ArticlePDF Available

Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: A randomized controlled trial



Mushrooms contain very little or any vitamin D(2) but are abundant in ergosterol, which can be converted into vitamin D(2) by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Our objective was to investigate the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) from vitamin D(2)-enhanced mushrooms by UV-B in humans, and comparing it with a vitamin D(2) supplement. Fresh mushrooms were irradiated with an UV-B dose of 1.5 J/cm(2), increasing vitamin D(2) content from <1 to 491 μg/100 g and made to an experimental soup. In this 5-week, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 young subjects with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) ≤ 50 nmol/l were randomly assigned into three groups ((a) mushroom, (b) supplement and (c) placebo). They received during winter (a) 28,000 IU (700 μg) vitamin D(2) via the experimental soup, or (b) 28,000 IU vitamin D(2) via a supplement or (c) placebo, respectively. After 2 weeks, serum 25OHD was significantly higher in the mushroom than in the placebo group (P=0.001). The serum 25OHD concentrations in the mushroom and supplement groups rose significantly and similarly over the study period by 3.9 nmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.9, 4.8) and by 4.7 nmol/l per week (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7), respectively. We are the first to demonstrate in humans that the bioavailability of vitamin D(2) from vitamin D(2)-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation was effective in improving vitamin D status and not different to a vitamin D(2) supplement. This trial was registered at as DRKS00000195.
Bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults
deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial
Paul Urbain, Fabian Singler , Gabriele Ihorst , Hans-Konrad Biesalski, and Hartmut Bertz
From the Department of Haematology/Oncology (HB), Section of Nutrition (PU, FS),
University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Institute of Medical Biometry,
Medical Informatics and Center of Clinical Trials, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
(GI); and Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim,
Stuttgart, Germany (PU, FS, HKB).
Supported by AFR PhD grant from the Luxemburg Ministry of Culture, Higher Education
and Research (PU). Financial support for the irradiation experiments by the Dr.Heinrich-
Kircher Foundation, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Mushrooms donated by
Schlossbergpilz GmbH, Freiburg, Germany.
Address correspondence to P Urbain, University Medical Center, Department of
Hematology/Oncology, Section of Nutrition, Hugstetter Str 55, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.
Phone: +49-761 2703360; Fax: +49-761 2703334; E-mail:
Background/Objectives: Mushrooms are almost free of vitamin D
but abundant in
ergosterol, which can be converted into vitamin D
by UV irradiation. Our objective was to
investigate the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-treated and vitamin D
mushrooms in humans, and comparing it with a vitamin D
Subjects/Methods: Fresh mushrooms were irradiated with an UV-B dose of 1.5 J/ cm²,
increasing vitamin D
content from <1 to 491 µg/100 g, and made to an experimental soup. In
this 5-week, single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 26 young subjects with
serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) 50 nmol/L were randomly assigned into 3 groups [a)
mushroom, b) supplement, c) placebo]. They received during winter a) 700 µg (28 000 IU)
vitamin D
via the experimental soup, or b) 700 µg vitamin D
via a supplement, or c)
placebo, respectively.
Results: After two weeks, serum 25OHD was significantly higher in the mushroom than in
the placebo group (P = 0.001). The serum 25OHD concentrations in the mushroom and
supplement groups rose significantly and similarly over the study period by 3.9 nmol/L per
week (95% CI: 2.9, 4.8) and by 4.7 nmol/L per week (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7), respectively.
Conclusions: We are the first to demonstrate in humans that the bioavailability of vitamin D
from vitamin D
-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation was as effective as a
vitamin D
supplement in treating vitamin D deficiency. This trial was registered at as DRKS00000195.
1. Introduction
Vitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration <50
nmol/L (Holick and Chen, 2008; Malabanan et al., 1998), is a public health issue prevalent
worldwide (Chapuy et al., 1997; Hintzpeter et al., 2008; Tangpricha et al., 2002; van der
Wielen et al., 1995), particularly in regions with a big seasonal shift in solar altitude, as the
major source of vitamin D for humans is sunlight-induced dermal synthesis (Engelsen et al.,
2005; Webb et al., 1988). Other criteria, like dark skin (Armas et al., 2007; Clemens et al.,
1982), old age (Need et al., 1993), and immobility (Semba et al., 2000) further reduce the
endogenous vitamin D synthesis. In addition to that, few foods contain vitamin D in
noteworthy concentrations; those that do are fish liver oils, fatty fish, vitamin D-fortified
margarine and egg yolk (Mattila et al., 1992; Mattila et al., 1995).
