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Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial



Mushrooms contain very little or any vitamin D(2) but are abundant in ergosterol, which can be converted into vitamin D(2) by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Our objective was to investigate the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) from vitamin D(2)-enhanced mushrooms by UV-B in humans, and comparing it with a vitamin D(2) supplement. Fresh mushrooms were irradiated with an UV-B dose of 1.5 J/cm(2), increasing vitamin D(2) content from <1 to 491 μg/100 g and made to an experimental soup. In this 5-week, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 young subjects with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) ≤ 50 nmol/l were randomly assigned into three groups ((a) mushroom, (b) supplement and (c) placebo). They received during winter (a) 28,000 IU (700 μg) vitamin D(2) via the experimental soup, or (b) 28,000 IU vitamin D(2) via a supplement or (c) placebo, respectively. After 2 weeks, serum 25OHD was significantly higher in the mushroom than in the placebo group (P=0.001). The serum 25OHD concentrations in the mushroom and supplement groups rose significantly and similarly over the study period by 3.9 nmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.9, 4.8) and by 4.7 nmol/l per week (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7), respectively. We are the first to demonstrate in humans that the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) from vitamin D(2)-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation was effective in improving vitamin D status and not different to a vitamin D(2) supplement. This trial was registered at as DRKS00000195.
Bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults
deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial
Paul Urbain, Fabian Singler , Gabriele Ihorst , Hans-Konrad Biesalski, and Hartmut Bertz
From the Department of Haematology/Oncology (HB), Section of Nutrition (PU, FS),
University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Institute of Medical Biometry,
Medical Informatics and Center of Clinical Trials, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
(GI); and Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim,
Stuttgart, Germany (PU, FS, HKB).
Supported by AFR PhD grant from the Luxemburg Ministry of Culture, Higher Education
and Research (PU). Financial support for the irradiation experiments by the Dr.Heinrich-
Kircher Foundation, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Mushrooms donated by
Schlossbergpilz GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
Address correspondence to P Urbain, University Medical Center, Department of
Hematology/Oncology, Section of Nutrition, Hugstetter Str 55, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
Phone: +49-761 2703360; Fax: +49-761 2703334; E-mail:
Background/Objectives: Mushrooms are almost free of vitamin D
but abundant in
ergosterol, which can be converted into vitamin D
by UV irradiation. Our objective was to
investigate the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-treated and vitamin D
mushrooms in humans, and comparing it with a vitamin D
Subjects/Methods: Fresh mushrooms were irradiated with an UV-B dose of 1.5 J/ cm²,
increasing vitamin D
content from <1 to 491 µg/100 g, and made to an experimental soup. In
this 5-week, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 young subjects with
serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) 50 nmol/L were randomly assigned into 3 groups [a)
mushroom, b) supplement, c) placebo]. They received during winter a) 700 µg (28 000 IU)
vitamin D
via the experimental soup, or b) 700 µg vitamin D
via a supplement, or c)
placebo, respectively.
Results: After two weeks, serum 25OHD was significantly higher in the mushroom than in
the placebo group (P = 0.001). The serum 25OHD concentrations in the mushroom and
supplement groups rose significantly and similarly over the study period by 3.9 nmol/L per
week (95% CI: 2.9, 4.8) and by 4.7 nmol/L per week (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7), respectively.
Conclusions: We are the first to demonstrate in humans that the bioavailability of vitamin D
from vitamin D
-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation was as effective as a
vitamin D
supplement in treating vitamin D deficiency. This trial was registered at as DRKS00000195.
1. Introduction
Vitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration <50
nmol/L (Holick and Chen, 2008; Malabanan et al., 1998), is a public health issue prevalent
worldwide (Chapuy et al., 1997; Hintzpeter et al., 2008; Tangpricha et al., 2002; van der
Wielen et al., 1995), particularly in regions with a big seasonal shift in solar altitude, as the
major source of vitamin D for humans is sunlight-induced dermal synthesis (Engelsen et al.,
2005; Webb et al., 1988). Other criteria, like dark skin (Armas et al., 2007; Clemens et al.,
1982), old age (Need et al., 1993), and immobility (Semba et al., 2000) further reduce the
endogenous vitamin D synthesis. In addition to that, few foods contain vitamin D in
noteworthy concentrations; those that do are fish liver oils, fatty fish, vitamin D-fortified
margarine and egg yolk (Mattila et al., 1992; Mattila et al., 1995).
Naturally, the vitamin D
content of cultivated mushrooms is almost nil [<0.1 µg/100 g fresh
weight (fw)], yet they are very rich in ergosterol (Jasinghe and Perera, 2005; Mattila et al.,
2002). Ergosterol is the principal sterol in fungi, and several studies have reported that
mushrooms can be greatly enhanced with vitamin D
by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation,
resembling the dermal synthesis of vitamin D
in humans (Ko et al., 2008; Mau et al., 1998).
The conversion rate of ergosterol to vitamin D
under UV irradiation depends on the UV
spectrum (UV-A, -B or -C), irradiation dose, moisture content, and the mushrooms´
orientation toward the UV source (Jasinghe and Perera, 2005, 2006; Roberts et al., 2008).
Outila et al. (1999) were the first to demonstrate that vitamin D
was well absorbed from
lyophilized and homogenized mushrooms in humans. Jasinghe et al (2005, 2006) were the
first to publish in vivo studies on the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-irradiated
mushrooms, showing as others (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009) that vitamin D
from vitamin D
enhanced mushrooms is well absorbed, is metabolized in rodents, and that it improves bone
Recently the case history of a patient with vitamin D deficiency and secondary
hyperparathyroidism was published, who refused to take supplements, but self-treated his
deficiency by consuming mushrooms daily, which he had exposed to UV-B irradiation
(Ozzard et al., 2008).
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioavailability of vitamin D
UV-treated mushrooms in humans. Hence the primary objective of this randomized controlled
trial was to demonstrate the possibility of improving the 25OHD status with this natural food
source in terms of a higher serum 25OHD concentration in young vitamin D-deficient adults 4
weeks after a weekly vitamin D
dose of 700 µg (28 000 IU) compared to placebo. A
secondary objective was to compare the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-B treated
mushrooms with a vitamin D
2. Subjects and Methods
Subjects were recruited from employees of the University Medical Center Freiburg by
advertising. The study protocol was approved by our Ethics Commission. Exclusion criteria
included kidney stones, pregnancy, anticonvulsant or steroid therapy in any form, frequenting
a tanning salon, or residence in the mountains or southern countries right before or during the
study. The subjects were not allowed to take vitamin D supplements or fish liver oils, and
were asked to eat fish no more than once a week during the study period.
