Article

Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumenprotected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig, Germany.
Archives of animal nutrition (Impact Factor: 1). 04/2011; 65(2):89-107. DOI: 10.1080/1745039X.2011.552275
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the calculated energy balance by CLA supplementation could be shown for the entire evaluation period.

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    • "Hötger et al. (2013) reported that CLA supplementation (as a mixture of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA) in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation, most likely due to lower glucose utilization for milk fat synthesis and a more efficient whole-body energy utilization in CLA-fed cows. Pappritz et al. (2011) as well as von Soosten et al. (2012) concluded that trans-10,cis-12 CLA-fed cows have an increased efficiency of ME utilization. Given that the administration of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in mammary cells induces a reduction in the synthesis of milk fat, and this may leads to an increased availability of glucose, we hypothesized that glucose sparing might be used for cellular activities related to oxidative response other than lactose and milk synthesis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Some studies have shown the protective effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in animal models, but no information is available about CLA and changes in oxidative status of the bovine mammary gland. The objectives of the study were to assess in vitro the effect of CLA on the cellular antioxidant response of bovine mammary cells, to examine whether CLA isomers could play a role in cell protection against the oxidative stress, and to study the molecular mechanism involved. For the study, BME-UV1 cells, a bovine mammary epithelial cell line, were used as the experimental model. The BME-UV1 cells were treated with complete medium containing 50 µM cis-9,trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA), trans-10,cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA), and CLA mixture (1:1, cis-9,trans-11: trans-10,cis-12 CLA). To monitor cellular uptake of CLA isomers, cells and culture medium were collected at 0, 3, and 48 h from CLA addition for lipid extraction and fatty acid analyses. To assess the cellular antioxidant response, glutathione (GSH/GSSH), NADPH, and γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase activity was measured after 48 h from addition of CLA. Cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase activities and mRNA were also determined. Intracellular reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance production were assessed in cells supplemented with CLA isomers. Cell viability after 3 h to H2O2 exposure was assessed to evaluate and to compare the potential protection of different CLA isomers against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Mammary cells readily picked up all CLA isomers, their accumulation was time dependent, and main metabolites at 48 h are two 18:3 isomers. The CLA treatment induced an intracellular GSH increase, matched by high concentration of NADPH, and an increase of γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase activity mainly in cells treated with the t10,c12 CLA isomer. The CLA isomer treatment of bovine mammary cells increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase activity and decreased glutathione reductase activity, but no changes in gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes were observed. Cells supplemented with CLA isomers showed a reduction in intracellular reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. All CLA isomers were able to enhance cell resistance against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These suggest an antioxidant role of CLA, in particular of t10,c12 CLA, by developing a significantly high redox status in cells. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Dairy Science
    • "The dietary supplementation of CLA during early lactation gradually decreased milk fat percentage and resulted in a significant 12% reduction from wk 8 of supplementation onward, thus confirming the effectiveness of the CLA treatment, as described previously (Pappritz et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100 g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n = 11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n = 10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Dairy Science
    • "The dietary supplementation of CLA during early lactation gradually decreased milk fat percentage and resulted in a significant 12% reduction from wk 8 of supplementation onward, thus confirming the effectiveness of the CLA treatment, as described previously (Pappritz et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin E in its natural form comprises eight different compounds, i.e. α-, β-, γ-, and δ forms of each tocopherol (T) and –tocotrienol (T3). The most abundant form of tocopherols, α-tocopherol (αT), is the only form used to supplement animal feed. However, T3 exhibit some unique physiological functions that are not entirely shared by tocopherols (1). In contrast to αT, little is known about plasma and tissue concentrations of T3 in humans and animals. The increase in vitamin E status of laboratory animals supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) attracted interest in the interaction between vitamin E and CLA (2). Thus, our study aimed to characterize the concentrations of the different vitamin E congeners in serum and in liver and the hepatic gene expression of factors related to vitamin E metabolism in dairy cows during early lactation, and to test the effects of a dietary supplement with CLA. Methods: Twenty one pluriparous German Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either 100 g/d CLA (n = 11; Lutrell pure, BASF, Germany; each 12% of trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA) or a control fat supplement (Silafat, BASF; CTR; n = 10) from days in milk 1 to 182. Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. Serum and liver concentrations of vitamin E congeners were quantified by HPLC. The mRNA abundance of α-tocopherol transfer protein (TPP), α-tocopherol associated protein (TAP), and cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by the MIXED model with treatment, time, and interaction of treatment and time as the fixed effects and cow as the random effect. Results: In the CLA group, mean dry matter intake (21.2 ± 0.24 kg/d; mean ± SEM) did not differ from the CTR group (22.3 ± 0.24 kg/d). There were no significant differences in any of the serum concentrations of the various forms of vitamin E between the CTR and the CLA group. The serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 changed over time (P < 0.01) and followed a similar pattern in both groups, i.e. showing an increase from d -21 to d 21 and remaining largely unchanged between d 21 and d 70. No CLA by time interactions were observed for the serum concentrations of vitamin E forms except for γT3 (P = 0.06). The molar ratio of the serum vitamin E isoforms to cholesterol was not affected by the CLA supplementation. The molar ratio of all forms of vitamin E to cholesterol in the serum changed during the course of the study (P ≤ 0.02). There were no differences in any of the liver concentrations of various congeners of vitamin E between the CTR and the CLA group. Time-related changes in the liver concentrations of the vitamin E forms were noted in both experimental groups (P < 0.05; P = 0.07 in case of γT3). The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes related to vitamin E metabolism did not differ between the two groups. In the CTR group, TTP mRNA increased during the course of the study from d -21 to 1.62-fold values on d 105 (P < 0.01). There was a trend observed for the interaction between treatment and time for the mRNA abundance of TTP (P = 0.10). In the post partum period, the abundance of mRNA encoding TAP was greater (P < 0.001) on d 105 than on d 70 (2.80- and 2.70-fold for the CTR and CLA group, respectively). The mRNA abundance of CYP4F2 did not change over time and there was also no treatment by time interaction. Conclusion: All four congeners of T3 were detected in serum and liver of dairy cows during late gestation and early lactation, albeit at distinctively lower concentrations than αT and γT. Increasing mRNA expression of TPP with days in milk in the CTR group may point to an involvement of TTP in the increase of αT concentrations in the serum. Finally, our data indicate time-dependent changes in the serum and liver concentrations of the vitamin E congeners and in the hepatic expression of genes related to vitamin E metabolism that were largely unaffected by CLA supplementation.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2015
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