rosc (Zingiberaceae, XHD-2), which inhibited ICL with IC50 values of 47.7 ± 16.9 and 18.2 ± 0.9 µg/ml, respectively. Drug Dev. Res. 67:818–823, 2006. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Shikimic acid can be rapidly separated (ca. 5 min) from Chinese star anise with hot water extraction at temperatures of 120 °C or higher to obtain recoveries of 100%. Extraction recoveries of shikimic acid close to 97% can be obtained with water at 70 °C using slightly longer extraction times (ca. 10 min) than those at 120 °C. A semi-batch flow apparatus was used to study the effect of temperature, average particle size, water flow rate, and extraction time on the experimental recoveries. For 0.5 g Chinese star anise raw material that contained ca. 8% shikimic acid, 100% recoveries of shikimic acid could be obtained with 60 g water at 150 °C at 15 MPa in 4 min for star anise material having a particle size range from 355 to 600 μm. A one-site kinetic model was found to provide good correlation of the data and the kinetic parameters of the model could be written in terms of linearized contributions in temperature, average particle diameter and flow rate.