Caucasian adults in good general health, younger than 45 years with a body mass index (BMI)
between 18.5-26 kg/m², and not fulfilling any exclusion criterion were eligible to provide
blood specimens for further testing after having signed a written consent form. Out of 49
female and male volunteers we randomized 27 vitamin D-deficient (25OHD 50 nmol/L)
subjects with normal serum calcium concentrations (2.2-2.7 mmol/L) to enter the study.
Study design
This study was a 5-week, prospective, randomized, 3-arm, single-blind, placebo-controlled
trial to investigate the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms
and vitamin D
supplement, respectively.
The four first weekly visits (weeks 0, 1, 2, 3) constituted the interventional part of the study
and the two last visits (weeks 4, 5) served as follow-up. The primary objective and further
endpoints were analyzed till week 4, because that is when we expected the strongest
interventional effect. At the initial, baseline visit (week 0), weight and height were
documented. Each subsequent weekly visit at the same time of day consisted of a self-
developed 7-day dietary questionnaire, sun exposure was recorded and blood drawn. The
study was performed during the winter from late January till early March 2010, when a) a
vitamin D deficiency in healthy subjects is most likely, and b) solar UV-B radiation is
minimal to avoid the confounding effect of cutaneous vitamin D
synthesis on our intake-
response evaluation.
Our 27 subjects were randomly assigned into 3 equal groups [a) mushroom, b) supplement, c)
placebo] using a computer-generated sequence to receive 4 times at weekly intervals either a)
700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
via the experimental soup containing the UV-B-irradiated
mushrooms (vitamin D
content of 191.8 µg/100 g) and placebo, or b) 1.5 µg (6 IU) vitamin
via a conventional mushroom soup and 700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
via a supplement,
or c) 1.5 µg (6 IU) vitamin D
by a conventional mushroom soup and placebo, respectively.
The liquid supplement consisted of an ethanol formulation of vitamin D
[2 000 000 IU/100
ml, ethanol 90% (V/V)] (Stérogyl, Desma Pharma, Paris, France) and was dissolved in
orange juice. The placebo consisted of pure orange juice. The supplement or placebo were
served shortly before the soup.
Blood sample analysis
The blood samples were stored for coagulation about 30-60 min in the dark at room
temperature previous to centrifugation (2.000 rpm for 7 min). The serum samples were frozen
at -78 °C until weekly analysis by MVZ Clotten (Freiburg, Germany). Serum 25OHD
serum 25OHD
were measured combined as 25OHD by a radioimmunoassay (RIA)
purchased from DiaSorin Inc. (Stillwater, MN, USA). The quality and accuracy of the serum
25OHD analysis were monitored by interlaboratory tests evaluated by INSTANT e.V.
(Duesseldorf, Germany). The detection limit for the RIA assay was 10 nmol/L, inter- and
intraassay coefficients of variation for 25OHD were 11.1% and 10.1%. Serum intact
parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was measured by non-competitive immunoassay on the Roche
Modular Analytics E170. Serum calcium was measured using a photometric color test with
Olympus calcium Arsenazo III OSR60117. The reference ranges were 50-175 nmol/L, 11.3-
42.5 ng/l and 2.2-2.7 mmol/l, for 25OHD, iPTH and serum calcium, respectively. Serum
25OHD and calcium were measured weekly, serum iPTH was measured twice at week 0 and
week 4.
Raw material
We used fresh brown button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) provided by a local mushroom
producer (Schlossbergpilze, Freiburg, Germany) on the day of harvest in this study. They had
a moisture content of 91.4%, determined by the vacuum oven method.
Irradiation of mushrooms
To produce vitamin D
-enhanced mushrooms, they were placed completely separated from
each other on a 2 cm meshed grid, and each side (caps and gills) was irradiated
simultaneously with UV-B (306 nm) at an irradiation dose of 1.5 J/cm
after 25 min at
ambient temperature (22 °C). The custom-made UV unit was equipped with 8 UV-B lamps
176 cm in length (UV21, Waldmann, Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany). The total
irradiation area was 0.72 m
with a homogeneous intensity of UV-B. The radiation dose was
measured by a radiometer (UV34, PCE Group, Meschede, Germany).
Soup preparation and analytic method
Directly after irradiation, the mushrooms were diced and used in a puréed mushroom soup.
All the experimental and conventional mushroom soups needed for the study were portioned
out and stored in a freezer at -20 °C. Soup ingredients were water, button mushrooms, soy
cream, flour, olive oil and spices [51.2 kcal/100 g; 4.2% fat, 0.8% protein, 2.9%
carbohydrates (weight/weight)]. To calculate the exact amount of soup needed to fulfil the
study requirements, one portion of each soup was shipped on dry ice to SGS Institut Fresenius
(Berlin, Germany) for vitamin D
analysis, as well as all other mushroom samples. The assay
is based on semipreparative HPLC purification followed by analytical reversed-phase HPLC.
Sample size calculation and statistics
The study was designed to detect a difference of 20 nmol/L in 25OHD serum concentrations
between the mushroom and placebo groups with a power of 80% with a one-sided t-test at a
significance level of 5%. The assumed standard deviations (SD) were 13.0 in the placebo and
14.7 in the mushroom groups, derived from previous investigations. The resulting sample size
was 7 per group. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL,
USA) and SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA).
For descriptive data analyses, values are presented as means ± SDs. Group comparisons were
made using two sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey tests. P-values will
be provided for the comparisons of secondary objectives and should be regarded as
exploratory. Results with P <0.05 will be denoted as significant. The development of 25OHD
concentrations during the study was investigated using a random effects model (SAS proc
mixed) with 25OHD as dependent variable, different time slope parameters for each treatment
group (i.e. time*treatment interaction) and subject specified as a random effect. Treatment
differences during the study can thus be investigated by testing the differences in time slopes.
Results will be given in terms of estimates for regression slope parameters which represent
the 25OHD increase per week in each group and their accompanying 95% confidence
3. Results
Baseline characteristics of subjects
Of the 27 subjects recruited for the study, one from the mushroom group dropped out because
of pregnancy before the first visit, while 26 completed the interventional phase and were used
for the further evaluation. One subject had to miss the last follow-up blood withdrawal (week
Characteristics of the study population are summarized in Table 1. Mean age and BMI of the
subjects were 30.8 ± 5.8 y and 22.1 ± 2.5 kg/m
, respectively. There were no significant
differences in these parameters among the 3 study groups at baseline. In addition, the 3 study
groups were similar with regard to initial serum concentrations of 25OHD, iPTH, and calcium
(Table 2).