Naturally, the vitamin D
content of cultivated mushrooms is almost nil [<0.1 µg/100 g fresh
weight (fw)], yet they are very rich in ergosterol (Jasinghe and Perera, 2005; Mattila et al.,
2002). Ergosterol is the principal sterol in fungi, and several studies have reported that
mushrooms can be greatly enhanced with vitamin D
by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation,
resembling the dermal synthesis of vitamin D
in humans (Ko et al., 2008; Mau et al., 1998).
The conversion rate of ergosterol to vitamin D
under UV irradiation depends on the UV
spectrum (UV-A, -B or -C), irradiation dose, moisture content, and the mushrooms´
orientation toward the UV source (Jasinghe and Perera, 2005, 2006; Roberts et al., 2008).
Outila et al. (1999) were the first to demonstrate that vitamin D
was well absorbed from
lyophilized and homogenized mushrooms in humans. Jasinghe et al (2005, 2006) were the
first to publish in vivo studies on the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-irradiated
mushrooms, showing as others (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009) that vitamin D
from vitamin D
enhanced mushrooms is well absorbed, is metabolized in rodents, and that it improves bone
Recently the case history of a patient with vitamin D deficiency and secondary
hyperparathyroidism was published, who refused to take supplements, but self-treated his
deficiency by consuming mushrooms daily, which he had exposed to UV-B irradiation
(Ozzard et al., 2008).
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioavailability of vitamin D
UV-treated mushrooms in humans. Hence the primary objective of this randomized controlled
trial was to demonstrate the possibility of improving the 25OHD status with this natural food
source in terms of a higher serum 25OHD concentration in young vitamin D-deficient adults 4
weeks after a weekly vitamin D
dose of 700 µg (28 000 IU) compared to placebo. A
secondary objective was to compare the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-B treated
mushrooms with a vitamin D
2. Subjects and Methods
Subjects were recruited from employees of the University Medical Center Freiburg by
advertising. The study protocol was approved by our Ethics Commission. Exclusion criteria
included kidney stones, pregnancy, anticonvulsant or steroid therapy in any form, frequenting
a tanning salon, or residence in the mountains or southern countries right before or during the
study. The subjects were not allowed to take vitamin D supplements or fish liver oils, and
were asked to eat fish no more than once a week during the study period.
Caucasian adults in good general health, younger than 45 years with a body mass index (BMI)
between 18.5-26 kg/m², and not fulfilling any exclusion criterion were eligible to provide
blood specimens for further testing after having signed a written consent form. Out of 49
female and male volunteers we randomized 27 vitamin D-deficient (25OHD 50 nmol/L)
subjects with normal serum calcium concentrations (2.2-2.7 mmol/L) to enter the study.
Study design
This study was a 5-week, prospective, randomized, 3-arm, single-blind, placebo-controlled
trial to investigate the bioavailability of vitamin D
from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms
and vitamin D
supplement, respectively.
The four first weekly visits (weeks 0, 1, 2, 3) constituted the interventional part of the study
and the two last visits (weeks 4, 5) served as follow-up. The primary objective and further
endpoints were analyzed till week 4, because that is when we expected the strongest
interventional effect. At the initial, baseline visit (week 0), weight and height were
documented. Each subsequent weekly visit at the same time of day consisted of a self-
developed 7-day dietary questionnaire, sun exposure was recorded and blood drawn. The
study was performed during the winter from late January till early March 2010, when a) a
vitamin D deficiency in healthy subjects is most likely, and b) solar UV-B radiation is
minimal to avoid the confounding effect of cutaneous vitamin D
synthesis on our intake-
response evaluation.
Our 27 subjects were randomly assigned into 3 equal groups [a) mushroom, b) supplement, c)
placebo] using a computer-generated sequence to receive 4 times at weekly intervals either a)
700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
via the experimental soup containing the UV-B-irradiated
mushrooms (vitamin D
content of 191.8 µg/100 g) and placebo, or b) 1.5 µg (6 IU) vitamin
via a conventional mushroom soup and 700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
via a supplement,
or c) 1.5 µg (6 IU) vitamin D
by a conventional mushroom soup and placebo, respectively.
The liquid supplement consisted of an ethanol formulation of vitamin D
[2 000 000 IU/100
ml, ethanol 90% (V/V)] (Stérogyl, Desma Pharma, Paris, France) and was dissolved in
orange juice. The placebo consisted of pure orange juice. The supplement or placebo were
served shortly before the soup.
