Levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Manganese and Zinc in Biological Samples of Paralysed Steel Mill Workers with Related to Controls

National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, 76080, Pakistan.
Biological trace element research (Impact Factor: 1.75). 05/2011; 144(1-3):164-82. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-011-9063-4
Source: PubMed


The determination of essential trace and toxic elements in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible effects of environmental exposure on paralysed male workers (n = 75) belonging to the production and quality control departments of a steel mill. In this investigation, the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and zinc were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) of exposed paralysis and non-paralysed steel mill workers. For comparative purposes, unexposed healthy subjects of same age group were selected as referents. The elements in the biological samples were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference materials. The results indicate that the level understudy elements in all three biological samples were significantly higher in paralysed workers of both groups (quality control and production) as compared to referents (p < 0.01). The possible connection of these elements with the aetiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements of workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

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    • "It shows multi-system tissue toxicity, causing neurological, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, hematologic, reproductive, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects [1]. Thanks to the negative characteristics of lead, it is necessary to monitor its amount in the body [2,3,4,5,6]. Moreover, some complexing agents could enhance or lower toxicity of this metal, thus the effects of such complexes should be considered. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was the preparation of a liposome complex with encapsulated lead ions, which were electrochemically detected. In particular, experiments were focused on the potential of using an electrochemical method for the determination of free and liposome-encapsulated lead and determination of the encapsulation efficiency preventing the lead toxicity. Primarily, encapsulation of lead ions in liposomes and confirmation of successful encapsulation by electrochemical methods was done. Further, the reduction effect of the liposome matrix on the detected electrochemical signal was monitored. Besides encapsulation itself, comparison of toxicity of free lead ions and lead ions encapsulated in liposome was tested. The calculated IC50 values for evaluating the lead cytotoxicity showed significant differences between the lead enclosed in liposomes (28 µM) and free lead ions (237 µM). From the cytotoxicity studies on the bacterial strain of S. aureus it was observed that the free lead ions are less toxic in comparison with lead encapsulated in liposomes. Liposomes appear to be a suitable carrier of various substances through the inner cavity. Due to the liposome structure the lead enclosed in the liposome is more easily accepted into the cell structure and the toxicity of the enclosed lead is higher in comparison to free lead ions.
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    • "OR odds ratio, adjusted for age and gender; CI confidence interval; LC laryngeal cancer; NPC nasopharyngeal cancer (Gil et al. 2011; Afridi et al. 2011a; Feki-Tounsi et al. 2012). "
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    • "In previous studies (Khlifi and Hamza-Chaffai, 2010; Khlifi et al., 2013), our research group studied the head and neck tract cancer-related data in exposure to heavy metals via occupational exposure and the major mechanisms underlying some toxic metal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the effects of occupational exposure to cadmium, chromium, arsenic and nickel on diseases and cancer have been confirmed (Grimsrud and Peto, 2006; Chen et al., 2008; Afridi et al., 2011; Feki-Tounsi et al., 2012). Mean and median values of Cd and Cr concentrations in tumor and healthy tissues in farmers, cement workers (bricklayers) and painters are presented in Table 8. "
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