Mushrooms´ vitamin D
Our study´s brown button mushrooms cultivated in the dark had very low concentrations of
vitamin D
(0.18 µg/100 g fw). The conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D
under UV-B
irradiation in this study was very high, and we achieved concentrations of 491 µg/100g fw
(56.8 µg vitamin D
/g dry solids (ds)).
Time course of the main serum parameters
The time course data of serum 25OHD concentrations for each study group over the 5-week
period are presented in Table 2, Figure 1.
The primary objective was to test the efficacy of the vitamin D
-enhanced mushrooms to
improve the 25OHD status. The data show that one week after the last consumption of such
mushrooms at week 4, the mushroom group´s serum 25OHD was significantly higher than
that in the placebo group (P <0.0001) (Table 2).
A secondary objective consisted of testing the bioavailability of vitamin D
from the UV-B
treated mushrooms compared to a common vitamin D
supplement. When modelling the
development of 25OHD concentrations as a linear function of time (mixed regression model),
we found that the mushroom and supplement groups increased their 25OHD concentrations
significantly over the study period by 3.9 nmol/L per week (95% CI: 2.9, 4.8; P <0.0001) and
by 4.7 nmol/L per week (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7; P <0.0001) (Figure 1). Regression slopes of the
concentrations of the serum 25OHD in the mushroom and supplement groups did not
significantly differ from one another (P = 0.20).
Further analysis showed that already two weeks after the first consumption of the vitamin D
enhanced mushrooms, the two interventional groups´ serum 25OHD concentrations were
significantly higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.001) (Table 2).
The development of hypercalcemia (defined as serum calcium >2.7 mmol/L) was the main
safety criteria for the vitamin D
administration. Serum calcium remained within the reference
range at all time points. No physical symptoms were reported during the study.
Neither at baseline nor week 4 did the serum concentrations in iPTH and calcium differ
significantly among the three study groups (Table 2).
Furthermore, the data reveal significant within-subject changes in serum 25OHD in all three
study groups already at week 1. During that period, serum 25OHD rose significantly (P
<0.001) by 33.1% and 46.1% in the mushroom and supplement groups, respectively. In
addition, serum 25OHD decreased significantly (P = 0.03) by - 6.5% in the placebo group.
Serum 25OHD decreased significantly in the placebo group from baseline to wk 4 (from 38.7
nmol/L to 24.5 nmol/L) altogether by an unexpectedly high percentage of 36.8% (P <0.0001).
4. Discussion
Here we describe for the first time in humans that UV irradiation of mushrooms creates an
excellent source of vitamin D
which has equivalent bioavailability as a vitamin D
The rapid serum 25OHD increase in our mushroom group is a clear demonstration that
ingesting 700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
once a week for 4 weeks via UV-B-irradiated and
vitamin D
-enhanced mushrooms is effective in treating vitamin D deficiency in young,
healthy adults. Already one week after their first ingestion of UV-B-irradiated mushrooms,
serum 25OHD rose significantly. Furthermore, it was significantly higher than in placebo
group one week after the second administration of enhanced mushrooms (week 2).
Most studies on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans have been conducted using
supplements, not natural food sources. Consistent with our observation of equivalent vitamin
bioavailability from a soup prepared with UV-irradiated mushrooms and supplement, an
earlier study (Outila et al., 1999) demonstrated the same efficiency with non-irradiated, but
lyophilized and homogenized mushrooms in humans. Both findings disprove the hypothesis
of Van-den-Berg (1997), who maintained that the bioavailability of vitamin D from natural
food sources is probably lower than from supplements. We believe that the absorption rate of
vitamin D
from mushrooms is about 55 to 99%, equal to the recommended values for
supplements (van den Berg, 1997).
Serum 25OHD rose by 52% and 68% in the mushroom and supplement groups, respectively,
after the 4-week supplementation of 700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
weekly. The rise in
25OHD observed in our study resembles the results by Mastaglia et al (2006), where serum
25OHD rose by 52% in the 125 µg (5 000 IU) vitamin D
/d group after a 4-week
supplementation. In turn, Malabanan et al (1998) showed that a weekly oral supplement of
1250 µg (50 000 IU) vitamin D
for 8 weeks raised serum 25OHD by 101%. Contradictory
results were reported by Tjellesen et al (1986), where after a 4-week supplement of 100 µg (4
000 IU) vitamin D
daily, the total serum 25OHD remained constant due to a significant
increase in 25OHD
and an incomprehensible, significant decrease in 25OHD
Other authors showed that a single dose of 1250 µg (50 000 IU) of vitamin D
or vitamin D
produced similar increases in serum 25OHD over the first 3 days, but serum 25OHD began to
fall immediately thereafter in the vitamin D
group until, by day 14, it reached baseline
concentrations (Armas et al., 2004). In contrast, serum 25OHD concentrations continued to
rise until day 14 in the vitamin D
group, then falling slowly over the following 14 days.
Armas et al (2004), and other investigators have suggested that that the potency of vitamin D
is much less than that of vitamin D
(Tjellesen et al., 1986; Trang et al., 1998). Their results
have shown that the biological activities of vitamin D
and vitamin D
are no longer
considered equal in humans. In contrast, Rapuri et al (2004) reported that vitamin D
vitamin D
supplements appear to be equally capable of improving the serum 25OHD status
in elderly women. In addition, Holick et al (2008) showed recently that both vitamin D forms
were equivalent in maintaining 25OHD status. This issue remains controversial, and it is still
not entirely clear which vitamin D form is preferable for treating 25OHD deficiency.
We did not compare the potencies of these two types of vitamin D, but we could not confirm
the reported short initial increase followed by a rapid fall in serum 25OHD after vitamin D
supplementation (Armas et al., 2004). When adjusted for a concomitant increase in serum
25OHD in the placebo group in the last week (due to the confounding effect of cutaneous
vitamin D
synthesis), the high serum 25OHD concentrations in both interventional groups
achieved remained constant during the follow-up period.
The vitamin D
dose used in this study was on average 100 µg/d (4 000 IU/d) in a weekly
dose of 700 µg (28 000 IU/d) for a short period of 4 weeks. This is 20 times higher than the
current recommended daily allowance for adults in Germany [5 µg/d (20 IU/d)]. But
according to the current state of knowledge, an intake of 100 µg (4 000 IU) vitamin D/d in
healthy subjects is safe (Hathcock et al., 2007; Vieth et al., 2001) and vitamin D
particularly low in toxicity (Pepper et al., 2009; Stephenson and Peiris, 2009). As anticipated,
we observed no cases of hypercalcemia or any adverse events in this study.
