Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Clock Drawing Test in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease: Evaluation of a Modified Scoring System
The clock drawing test (CDT) has been used as a screening tool for identifying cognitive decline in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) and other dementias but has not been extensively evaluated for categorizing individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study used both an established quantitative scoring system and a revised scoring method based on qualitative error criteria developed by Rouleau et al to demonstrate the sensitivity of the CDT to MCI. Participants were 66 cognitively healthy older adult, 33 individuals with MCI, and 33 individuals with AD. Sensitivity analyses of the 2 clock drawing methods revealed that the Modified Rouleau scoring method was more sensitive to MCI than the original Rouleau scoring system. Conceptual, graphic, and spatial-planning difficulties were the most commonly committed errors on the CDT across all groups, and conceptual errors along with graphic difficulties were committed more often in the MCI group than the cognitively healthy control group. Participants in the AD group exhibited greater deficits in all error categories and significantly lower total CDT scores compared to both the MCI and older adult controls. Findings observed in this study suggest that qualitative observations of clock drawing errors can help increase sensitivity of the CDT to MCI and that use of a more detailed scoring system is necessary to differentiate individuals with MCI from cognitively healthy older adults.
Available from: Finn M Radtke
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ABSTRACT: Delirium is an acute, potentially life-threatening organ dysfunction with an incidence reported to range from 10-70% after surgery. Postoperative delirium was found to be associated with persisting cognitive deficits, increased physical dependence and institutionalization, and increased mortality. It is a condition particularly relevant to patients with increasing age.
This study summarizes recent works of the past 2 years, giving a brief overview as well as background information with regard to risk factors, impact on outcome parameters, mechanisms of pathophysiology, current use of hospital medication, and prevention and treatment strategies of postoperative delirium.
Delirium may have an impact on patients' outcomes beyond their stay in hospital, depending on preoperative comorbidities. Delirium can be devastating for activity of daily living, cognitive performance and survival. Predisposing factors should be recognized preoperatively; precipitating factors such as preoperative fasting, deep sedation and choice of psychotropic drugs, including sedatives, should be reconsidered. Regular structured delirium screening is the precondition for early detection and treatment. Treatment options include cognitive training programmes, anti-inflammatory measures and antipsychotic drugs.
Available from: Andres Canales-Johnson
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ABSTRACT: Early evaluation of Alzheimer's disease: biomarkers and neuropsychological tests Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative condition that affects cognitive, behavioral and global functioning of patients. Currently and due to the lack of conclusive biological testing, Alzheimer's disease diagnosis is based primarily on clinical criteria. Since its early diagnosis allows clinical interventions when neurological damage is relatively mild, the development of early detection tools has become a major topic of interest. In this article, we review the main neuro-biological and neuropsychological features of Alzheimer's disease, analyzing the use of biomarkers and neuropsychological testing for early detection.
Available from: psychiatryonline.org
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