Blood sample analysis
The blood samples were stored for coagulation about 30-60 min in the dark at room
temperature previous to centrifugation (2.000 rpm for 7 min). The serum samples were frozen
at -78 °C until weekly analysis by MVZ Clotten (Freiburg, Germany). Serum 25OHD
serum 25OHD
were measured combined as 25OHD by a radioimmunoassay (RIA)
purchased from DiaSorin Inc. (Stillwater, MN, USA). The quality and accuracy of the serum
25OHD analysis were monitored by interlaboratory tests evaluated by INSTANT e.V.
(Duesseldorf, Germany). The detection limit for the RIA assay was 10 nmol/L, inter- and
intraassay coefficients of variation for 25OHD were 11.1% and 10.1%. Serum intact
parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was measured by non-competitive immunoassay on the Roche
Modular Analytics E170. Serum calcium was measured using a photometric color test with
Olympus calcium Arsenazo III OSR60117. The reference ranges were 50-175 nmol/L, 11.3-
42.5 ng/l and 2.2-2.7 mmol/l, for 25OHD, iPTH and serum calcium, respectively. Serum
25OHD and calcium were measured weekly, serum iPTH was measured twice at week 0 and
week 4.
Raw material
We used fresh brown button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) provided by a local mushroom
producer (Schlossbergpilze, Freiburg, Germany) on the day of harvest in this study. They had
a moisture content of 91.4%, determined by the vacuum oven method.
Irradiation of mushrooms
To produce vitamin D
-enhanced mushrooms, they were placed completely separated from
each other on a 2 cm meshed grid, and each side (caps and gills) was irradiated
simultaneously with UV-B (306 nm) at an irradiation dose of 1.5 J/cm
after 25 min at
ambient temperature (22 °C). The custom-made UV unit was equipped with 8 UV-B lamps
176 cm in length (UV21, Waldmann, Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany). The total
irradiation area was 0.72 m
with a homogeneous intensity of UV-B. The radiation dose was
measured by a radiometer (UV34, PCE Group, Meschede, Germany).
Soup preparation and analytic method
Directly after irradiation, the mushrooms were diced and used in a puréed mushroom soup.
All the experimental and conventional mushroom soups needed for the study were portioned
out and stored in a freezer at -20 °C. Soup ingredients were water, button mushrooms, soy
cream, flour, olive oil and spices [51.2 kcal/100 g; 4.2% fat, 0.8% protein, 2.9%
carbohydrates (weight/weight)]. To calculate the exact amount of soup needed to fulfil the
study requirements, one portion of each soup was shipped on dry ice to SGS Institut Fresenius
(Berlin, Germany) for vitamin D
analysis, as well as all other mushroom samples. The assay
is based on semipreparative HPLC purification followed by analytical reversed-phase HPLC.
Sample size calculation and statistics
The study was designed to detect a difference of 20 nmol/L in 25OHD serum concentrations
between the mushroom and placebo groups with a power of 80% with a one-sided t-test at a
significance level of 5%. The assumed standard deviations (SD) were 13.0 in the placebo and
14.7 in the mushroom groups, derived from previous investigations. The resulting sample size
was 7 per group. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL,
USA) and SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC, USA).
For descriptive data analyses, values are presented as means ± SDs. Group comparisons were
made using two sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey tests. P-values will
be provided for the comparisons of secondary objectives and should be regarded as
exploratory. Results with P <0.05 will be denoted as significant. The development of 25OHD
concentrations during the study was investigated using a random effects model (SAS proc
mixed) with 25OHD as dependent variable, different time slope parameters for each treatment
group (i.e. time*treatment interaction) and subject specified as a random effect. Treatment
differences during the study can thus be investigated by testing the differences in time slopes.
Results will be given in terms of estimates for regression slope parameters which represent
the 25OHD increase per week in each group and their accompanying 95% confidence
3. Results
Baseline characteristics of subjects
Of the 27 subjects recruited for the study, one from the mushroom group dropped out because
of pregnancy before the first visit, while 26 completed the interventional phase and were used
for the further evaluation. One subject had to miss the last follow-up blood withdrawal (week
Characteristics of the study population are summarized in Table 1. Mean age and BMI of the
subjects were 30.8 ± 5.8 y and 22.1 ± 2.5 kg/m
, respectively. There were no significant
differences in these parameters among the 3 study groups at baseline. In addition, the 3 study
groups were similar with regard to initial serum concentrations of 25OHD, iPTH, and calcium
(Table 2).
Mushrooms´ vitamin D
Our study´s brown button mushrooms cultivated in the dark had very low concentrations of
vitamin D
(0.18 µg/100 g fw). The conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D
under UV-B
irradiation in this study was very high, and we achieved concentrations of 491 µg/100g fw
(56.8 µg vitamin D
/g dry solids (ds)).
Time course of the main serum parameters
The time course data of serum 25OHD concentrations for each study group over the 5-week
period are presented in Table 2, Figure 1.