Our results demonstrate for the first time that the bioavailability of vitamin D
from vitamin
-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation was effective in treating vitamin D
deficiency in young, healthy adults. Furthermore, the absorption rate and metabolism of
vitamin D
from UV-B-irradiated mushrooms were capable of raising circulating serum
25OHD concentrations as effectively as a vitamin D
supplement. In conclusion, as the
vitamin D
enhancement of mushrooms boosts their nutraceutical value, it would be a
worthwhile means of fighting widespread vitamin D deficiency in the general population.
Further research and development are required to find solutions for making such vitamin D
enhanced mushrooms commercially available in a safe and affordable manner.
We are grateful to Carole Cürten for proofreading this manuscript, to Peter Metzger from the
Schlossbergpilz GmbH, Germany for donating the button mushrooms used in this study, to
Daniela Klein and Elmar Maier for their help preparing the soups in the university’s kitchen,
and to Weber GmbH for technical support with the construction of the UV unit.
The authors’ responsibilities were as follows-PU: study concept and design, obtaining
funding, statistical analysis, data interpretation, writing the manuscript; FS: construction of
UV-unit, collection, assembly and interpretation of data; GI: study design, statistical advice
and analysis; HKB: critical review and contribution to the final draft; HB: supervision of the
study, critical review and contribution to the final draft. All authors have read and approved
the final manuscript. None of the authors expresses a conflict of interest.
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Baseline characteristics of subjects and dropouts (n = 26)
Variables Mushroom
group (n = 8)
Supplement group
(n = 9)
Placebo group
(n = 9)
male:female (n) 3:5 4:5 2:7
Age (y) 28.6 ± 4.3
31.1 ± 6.7 32.4 ± 6.0
BMI (kg/m
) 22.0 ± 1.7 23.7 ± 2.1 20.6 ± 2.6
study dropout 1 at week 0 1 at week 5 -
There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline.
Means ± SDs (all such values).
Laboratory values in the three study arms
parameter and
time (week)
(n = 8)
(n = 9)
Placebo group
(n = 9)
25OHD (75-175 nmol/L)
0 34.0 ± 11.0
28.7 ± 10.0
38.7 ± 14.2
1 45.2 ± 7.0 42.0 ± 9.2
35.0 ± 13.0 0.125
2 47.2 ± 8.0
46.2 ± 8.0
a, 4
31.2 ± 9.7
b, 4
3 51.0 ± 11.2
50.7 ± 7.7
27.5 ± 7.7
b, 4
< 0,0001
4 51.5 ± 7.7
a, 5
48.2 ± 8.7
a, 4
24.5 ± 7.2
b, 4
< 0,0001
5 56.7 ± 7.2
58.0 ± 11.2
28.7 ± 8.7
< 0,0001
iPTH (11.3-42.5 ng/L)
0 31.7 ± 9.5
44.0 ± 14.7 40.4 ± 18.4 0.241
4 30.2 ± 12.7 40.0 ± 11.4 35.6 ± 11.9 0.265
Calcium (2.2-2.7 mmol/L)
0 2.53 ± 0.08 2.47 ± 0.08 2.48 ± 0.09
4 2.43 ± 0.07 2.40 ± 0.13 2.37 ± 0.09
Mean ± SD (all such values). iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.
Values at each time of measurement with different superscript letters are significantly
different from each other (one-factor ANOVA and post hoc analysis with Tukey´s test).
Reference range.
Significantly different from the following mean in the same column (paired t test):
P <0.01,
P <0.001.
FIGURE 1 Time course of the mean changes in serum 25OHD over the 5-week study period
in subjects who consumed four times (weeks 0, 1, 2, 3) mushrooms enhanced with vitamin D
via UV-B irradiation (mushroom group, n = 8, ) or vitamin D
-containing supplements
(supplement group, n = 9, ) or placebo (placebo group, n = 9, ) at the end of the winter.
Error bars are 2 SE. At week 5 one subject dropped out of the supplement group.
Concentrations were significantly different (ANOVA, Tukey´s test) between the mushroom
and placebo groups, and between the supplement and placebo groups from week 2 onward
(wk 2: P = 0.002; P = 0.004, respectively; weeks 3, 4, 5: P <0.0001). Time courses for serum
25OHD over the study period in the mushroom and supplement groups did not differ
... For the short study period, an increase of 0.5 nmol/l 25(OH)D for every 2.5 µ g of vitamin D was observed. Furthermore, a positive effect on secondary hyperparathyroidism was observed in the participants presenting clinical signs [67]. ...
... Since then, several large studies, discussed in previous sections, argued for and against this finding. For instance, there are the findings of both Outila et al. and Urbain et al. that showed no difference in bioavailability after ingestion [67,84]. Therefore, in contrast to the findings in yeast, mushrooms seem to provide a higher bioavailability of vitamin D2. ...
... However, it also has to be kept in mind that in the study of Outila et al. vitamin D2 from mushrooms was provided as lyophilised powder [84] pointing towards a strong disintegration of the lipid membranes and fibres. In Urbain et al., vitamin D2-fortified mushrooms were prepared as soup, providing very high amounts of vitamin D [67]. It is not clear from the publication if there was any mechanical mixing or blending of the soup during preparation, which could also reduce cell integrity and thereby increase the bioavailability of vitamin D2. ...
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Vitamin D deficiency due to, e.g., nutritional and life style reasons is a health concern that is gaining increasing attention over the last two decades. Vitamin D3, the most common isoform of vitamin D, is only available in food derived from animal sources. However, mushrooms and yeast are rich in ergosterol. This compound can be converted into vitamin D2 by UV-light, and therefore act as a precursor for vitamin D. Vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated mushrooms has become an alternative source of vitamin D, especially for persons pursuing a vegan diet. UV-irradiated baker´s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for the production of fortified yeast-leavened bread and baked goods was approved as a Novel Food Ingredient in the European Union, according to Regulation (EC) No. 258/97. The Scientific Opinion provided by the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies has assessed this Novel Food Ingredient as safe under the intended nutritional use. However, recent findings on the formation of side products during UV-irradiation, e.g., the photoproducts tachysterol and lumisterol which are compounds with no adequate risk assessment performed, have only been marginally considered for this EFSA opinion. Furthermore, proceedings in analytics can provide additional insights, which might open up new perspectives, also regarding the bioavailability and potential health benefits of vitamin D-fortified mushrooms and yeast. Therefore, this review is intended to give an overview on the current status of UV irradiation in mushrooms and yeast in general and provide a detailed assessment on the potential health effects of UV-irradiated baker´s yeast.
