Outcomes of Hospitalization in Adults in the United States With Atrial Septal Defect, Ventricular Septal Defect, and Atrioventricular Septal Defect
Atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) are among the most common congenital heart lesions, with most children surviving to adulthood. However, the clinical course of these patients is largely unknown, particularly pertaining to inpatient care. The purpose of this study was to assess hospitalizations for septal defects in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) and risk factors associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to assess national prevalence of hospitalizations in adults with CHD with septal defects. Co-morbidities and risk factors for mortality were also determined. There were 84,308 adult CHD admissions in the United States in 2007. Fifty-four percent of adult CHD admissions had diagnoses of septal defects, with 48% having atrial septal defect, 7% having VSD, and 0.4% having AVSD. Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.1%. Common co-morbidities included arrhythmias (31%), heart failure (20%), and diabetes mellitus (18%). On multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for mortality included presence of VSD (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 6.5), trisomy 21 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 7.5), and pulmonary hypertension (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4). In conclusion, this study of hospitalizations in adults with septal defects found that admissions are common and associated with significant co-morbidities. Overall mortality is low but is increased in patients with VSD. Cardiac and noncardiac co-morbidities are commonly encountered. Many noncardiac conditions, including trisomy 21 and the youngest and oldest groups, are associated with an increased risk of death.
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