The primary objective was to test the efficacy of the vitamin D
-enhanced mushrooms to
improve the 25OHD status. The data show that one week after the last consumption of such
mushrooms at week 4, the mushroom group´s serum 25OHD was significantly higher than
that in the placebo group (P <0.0001) (Table 2).
A secondary objective consisted of testing the bioavailability of vitamin D
from the UV-B
treated mushrooms compared to a common vitamin D
supplement. When modelling the
development of 25OHD concentrations as a linear function of time (mixed regression model),
we found that the mushroom and supplement groups increased their 25OHD concentrations
significantly over the study period by 3.9 nmol/L per week (95% CI: 2.9, 4.8; P <0.0001) and
by 4.7 nmol/L per week (95% CI: 3.8, 5.7; P <0.0001) (Figure 1). Regression slopes of the
concentrations of the serum 25OHD in the mushroom and supplement groups did not
significantly differ from one another (P = 0.20).
Further analysis showed that already two weeks after the first consumption of the vitamin D
enhanced mushrooms, the two interventional groups´ serum 25OHD concentrations were
significantly higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.001) (Table 2).
The development of hypercalcemia (defined as serum calcium >2.7 mmol/L) was the main
safety criteria for the vitamin D
administration. Serum calcium remained within the reference
range at all time points. No physical symptoms were reported during the study.
Neither at baseline nor week 4 did the serum concentrations in iPTH and calcium differ
significantly among the three study groups (Table 2).
Furthermore, the data reveal significant within-subject changes in serum 25OHD in all three
study groups already at week 1. During that period, serum 25OHD rose significantly (P
<0.001) by 33.1% and 46.1% in the mushroom and supplement groups, respectively. In
addition, serum 25OHD decreased significantly (P = 0.03) by - 6.5% in the placebo group.
Serum 25OHD decreased significantly in the placebo group from baseline to wk 4 (from 38.7
nmol/L to 24.5 nmol/L) altogether by an unexpectedly high percentage of 36.8% (P <0.0001).
4. Discussion
Here we describe for the first time in humans that UV irradiation of mushrooms creates an
excellent source of vitamin D
which has equivalent bioavailability as a vitamin D
The rapid serum 25OHD increase in our mushroom group is a clear demonstration that
ingesting 700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
once a week for 4 weeks via UV-B-irradiated and
vitamin D
-enhanced mushrooms is effective in treating vitamin D deficiency in young,
healthy adults. Already one week after their first ingestion of UV-B-irradiated mushrooms,
serum 25OHD rose significantly. Furthermore, it was significantly higher than in placebo
group one week after the second administration of enhanced mushrooms (week 2).
Most studies on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans have been conducted using
supplements, not natural food sources. Consistent with our observation of equivalent vitamin
bioavailability from a soup prepared with UV-irradiated mushrooms and supplement, an
earlier study (Outila et al., 1999) demonstrated the same efficiency with non-irradiated, but
lyophilized and homogenized mushrooms in humans. Both findings disprove the hypothesis
of Van-den-Berg (1997), who maintained that the bioavailability of vitamin D from natural
food sources is probably lower than from supplements. We believe that the absorption rate of
vitamin D
from mushrooms is about 55 to 99%, equal to the recommended values for
supplements (van den Berg, 1997).
Serum 25OHD rose by 52% and 68% in the mushroom and supplement groups, respectively,
after the 4-week supplementation of 700 µg (28 000 IU) vitamin D
weekly. The rise in
25OHD observed in our study resembles the results by Mastaglia et al (2006), where serum
25OHD rose by 52% in the 125 µg (5 000 IU) vitamin D
/d group after a 4-week
supplementation. In turn, Malabanan et al (1998) showed that a weekly oral supplement of
1250 µg (50 000 IU) vitamin D
for 8 weeks raised serum 25OHD by 101%. Contradictory
results were reported by Tjellesen et al (1986), where after a 4-week supplement of 100 µg (4
000 IU) vitamin D
daily, the total serum 25OHD remained constant due to a significant
increase in 25OHD
and an incomprehensible, significant decrease in 25OHD
Other authors showed that a single dose of 1250 µg (50 000 IU) of vitamin D
or vitamin D
produced similar increases in serum 25OHD over the first 3 days, but serum 25OHD began to
fall immediately thereafter in the vitamin D
group until, by day 14, it reached baseline
concentrations (Armas et al., 2004). In contrast, serum 25OHD concentrations continued to
rise until day 14 in the vitamin D
group, then falling slowly over the following 14 days.