... New food sources of vitamin D could be a more efficient strategy to prevent vitamin D insufficiency. The exposure of foods such as yeast, edible mushrooms or milk to UVB light is a promising approach to increase the vitamin D concentrations in foods and diets [25,29,32,44]. Nowadays, UVB-exposed foods are commercially available and considered to be safe (EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens [14][15][16]. ...
... Additionally, the lack of increase in serum 25(OH)D after the consumption of vitamin D 2 may result from the low dose of administered vitamin D 2 , because higher doses of vitamin D 2 are capable of increasing total serum concentrations of 25(OH) D 2 . Findings show that high doses of vitamin D 2 from a UVB-exposed mushrooms soup (700 µg per serving), given as a weekly bolus, can compensate the decrease in 25(OH) D 3 [10,44]. It should be pointed out that the 25(OH)D 3 concentrations increased in the control and -UVB WGO groups, although the participants did not receive any vitamin D, and were encouraged to avoid direct sun exposure and to use sun protection. ...
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Purpose This study investigated whether UVB-exposed wheat germ oil (WGO) is capable to improving the vitamin D status in healthy volunteers. Methods A randomized controlled human-intervention trial in parallel design was conducted in Jena (Germany) between February and April. Ultimately, 46 healthy males and females with low mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels (34.9 ± 10.6 nmol/L) were randomized into three groups receiving either no WGO oil (control, n = 14), 10 g non-exposed WGO per day (– UVB WGO, n = 16) or 10 g WGO, which was exposed for 10 min to ultraviolet B-light (UVB, intensity 500–630 µW/cm ² ) and provided 23.7 µg vitamin D (22.9 µg vitamin D 2 and 0.89 µg vitamin D 3 ) (+ UVB WGO, n = 16) for 6 weeks. Blood was obtained at baseline, after 3 and 6 weeks and analyzed for serum vitamin D-metabolite concentrations via LC–MS/MS. Results Participants who received the UVB-exposed WGO were characterized by an increase of circulating 25(OH)D 2 after 3 and 6 weeks of intervention. However, the 25(OH)D 3 concentrations decreased in the + UVB WGO group, while they increased in the control groups. Finally, the total 25(OH)D concentration (25(OH)D 2 + 25(OH)D 3 ) in the + UVB WGO group was lower than that of the non-WGO receiving control group after 6 weeks of treatment. In contrast, circulating vitamin D (vitamin D 2 + vitamin D 3 ) was higher in the + UVB WGO group than in the control group receiving no WGO. Conclusion UVB-exposed WGO containing 23.7 µg vitamin D can increase 25(OH)D 2 levels but do no improve total serum levels of 25(OH)D of vitamin D-insufficient subjects. Trial registration NCT03499327 (registered, April 13, 2018).
... Chemical, biochemical and nutritional analyses have shown that edible macromycetes are made up of carbohydrates (51-88% of their dry weight), fibre (4-20%), fat and protein (19-35%) [20,21]. They also provide minerals and various vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and vitamins D and D 2 , which are essential for the maintenance and development of the body [20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... Chemical, biochemical and nutritional analyses have shown that edible macromycetes are made up of carbohydrates (51-88% of their dry weight), fibre (4-20%), fat and protein (19-35%) [20,21]. They also provide minerals and various vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and vitamins D and D 2 , which are essential for the maintenance and development of the body [20][21][22][23][24]. However, if in some countries studies related to the food and therapeutic uses of these wild edible fungi are quite available, in others much effort remains to be done [5] and this is the case in Togo. ...
In order to contribute to the valorisation of wild fungi whose nutritional potential, although considerable, is not sufficiently known in some countries such as Togo, a study has been carried out on Russula species. The diversity of Russula species from Alédjo Wildlife Reserve has been assessed using a focused inventory in woodlands dominated by Isoberlinia doka Craib & Stapf, Isoberlinia tomentosa (Harms) Craib & Stapf, Monotes kerstingii Gilg, Uapaca togoensis Pax and gallery forests dominated by Berlinia grandiflora (Vahl) Hutch & Dalz and Uapaca guineensis Müll. Ethnomycological surveys have been carried out among Tém and Kabyè, two riparian ethnic groups that are mainly represented. Biochemical analyses have been carried out using the AOAC method. Fifteen (15) taxa of edible Russula species are commonly used by Tém and Kabyè people living along the Alédjo Wildlife Reserve among which thirteen (13) taxa have been identified up to species level. R. oleifera is eaten by all interviewed people in both sociolinguistic groups (Fr = 100%) followed by R. compressa (Fr = 92.31%), R. ochrocephala (Fr = 87.18%) among Tém people and R. ochrocephala (Fr = 91.67%), R. compressa (Fr = 83.33%) among Kabyè people. Five (05) new species of edible Russula have been identified for the first time in Togo. The Russula species analysed have been rich in macronutrients with contents ranging from 2.88 g/100 g of dw for fat to 65.83 g/100 g of dw for total carbohydrates. In addition, these Russula species have shown a relatively high mineral content with contents ranging from 405.70 mg/100 g of dw for Ca to 2784 mg/100 g of dw for K. Furthermore, the results have revealed that Russula species analysed are a source of energy with 309.50 Kcal/100 g of dw. The edible Russula species analysed can thus contribute to food security in Togo.
... The bioavailability of vitamin D in diabetic treatment is still controversial, and based on the available data, it is not yet transparent among scientists [95]. However, recent findings from randomized placebo trial data by Urbain et al., 2011 shows that button mushroom treated with UV-B can improve vitamin D2 bioavailability among human subjects, and the significant value does not differ with vitamin D2 supplements [96]. [97][98][99][100]. ...
... The bioavailability of vitamin D in diabetic treatment is still controversial, and based on the available data, it is not yet transparent among scientists [95]. However, recent findings from randomized placebo trial data by Urbain et al., 2011 shows that button mushroom treated with UV-B can improve vitamin D2 bioavailability among human subjects, and the significant value does not differ with vitamin D2 supplements [96]. [97][98][99][100]. ...
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Mushrooms belong to the family "Fungi" and became famous for their medicinal properties and easy accessibility all over the world. Because of its pharmaceutical properties, including anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant properties, it became a hot topic among scientists. However, depending on species and varieties, most of the medicinal properties became indistinct. With this interest, an attempt has been made to scrutinize the role of edible mushrooms (EM) in diabetes mellitus treatment. A systematic contemporary literature review has been carried out from all records such as Science Direct, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar with an aim to represents the work has performed on mushrooms focuses on diabetes, insulin resistance (IR), and preventive mechanism of IR, using different kinds of mushroom extracts. The final review represents that EM plays an important role in anticipation of insulin resistance with the help of active compounds, i.e., polysaccharide, vitamin D, and signifies α-glucosidase or α-amylase preventive activities. Although most of the mechanism is not clear yet, many varieties of mushrooms' medicinal properties have not been studied properly. So, in the future, further investigation is needed on edible medicinal mushrooms to overcome the research gap to use its clinical potential to prevent non-communicable diseases.
