Gut sensing of dietary K+ intake increases renal K+ excretion
Dietary K(+) intake may increase renal K(+) excretion via increasing plasma [K(+)] and/or activating a mechanism independent of plasma [K(+)]. We evaluated these mechanisms during normal dietary K(+) intake. After an overnight fast, [K(+)] and renal K(+) excretion were measured in rats fed either 0% K(+) or the normal 1% K(+) diet. In a third group, rats were fed with the 0% K(+) diet, and KCl was infused to match plasma [K(+)] profile to that of the 1% K(+) diet group. The 1% K(+) feeding significantly increased renal K(+) excretion, associated with slight increases in plasma [K(+)], whereas the 0% K(+) diet decreased K(+) excretion, associated with decreases in plasma [K(+)]. In the KCl-infused 0% K(+) diet group, renal K(+) excretion was significantly less than that of the 1% K(+) group, despite matched plasma [K(+)] profiles. We also examined whether dietary K(+) alters plasma profiles of gut peptides, such as guanylin, uroguanylin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, pituitary peptides, such as AVP, α-MSH, and γ-MSH, or aldosterone. Our data do not support a role for these hormones in the stimulation of renal K(+) excretion during normal K(+) intake. In conclusion, postprandial increases in renal K(+) excretion cannot be fully accounted for by changes in plasma [K(+)] and that gut sensing of dietary K(+) is an important component of the regulation of renal K(+) excretion. Our studies on gut and pituitary peptide hormones suggest that there may be previously unknown humoral factors that stimulate renal K(+) excretion during dietary K(+) intake.
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