Armas et al (2004), and other investigators have suggested that that the potency of vitamin D
is much less than that of vitamin D
(Tjellesen et al., 1986; Trang et al., 1998). Their results
have shown that the biological activities of vitamin D
and vitamin D
are no longer
considered equal in humans. In contrast, Rapuri et al (2004) reported that vitamin D
vitamin D
supplements appear to be equally capable of improving the serum 25OHD status
in elderly women. In addition, Holick et al (2008) showed recently that both vitamin D forms
were equivalent in maintaining 25OHD status. This issue remains controversial, and it is still
not entirely clear which vitamin D form is preferable for treating 25OHD deficiency.
We did not compare the potencies of these two types of vitamin D, but we could not confirm
the reported short initial increase followed by a rapid fall in serum 25OHD after vitamin D
supplementation (Armas et al., 2004). When adjusted for a concomitant increase in serum
25OHD in the placebo group in the last week (due to the confounding effect of cutaneous
vitamin D
synthesis), the high serum 25OHD concentrations in both interventional groups
achieved remained constant during the follow-up period.
The vitamin D
dose used in this study was on average 100 µg/d (4 000 IU/d) in a weekly
dose of 700 µg (28 000 IU/d) for a short period of 4 weeks. This is 20 times higher than the
current recommended daily allowance for adults in Germany [5 µg/d (20 IU/d)]. But
according to the current state of knowledge, an intake of 100 µg (4 000 IU) vitamin D/d in
healthy subjects is safe (Hathcock et al., 2007; Vieth et al., 2001) and vitamin D
particularly low in toxicity (Pepper et al., 2009; Stephenson and Peiris, 2009). As anticipated,
we observed no cases of hypercalcemia or any adverse events in this study.
Our results demonstrate for the first time that the bioavailability of vitamin D
from vitamin
-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation was effective in treating vitamin D
deficiency in young, healthy adults. Furthermore, the absorption rate and metabolism of
vitamin D
from UV-B-irradiated mushrooms were capable of raising circulating serum
25OHD concentrations as effectively as a vitamin D
supplement. In conclusion, as the
vitamin D
enhancement of mushrooms boosts their nutraceutical value, it would be a
worthwhile means of fighting widespread vitamin D deficiency in the general population.
Further research and development are required to find solutions for making such vitamin D
enhanced mushrooms commercially available in a safe and affordable manner.
We are grateful to Carole Cürten for proofreading this manuscript, to Peter Metzger from the
Schlossbergpilz GmbH, Germany for donating the button mushrooms used in this study, to
Daniela Klein and Elmar Maier for their help preparing the soups in the university’s kitchen,
and to Weber GmbH for technical support with the construction of the UV unit.
The authors’ responsibilities were as follows-PU: study concept and design, obtaining
funding, statistical analysis, data interpretation, writing the manuscript; FS: construction of
UV-unit, collection, assembly and interpretation of data; GI: study design, statistical advice
and analysis; HKB: critical review and contribution to the final draft; HB: supervision of the
study, critical review and contribution to the final draft. All authors have read and approved
the final manuscript. None of the authors expresses a conflict of interest.
Armas LA, Dowell S, Akhter M, Duthuluru S, Huerter C, Hollis BW et al. (2007). Ultraviolet-B radiation
increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: the effect of UVB dose and skin color. J Am Acad Dermatol 57,
Armas LA, Hollis BW and Heaney RP (2004). Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans. J
Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 5387-91.
Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, Arnaud S, Galan P, Hercberg S et al. (1997). Prevalence of vitamin D
insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 7, 439-43.
Clemens TL, Adams JS, Henderson SL and Holick MF (1982). Increased skin pigment reduces the capacity of
skin to synthesise vitamin D3. Lancet 1, 74-6.
Engelsen O, Brustad M, Aksnes L and Lund E (2005). Daily duration of vitamin D synthesis in human skin with
relation to latitude, total ozone, altitude, ground cover, aerosols and cloud thickness. Photochem Photobiol 81,
Hathcock JN, Shao A, Vieth R and Heaney R (2007). Risk assessment for vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 6-18.
Hintzpeter B, Mensink GB, Thierfelder W, Muller MJ and Scheidt-Nave C (2008). Vitamin D status and health
correlates among German adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 1079-89.
Holick MF and Chen TC (2008). Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J
Clin Nutr 87, 1080S-6S.
Jasinghe VJ and Perera CO (2005). Distribution of ergosterol in different tissues of mushrooms and its effect on
the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 by UV irradiation. Food Chem 92, 541-546.
Jasinghe VJ and Perera CO (2006). Ultraviloett irradiation: The generator of vitamin D2 in edible mushrooms.
Food Chem 95, 638-643.