... It has been found that the extended exposure of mushrooms to UV-B light can effectively increase their potential to produce vitamin D 2 (Sławińska et al. 2016). For example, the consumption of button mushrooms grown under UV-B light enhanced the vitamin D content in humans, which was similar to the commercially available vitamin D supplements (Urbain et al. 2011). The ergosterol-rich mushrooms can also treat tumors besides preventing osteoporosis. ...
The utilization of biological systems has been receiving considerable attention in the past couple of decades in the development of bio-based functional materials. This has been largely inspired by the use of green, biodegradable, and environmentally sustainable materials for the development of new functional biomaterials. The utilization of renewable resources for the production of materials introduces fast-growing and biodegradable fungal mycelium-derived materials for various applications. Mycelium secretes enzymes and decomposes the substrate to take nutrients for growth and make an interwoven three-dimensional network. The elastic, porous, stiff, and dense mycelia are rich in antioxidants, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory compounds. The properties of mycelium-derived materials are greatly dependent upon the feeding substrate, fungus type, and processing conditions. Both pure mycelial materials and their composites secure an important position in the race of utilization of renewable resources for material synthesis. This chapter summarizes the utilization of mycelium-based materials for numerous applications like cosmetics, medicine, textile, construction, packaging, and the food industry. It also describes the potential of mycelial-derived materials as an alternative to the traditional insulators, packaging materials, and bovine leather. It further explains the importance of mycelium-based functional foods, cosmetics, and medicines.
... In those studies, the effect on serum 25(OH)D of vitamin D 2 from Agaricus bisporus, using either dried non-irradiated Agaricus bisporus mushroom extract (test material supplied by the applicant) and vitamin D 2 or D 3 supplements (Keegan et al., 2013 9 ), UV-B irradiated mushrooms (Mehrotra et al., 2014;Stephensen et al., 2012 5 ;Urbain et al., 2011), or lyophilised UV-treated mushrooms (Stepien et al., 2013), or UV-treated powder from Agaricus bisporus (Shanely et al., 2014) were assessed. ...
Full-text available
Abstract Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on vitamin D2 mushroom powder as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF is produced from Agaricus bisporus mushroom that has been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to induce the conversion of provitamin D2 (ergosterol) to vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). The NF contains levels of vitamin D in the form of vitamin D2 in the range of 125–375 µg/g. The information provided on the production process, composition and specifications of the NF does not raise safety concerns. The applicant intends to add the NF as an ingredient in a variety of foods and beverages in amounts that result in either 1.125 or 2.25 µg vitamin D2 per 100 g or 100 mL of the food as consumed. The applicant also intends to add the NF in food supplements, for infants from 7 to 11 months at a maximum of 10 µg vitamin D2/day and of 15 µg vitamin D2/day for individuals aged 1 year or older, as well as in foods for special medical purposes (FSMPs) and total and meal diet replacement for weight control. For the adult population, the maximum intended use level in FSMPs is 15 µg vitamin D2/day and 5 µg vitamin D2/meal in total and meal diet replacement for weight control. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe under the proposed conditions of use. The Panel notes uncertainty regarding the calculated combined exposures to vitamin D for the general population, given the fact that the range of foods fortified with vitamin D has increased over the years, as well as the marketing of high‐dose vitamin D supplements.
... In the first case, mushrooms were prepared as soup and administered to 26 healthy young subjects over a five weeks course. Urbain et al. (2011) reported that vitamin D 2 from irradiated mushrooms was bioavailable. Moreover, it was not different from the vitamin D 2 supplement. ...
Mushrooms have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, although only relatively recently they have become a subject of intensive studies as a source of potential drugs and products that could be used in the treatment of many disorders. Mushroom-forming fungi are shown to produce a vast number of unique metabolites that exhibit various biological effects; these include polysaccharides, terpenoids, polyketides, and amino compounds. The most studied use of mushrooms is for cancer treatment; mushrooms are a source of both compounds with direct antitumor effect, as well as immunomodulating polysaccharides (particularly β-glucans), which have been shown to stimulate the host's immune system and immunological response to cancer cells. Glucan-based mushroom products, such as lentinan from Lentinula edodes and PSK from Trametes versicolor, are clinically proven to be beneficial in the treatment of certain cancer types. Mushrooms are also known to be a source of potent cytotoxic compounds, such are illudins, clitocine, and ganoderic acids. As microbial resistance to antibiotics is becoming more and more prevalent, mushrooms are seen as a good source of new classes of compounds with antimicrobial activity, some of which, such as pleuromutilin, have led to the synthesis of new drugs that have been recently approved for use in humans. Psychedelic mushrooms and psilocybin have also been studied as breakthrough therapies for depression. Mushroom consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on sugar and lipid metabolism, which led to increased interest in research of mushroom product use in the treatment of metabolic disorders. Although mushrooms are often presumed to be a rich source of certain compounds with vitamin activity, this may not be the case. However, mushroom production can be manipulated to obtain higher yields of physiologically active compounds, such as vitamin D.
... This is the reason why wild mushrooms represent a good source of vitamin D2, compared to the cultivated ones grown in the dark. The ergosterol content in cultivated mushrooms is negligible and amounts to less than 0.01 mg/100 g of fresh weigh (Urbain et al., 2011;Valverde et al., 2015). Studies showed that L. edodes cultivated under natural climatic conditions had high amounts of D2 vitamin (22 µg/100 g to 110 µg/100 g dry weight), most probably as a result of sunlight or UV irradiation (Takamura et al., 1991). ...
