Identification and Expression Analysis of Herpes B Virus-Encoded Small RNAs

Department of Virology and Immunology, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, P.O. Box 760549, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 07/2011; 85(14):7296-311. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00505-11
Source: PubMed


Herpes B virus (BV) naturally infects macaque monkeys and is genetically similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV). Zoonotic infection of humans can cause encephalitis and if untreated has a fatality rate of ∼80%. The frequent use of macaques in biomedical research emphasizes the need to understand the molecular basis of BV pathogenesis with a view toward improving safety for those working with macaques. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of mRNAs bearing complementary target sequences and are employed by viruses to control viral and host gene expression. Using deep sequencing and validation by expression in transfected cells, we identified 12 novel BV-encoded miRNAs expressed in lytically infected cells and 4 in latently infected trigeminal ganglia (TG). Using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR), we found that most of the miRNAs exhibited a high level of abundance throughout infection. Further analyses showed that some miRNAs could be generated from multiple transcripts with different kinetic classes, possibly explaining detection throughout infection. Interestingly, miRNAs were detected at early times in the absence of viral gene expression and were present in purified virions. In TG, despite similar amounts of viral DNA per ganglion, it was notable that the relative amount of each miRNA varied between ganglia. The majority of the miRNAs are encoded by the regions that exhibit the most sequence differences between BV and HSV. Additionally, there is no sequence conservation between BV- and HSV-encoded miRNAs, which may be important for the differences in the human diseases caused by BV and HSV.

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Available from: Melanie A Amen, Dec 18, 2013
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    • "Because of the high mortality of its infection in untreated humans and the lack of vaccines, BV is classified as a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogen [7,8]. Owing to the biosafety concerns, little research has been conducted directly using BV; most of the knowledge on this virus is extrapolated from study of its closely related viral species of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The glycoprotein D (gD) is essential for Herpes B virus (BV) entry into mammalian cells. Nectin-1, an HSV-1 gD receptor, is found to be the receptor which mediated BV induced cell-cell fusion, while HVEM does not mediate fusion by BV glycoprotein. However, the specific sequence and structural requirements of the BV gD for the recognition of and binding to Nectin-1 are unknown. Moreover, the 3D structures of BV gD and the BV gD-receptor complex have not been determined. In this study, we propose a reliable model of the interaction of the BV gD with receptor using bioinformatics tools. Results The three-dimensional structures of two BV gD-receptor complexes were constructed using homology modelling and docking strategy. Based on the models of these complexes, the BV gD receptor interaction patterns were calculated. The results showed that the interface between the BV gD and nectin-1 molecule is not geometrically complementary. The computed molecular interactions indicated that two terminal extensions were the main region of BV gD that binds to nectin-1 and that hydrophobic contacts between the two molecules play key roles in their recognition and binding. The constructed BV gD-HVEM complex model showed that this complex had a lower shape complementarity value and a smaller interface area compared with the HSV-1 gD-HVEM complex, and the number of intermolecular interactions between BV gD-HVEM were fewer than that of HSV-1 gD-HVEM complex. These results could explain why HVEM does not function as a receptor for BV gD. Conclusion In this study, we present structural model for the BV gD in a complex with its receptor. Some features predicted by this model can explain previously reported experimental data. This complex model may lead to a better understanding of the function of BV gD and its interaction with receptor and will improve our understanding of the activation of the BV fusion and entry process.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling
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    • "Therefore , the selectivity of coding and non-coding RNAs packaged in the virions may be family dependent. Nevertheless, the theory that RNA is selectively packaged is complicated by evidence showing that a large number of cellular RNAs are also packaged (Greijer et al., 2000; Sciortino et al., 2001; Terhune et al., 2004; Amen and Griffiths, 2011; Amen and Griffiths, unpublished data). It is possible that while viruses are selective for their own viral transcripts, the levels of cellular transcripts may " overwhelm " the virus' selective ability and these transcripts may be non-specifically incorporated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The herpesviruses are a family of large DNA viruses capable of establishing lifelong infections. Recent reports have shown that herpesviruses package non-coding RNA into virions; this follows earlier observations showing that coding RNAs are detected in virions. Packaging RNAs allows for their function immediately after virus entry and in the absence of de novo transcription. Despite the collective understanding that RNAs are packaged into herpesvirus virions, many questions remain. This review will highlight what is known regarding packaged coding and non-coding RNAs and discuss their potential impact to virus biology.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Frontiers in Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the requirements of herpesvirus entry and fusion, the four homologous glycoproteins necessary for herpes simplex virus (HSV) fusion were cloned from herpes B virus (BV) (or macacine herpesvirus 1, previously known as cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) and cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2), both related simian simplexviruses belonging to the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Western blots and cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH/gL were expressed in whole-cell lysates and on the cell surface. Cell-cell fusion assays indicated that nectin-1, an HSV-1 gD receptor, mediated fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from both BV and CeHV-2. However, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), another HSV-1 gD receptor, did not facilitate BV- and CeHV-2-induced cell-cell fusion. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα), an HSV-1 gB fusion receptor, did not mediate fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from either simian virus. Productive infection with BV was possible only with nectin-1-expressing cells, indicating that nectin-1 mediated entry while HVEM and PILRα did not function as entry receptors. These results indicate that these alphaherpesviruses have differing preferences for entry receptors. The usage of the HSV-1 gD receptor nectin-1 may explain interspecies transfer of the viruses, and altered receptor usage may result in altered virulence, tropism, or pathogenesis in the new host. A heterotypic cell fusion assay resulting in productive fusion may provide insight into interactions that occur to trigger fusion. These findings may be of therapeutic significance for control of deadly BV infections.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Virology
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