Ko JA, Lee BH, Lee JS and Park HJ (2008). Effect of UV-B exposure on the concentration of vitamin D2 in
sliced shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). J Agric Food
Chem 56, 3671-4.
Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Song CH, Cho KY and Pang G (2009). Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability
from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation. J Agric Food Chem 57, 3351-5.
Malabanan A, Veronikis IE and Holick MF (1998). Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet 351, 805-6.
Mattila P, Lampi AM, Ronkainen R, Toivo J and Piironen V (2002). Sterol and vitamin D2 contents in some
wild and cultivated mushrooms. Food Chem 76, 293-298.
Mattila P, Piironen V, Bäckman C, Asunmaa A, Uusi-Rauva E and Koivistoinen P (1992). Determination of
vitamin D3 in egg yolk by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. J Food Compos
Anal 5, 281-290.
Mattila P, Piironen V, Uusi-Rauva E and Koivistoinen P (1995). Cholecalciferol and 25-Hydroxycholcalciferol
contents in fish and fish products. J Food Compos Anal 8, 232-243.
Mau JL, Chen PR and Yang JH (1998). Ultraviolet irradiation increased vitamin D2 content in edible
mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem 46, 5269-5272.
Need AG, Morris HA, Horowitz M and Nordin C (1993). Effects of skin thickness, age, body fat, and sunlight
on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 882-5.
Outila TA, Mattila PH, Piironen VI and Lamberg-Allardt CJ (1999). Bioavailability of vitamin D from wild
edible mushrooms (Cantharellus tubaeformis) as measured with a human bioassay. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 95-8.
Ozzard A, Hear G, Morrison G and Hoskin M (2008). Vitamin D deficiency treated by consuming UVB-
irradiated mushrooms. Br J Gen Pract 58, 644-5.
Pepper KJ, Judd SE, Nanes MS and Tangpricha V (2009). Evaluation of vitamin D repletion regimens to correct
vitamin D status in adults. Endocr Pract 15, 95-103.
Roberts JS, Teichert A and McHugh TH (2008). Vitamin D2 formation from post-harvest UV-B treatment of
mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and retention during storage. J Agric Food Chem 56, 4541-4.
Semba RD, Garrett E, Johnson BA, Guralnik JM and Fried LP (2000). Vitamin D deficiency among older
women with and without disability. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1529-34.
Stephenson DW and Peiris AN (2009). The lack of vitamin D toxicity with megadose of daily ergocalciferol
(D2) therapy: a case report and literature review. South Med J 102, 765-8.
Tangpricha V, Pearce EN, Chen TC and Holick MF (2002). Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy
young adults. Am J Med 112, 659-62.
Tjellesen L, Hummer L, Christiansen C and Rodbro P (1986). Serum concentration of vitamin D metabolites
during treatment with vitamin D2 and D3 in normal premenopausal women. Bone Miner 1, 407-13.
Trang HM, Cole DE, Rubin LA, Pierratos A, Siu S and Vieth R (1998). Evidence that vitamin D3 increases
serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 854-8.
van den Berg H (1997). Bioavailability of vitamin D. Eur J Clin Nutr 51 Suppl 1, S76-9.
van der Wielen RP, Lowik MR, van den Berg H, de Groot LC, Haller J, Moreiras O et al. (1995). Serum vitamin
D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 346, 207-10.
Vieth R, Chan PC and MacFarlane GD (2001). Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest
observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 288-94.
Webb AR, Kline L and Holick MF (1988). Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of
vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in
human skin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67, 373-8.
Baseline characteristics of subjects and dropouts (n = 26)
Variables Mushroom
group (n = 8)
Supplement group
(n = 9)
Placebo group
(n = 9)
male:female (n) 3:5 4:5 2:7
Age (y) 28.6 ± 4.3
31.1 ± 6.7 32.4 ± 6.0
BMI (kg/m
) 22.0 ± 1.7 23.7 ± 2.1 20.6 ± 2.6
study dropout 1 at week 0 1 at week 5 -
There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline.
Means ± SDs (all such values).