Among several thousand macrofungi species on the planet, only several are industrially cultivated worldwide. Medicinal and edible mushrooms represent two most important groups of macrofungi. Mushrooms are used in the human diet for centuries, due to their high nutritional value. They are well known as valuable source of proteins, and are widely used as a meat substitute. Additionally, the differences in amino acids composition of proteins between different mushrooms contributes to the unique flavour of mushrooms and mushroom-derived products. The presence of components such as polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, proteoglucans, vitamins, polyphenols and others, which are responsible for their bioactive properties, classifies a number of mushrooms as medicinal. This chapter gives the overview of mushrooms’ chemical composition, the effect of their application on different processes of beverages production and the impact on sensorial characteristics or bioactivity of mushroom beverages. When applied in fermentation process, mushrooms influence the metabolism of microorganisms involved. Through the enzymatic activity they act on the elimination of antinutritional components or have a contribution to the production of high ethanol concentrations in beverages, as well as influence on unique flavour development. Production of mushroom beverages is an opportunity for mushrooms and beverages producers to create an innovative and sensory pleasant product that will satisfy consumers needs for improving the quality of life trough good nutrition and beneficial effects on human health. The significance of functional beverages consumption lies in their potential to reduce health-care expenses through the strategy of public health protection. To date, mushrooms were applied in various types of beverages on a laboratory scale, influencing their production, quality and bioactivity. The fact that the global production of edible and medicinal mushrooms and their economic value is constantly increasing, can be used to develop industrial scale systems for mushroom beverages that will increase the market value of these products, as well.
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Tachysterol2 (T2) is a photoisomer of the previtamin D2 found in UV-B-irradiated foods such as mushrooms or baker’s yeast. Due to its structural similarity to vitamin D, we hypothesized that T2 can affect vitamin D metabolism and in turn, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone that is transcriptionally regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Initially, a mouse study was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of T2 and its impact on vitamin D metabolism and Fgf23 expression. UMR106 and IDG-SW3 bone cell lines were used to elucidate the effect of T2 on FGF23 synthesis and the corresponding mechanisms. LC-MS/MS analysis found high concentrations of T2 in tissues and plasma of mice fed 4 vs. 0 mg/kg T2 for 2 weeks, accompanied by a significant decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2D and increased renal Cyp24a1 mRNA abundance. The Fgf23 mRNA abundance in bones of mice fed T2 was moderately higher than that in control mice. The expression of Fgf23 strongly increased in UMR106 cells treated with T2. After Vdr silencing, the T2 effect on Fgf23 diminished. This effect is presumably mediated by single-hydroxylated T2-derivatives, since siRNA-mediated silencing of Cyp27a1, but not Cyp27b1, resulted in a marked reduction in T2-induced Fgf23 gene expression. To conclude, T2 is a potent regulator of Fgf23 synthesis in bone and activates Vdr. This effect depends, at least in part, on the action of Cyp27a1. The potential of oral T2 to modulate vitamin D metabolism and FGF23 synthesis raises questions about the safety of UV-B-treated foods.
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The safety considerations of food-based solutions for vitamin D deficiency prevention, such as fortification and supplementation, are critical. On the basis of collective data from 20 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 20 national healthy surveys, as well as prospective cohort studies (PCSs) across the ODIN project (“Food-based solutions for optimal vitamin D nutrition and health through the life cycle”, FP7-613977), we analyzed the potential safety issues arising from vitamin D intakes and/or supplementation. These adverse consequences included high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) concentrations (>125 nmol/L), high serum calcium concentrations, and vitamin D intakes in excess of the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). In the RCTs (n = 3353, with vitamin D doses from 5–175 µg/day), there were no reported adverse effects. The prevalence of high S-25(OH)D was <10% when vitamin D supplements were administered, and <0.1% for fortified foods. Elevated serum calcium was observed among <0.5% in both administration types. No ODIN RCT participants exceeded the age-specific ULs. In observational studies (n = 61,082), the prevalence of high 25(OH)D among children/adolescents, adults, and older adults was <0.3%, with no evidence of adverse effects. In conclusion, high S-25(OH)D concentrations >125 nmol/L were rare in the RCTs and PCSs, and no associated adverse effects were observed.
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Background: The bioavailability of vitamin D from mushrooms in humans is unknown. Objective: We investigated the bioavailability of vitamin D from wild edible mushrooms (Cantharellus tubaeformis) using the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations as a measure of vitamin D bioavailability. Design: Twenty-seven volunteers with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <60 nmol/L (x̄: 38.5 nmol/L; range: 15–60 nmol/L) were randomly divided into 3 groups of 9 persons each. For 3 wk, excluding Saturdays and Sundays, group 1 received mushrooms (C. tubaeformis) providing 14 μg ergocalciferol/d with their lunch, group 2 (control) received an ergocalciferol supplement providing 14 μg/d, and group 3 (also a control) received no supplementation. Results: At the beginning of the study, mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.280). When all 3 groups were considered, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations showed different time-related changes among the groups during the study: group (P = 0.388), time (P = 0.000), and group × time (P = 0.001). When groups 1 and 2 were compared with group 3, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 3 wk differed significantly between groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.032) as well as between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.004). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 3 wk did not differ significantly between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.317). Conclusions: We showed for the first time that ergocalciferol was well absorbed from lyophilized and homogenized mushrooms in humans and that vitamin D bioavailability can be studied in humans with such an experimental protocol.
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We tested the hypothesis that the age-related decline in skin thickness may contribute to the age-related decline in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We measured skinfold thickness on the back of the hand, serum 25(OH)D, height, and weight in 433 normal postmenopausal women. We also noted the average daily hours of sunlight in the month in which the observations were made and in the preceding 2 mo. Serum 25(OH)D was positively related to hours of sunlight (with a time lag of 2 mo) and to skin thickness, and negatively to body mass index (wt/ht²). Serum 25(OH)D fell significantly after age 69 y. Seasonal variation of serum 25(OH)D was greater in lean than in fat subjects, which we attributed to the larger fat mass and consequent larger pool size in the latter group. The results suggest that the tendency for serum 25(OH)D to fall with age is due in part to the age-related decline in skin thickness.
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A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in egg yolk is described. The egg yolk samples were purified by saponification and extraction as well as efficient solid-phase extraction and semipreparative straight-phase HPLC. Vitamin D3 was quantitated with reverse-phase HPLC using an internal standard (vitamin D2) method and diode array detection. The suitability of the method was tested by analyzing eggs on sale through retail outlets as well as samples obtained straight from farms. The detection and determination limits of the method were 2 and 8 ng per injection, respectively. Overall mean recovery for both vitamins was 70%. The recovery of vitamin D3 calculated on the basis of the internal standard was 94%. The day to day repeatability of the method expressed by the coefficient of variation was 3.6%. The method introduced here is well suited for the determination of vitamin D3 contents in egg yolks; quantification was reliable and accurate.
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The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm (2)), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm (2)), and postharvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D 2 formation in Portabella mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D 2 degradation in treated mushrooms during storage. Within each intensity application, dose had the largest effect where more exposure converted more vitamin D 2 from ergosterol. Similar dose across each intensity application resulted in similar vitamin D 2 concentration. Practical commercial production requires as short a treatment time as possible, and intensity was a major factor from this standpoint where the time it took to achieve a similar vitamin D 2 concentration for similar dose exposure was significantly reduced as intensity increased. By using an intensity of 1.0 mW/cm (2) at a dose of 0.5 J/cm (2), the concentration of vitamin D 2 produced was 3.83 microg/g dry solids of mushrooms in 8 min, whereas using an intensity of 0.5 mW/cm (2) at a dose of 0.5 J/cm (2), the concentration of vitamin D 2 produced was 3.75microg/g dry solids of mushrooms in 18 min. Also, postharvest time did not have a significant effect on vitamin D 2 formation in mushrooms that were treated 1 and 4 days after harvest. Vitamin D 2 degraded in treated mushrooms during storage by apparent first-order kinetics, where the degradation rate constant was 0.025 h (-1). The information provided in this study will help mushroom producers develop commercial-scale UV treatment processes to add value to their crop while improving consumer health.
Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure in moderation is the major source of vitamin D for most humans. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, and foods that are fortified with vitamin D are often inadequate to satisfy either a child's or an adult's vitamin D requirement. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children and will precipitate and exacerbate osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures in adults. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of common cancers, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and infectious diseases. A circulating level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of >75 nmol/L, or 30 ng/mL, is required to maximize vitamin D's beneficial effects for health. In the absence of adequate sun exposure, at least 800–1000 IU vitamin D3/d may be needed to achieve this in children and adults. Vitamin D2 may be equally effective for maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D when given in physiologic concentrations.
Fresh common (Agaricus bisporus) and high-temperature mushrooms (A. bitorquis) were irradiated with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) for 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h at 12 °C. Fresh common, shiitake (Lentinula edodes), and straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) were irradiated with UV-B for 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h at 12 °C. After UV-C irradiation for 2 h, vitamin D2 contents in common and high-temperature mushrooms increased from 2.20 and 4.01 μg/g of dry weight to 7.30 and 5.32 μg/g, respectively. After UV-B irradiation for 2 h, the vitamin D2 content in common mushrooms reached 12.48 μg/g. UV-B irradiation resulted in higher vitamin D2 conversion for common mushrooms. After UV-B irradiation for 2 h, vitamin D2 contents in shiitake and straw mushrooms increased from 2.16 and 3.86 μg/g to 6.58 and 7.58 μg/g, respectively. The increase rates in shiitake and straw mushrooms were not as high as in common mushrooms. Keywords: Mushrooms; Agaricus bisporus; Agaricus bitorquis; Lentinula edodes; Volvariella volvacea; ultraviolet-B; ultraviolet-C; vitamin D2
The cholecalciferol and 25-hyroxycholecalciferol contents in 39 fish and fish product items were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The method included saponification and extraction, purification using semipreparative straight-phase HPLC, and quantification by reverse-phase HPLC. The quantification of cholecalciferol and 25-hyroxycholecalciferol was based on the internal standard method. Ergocalciferol was used as the internal standard for cholecalciferol and 25-hyroxyergoacalciferol was used as the internal standard for 25-hyroxycholecalciferol. Cholecalciferol was the predominant compound. The cholecalciferol contents in fish and fish products ranged from under the limit of determination (0.2 μg/100 g) to 47.7 μg/100 g fresh weight. Very small amounts of 25-hyroxycholecalciferol (near the limit of determination, 0.1 μg/100 g) were found only in some salmonids. Much variation was found in the cholecalciferol contents within the different fish species and in fish samples of the same species caught in different locations. The fattiness of the fish or the influence of the season had no significant effect on the vitamin D contents in the samples of fish and fish products. On the basis of the study findings, the daily intake of vitamin D from fish and fish products in Finland is estimated to be 4.4 μg/day per capita.
Analysis of ergosterol content in different tissues of Shiitake mushrooms showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) in its distribution. Thus, the conversion of ergosterol in whole mushrooms to vitamin D2, by exposure to UV irradiation, was significantly affected (p < 0.01) by the orientation of the mushroom tissues to the UV. The highest ergosterol content was found in button mushrooms (7.80 ± 0.35 mg/g DM) while the lowest was in enoki mushrooms (0.68 ± 0.14 mg/g DM). The conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 was about four times higher when gills were exposed to UV-A irradiation than when the outer caps were exposed to the same. The lowest conversion to vitamin D2 (12.5 ± 0.28 μg/g DM) was observed for button mushrooms while the highest value (45.1 ± 3.07 μg/g DM) was observed for oyster mushrooms. The optimum moisture content of mushrooms for this conversion was around 78% on a wet basis and the temperature was around 35 °C.
Fresh Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes), Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), and Abalone mushrooms (Pleurotus cystidus) were irradiated with Ultraviolet-A (UV-A; wavelength 315–400 nm), Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; wavelength 290–315 nm), and Ultraviolet-C (UV-C; wavelength 190–290 nm). Irradiation of each side of the mushrooms for 1 h, was found to be the optimum period of irradiation in this conversion. The conversions of ergosterol to vitamin D2 under UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C were shown to be significantly different (p < 0.01). The highest vitamin D2 content (184 ± 5.71 μg/g DM) was observed in Oyster mushrooms irradiated with UV-B at 35 °C and around 80% moisture. On the other hand, under the same conditions of irradiation, the lowest vitamin D2 content (22.9 ± 2.68 μg/g DM) was observed in Button mushrooms.
The contents of vitamin D2 and sterols in some wild and cultivated mushrooms were determined, and the distribution of these compounds in different parts of the wild mushrooms was evaluated. In addition, the variation in vitamin D2 contents between individual fruiting bodies of wild mushrooms was studied. Vitamin D2 was determined using an HPLC method, including saponification and semipreparative normal-phase HPLC purification before analytical reversed-phase quantification with an internal standard. Sterol contents were analysed with gas chromatography using an internal standard method, including saponification before derivatizing sterols to trimethylsilyl ethers. Mass-spectral analyses were used to further confirm the identification of sterols. Vitamin D2 was almost totally absent in cultivated mushrooms, while some wild mushrooms contained high concentrations of this vitamin (4.7–194 μg/100 g dry weight). Ergosterol was the most abundant sterol found in mushrooms, and its contents were higher in cultivated mushrooms (602.1–678.6) than in wild mushrooms (296–489 mg/100 g dry weight). The contents of vitamin D2 and ergosterol varied greatly and moderately, respectively, between different parts of the mushrooms and were lowest in stipes. In addition, high variation in vitamin D2 contents between individual fruiting bodies was found.