Laboratory values in the three study arms
parameter and
time (week)
(n = 8)
(n = 9)
Placebo group
(n = 9)
25OHD (75-175 nmol/L)
0 34.0 ± 11.0
28.7 ± 10.0
38.7 ± 14.2
1 45.2 ± 7.0 42.0 ± 9.2
35.0 ± 13.0 0.125
2 47.2 ± 8.0
46.2 ± 8.0
a, 4
31.2 ± 9.7
b, 4
3 51.0 ± 11.2
50.7 ± 7.7
27.5 ± 7.7
b, 4
< 0,0001
4 51.5 ± 7.7
a, 5
48.2 ± 8.7
a, 4
24.5 ± 7.2
b, 4
< 0,0001
5 56.7 ± 7.2
58.0 ± 11.2
28.7 ± 8.7
< 0,0001
iPTH (11.3-42.5 ng/L)
0 31.7 ± 9.5
44.0 ± 14.7 40.4 ± 18.4 0.241
4 30.2 ± 12.7 40.0 ± 11.4 35.6 ± 11.9 0.265
Calcium (2.2-2.7 mmol/L)
0 2.53 ± 0.08 2.47 ± 0.08 2.48 ± 0.09
4 2.43 ± 0.07 2.40 ± 0.13 2.37 ± 0.09
Mean ± SD (all such values). iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.
Values at each time of measurement with different superscript letters are significantly
different from each other (one-factor ANOVA and post hoc analysis with Tukey´s test).
Reference range.
Significantly different from the following mean in the same column (paired t test):
P <0.01,
P <0.001.
FIGURE 1 Time course of the mean changes in serum 25OHD over the 5-week study period
in subjects who consumed four times (weeks 0, 1, 2, 3) mushrooms enhanced with vitamin D
via UV-B irradiation (mushroom group, n = 8, ) or vitamin D
-containing supplements
(supplement group, n = 9, ) or placebo (placebo group, n = 9, ) at the end of the winter.
Error bars are 2 SE. At week 5 one subject dropped out of the supplement group.
Concentrations were significantly different (ANOVA, Tukey´s test) between the mushroom
and placebo groups, and between the supplement and placebo groups from week 2 onward
(wk 2: P = 0.002; P = 0.004, respectively; weeks 3, 4, 5: P <0.0001). Time courses for serum
25OHD over the study period in the mushroom and supplement groups did not differ
... Consumption of UV-B-irradiated mushrooms may increase serum 25(OH)D when baseline vitamin D status is low via an increase in 25(OH)D2 (24.2 nmol/L) [27]. Urbain (2011) [28] also investigated the bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms and found a high level of 25-OH D2 (3.8 to 5.7 nmol/L) in human serum from enhanced mushrooms exposed to UV-B. ...
... Consumption of UV-B-irradiated mushrooms may increase serum 25(OH)D when baseline vitamin D status is low via an increase in 25(OH)D2 (24.2 nmol/L) [27]. Urbain (2011) [28] also investigated the bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms and found a high level of 25-OH D2 (3.8 to 5.7 nmol/L) in human serum from enhanced mushrooms exposed to UV-B. ...
Full-text available
This study examined the effect and stability of ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation and subsequent cooking on vitamin D content in commonly consumed mushrooms in Thailand. Eight varieties of mushrooms were exposed to two-sided UV-B lamps for up to 3 h in a patented cabinet, followed by vitamin D content analysis. Thereafter, the four mushroom varieties with the highest vitamin D content were exposed to UV irradiation, cooked, and analyzed for various forms of vitamin D using LC-MS-MS. The results showed that vitamin D2 in all varieties of mushrooms significantly increased (p < 0.05) after UV-B irradiation according to the exposure time. The highest level of vitamin D2 was found in enokitake mushrooms. In addition, 25-OH D2 and vitamin D4 contents increased after UV-B irradiation in enokitake mushrooms. The vitamin D2 true retention in all cooked mushrooms ranged from 53 to 89% and was highest in stir-fried mushrooms. With economic investment, the two-sided UV-B cabinet has the potential to increase the vitamin D content in commercial mushroom production.
... Despite the availability of evidence, scientists are still unclear on the topic of vitamin D's bioavailability in the treatment of diabetes [121]. However, new evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled experiment by Urbain et al. [122] demonstrates that vitamin D2 bioavailability in humans can be increased by eating UV-B-treated button mushrooms and that this effect is statistically indistinguishable from that of vitamin D2 supplementation [122]. ...
... Despite the availability of evidence, scientists are still unclear on the topic of vitamin D's bioavailability in the treatment of diabetes [121]. However, new evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled experiment by Urbain et al. [122] demonstrates that vitamin D2 bioavailability in humans can be increased by eating UV-B-treated button mushrooms and that this effect is statistically indistinguishable from that of vitamin D2 supplementation [122]. ...
Full-text available
in (Y.K.M.) † These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a complex illness in which the body does not create enough insulin to control blood glucose levels. Worldwide, this disease is life-threatening and requires low-cost, side-effect-free medicine. Due to adverse effects, many synthetic hypoglycemic medications for diabetes fail. Mushrooms are known to contain natural bioactive components that may be anti-diabetic; thus, scientists are now targeting them. Mushroom extracts, which improve immune function and fight cancer, are becoming more popular. Mushroom-derived functional foods and dietary supplements can delay the onset of potentially fatal diseases and help treat pre-existing conditions, which leads to the successful prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, which is restricted to the breakdown of complex polysaccharides by pancreatic-amylase and the suppression of intestinal-glucosidase. Many mushroom species are particularly helpful in lowering blood glucose levels and alleviating diabetes symptoms. Hypoglycaemic effects have been observed in investigations on Agaricussu bru-fescens, Agaricus bisporus, Cordyceps sinensis, Inonotus obliqus, Coprinus comatus, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus, Pleurotus spp., Poria cocos, and Sparassis crispa. For diabetics, edible mushrooms are high in protein, vitamins, and minerals and low in fat and cholesterol. The study found that bioac-tive metabolites isolated from mushrooms, such as polysaccharides, proteins, dietary fibers, and many pharmacologically active compounds, as well as solvent extracts of mushrooms with unknown metabolites, have anti-diabetic potential in vivo and in vitro, though few are in clinical trials.
... Thus, vitamin D rich mushrooms could prove an efficient tool for tackling vitamin D deficiency effectively. Also, as per clinical investigations performed on humans by Urbain et al. (2011) and Keegan et al. (2013), edible mushrooms exposed to UV rays (for vitamin D 2 enrichment) have no side effects and are safe for human consumption. Thus, it is worth exploring to make edible mushrooms as a rich source of vitamin D with improved nutritional value by the application of ultraviolet irradiations. ...
... However, only few findings have reported vitamin D 2 content in terms of fresh weight. Our findings for button mushroom (24.9 m g/g fw) were five times more than the NFS findings (4.1 m g/g fw) of Urbain et al. (2011) and 1.7 times higher (14.4 m g/g fw) as reported by Salemi et al. (2021). The difference in the levels of vitamin D 2 may appear due to difference in the moisture content, type of UV spectrum (UV-A, UV-B or UV-C), duration of UV exposure and sizes of mushrooms. ...
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to optimize the parameters for enhancing the vitamin D2 formation in three edible mushroom varieties, namely, shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes), white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Design/methodology/approach Freshly harvested mushrooms were irradiated with UV-B and UV-C lamps. Further, mushrooms were treated with UV-B at a distance ranging between 10 and 50 cm from the UV light source, for 15–150 min, to maximize the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2. Analysis of vitamin D2 content in mushrooms before and after UV exposure was done by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Findings HPLC results showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in vitamin D2 levels of shiitake (17.3 ± 0.35 µg/g), button (24.9 ± 0.71 µg/g) and oyster (19.1 ± 0.35 µg/g) mushrooms, irradiated with UV-B at a distance of 20–30 cm for 120 min. Further, stability studies revealed that vitamin D2 levels in UV-B-irradiated mushrooms gradually increased for 48 and 72 h of storage at room and refrigeration temperatures, respectively. During cooking operations, 62%–93% of vitamin D2 was retained in UV-B-irradiated mushrooms. Originality/value This study describes the most effective parameters such as ideal wavelength, mushrooms size, duration of exposure and distance from UV sources for maximum vitamin D2 formation in edible mushrooms using UV irradiation. Further, assessment of vitamin D2 stability in UV exposed mushrooms during storage period and cooking operations has been carried out. In addition, this study also provides a comparison of the vitamin D2 levels of the three widely cultivated and consumed mushroom varieties treated simultaneously under similar UV exposure conditions. Keywords: Fresh mushrooms; oyster; shiitake; white button; UV-B; ergocalciferol
... Regarding the bioavailability study, the ingestion of the vitamin D 2enriched shiitake powder was ineffective in improving serum 25hydroxyvitamin D status in humans. These results contrasted with previous studies (Biancuzzo, Clarke, Reitz, Travison, & Holick, 2013;Keegan, Lu, Bogusz, Williams, & Holick, 2013;Urbain, Singler, Ihorst, Biesalski, & Bertz, 2011). These discrepancies could be explained by (1) the limited number of volunteers included in each group; (2) the lower doses used in our study compared to others (600 IU per capsule vs. 2000-4000 IU); and (3) we herein measured total 25-hydroxyvitamin D vitamin, while several studies have observed that vitamin D 2 from enriched mushrooms increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 concentrations with no significant effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 or total 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Therefore, it is plausible that vitamin D 2 supplementation did not affect vitamin D status because 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 concentrations increased but 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 decreased proportionally (Nieman et al., 2014;Stepien et al., 2013). ...
... The most common of these is ergosterol. This compound undergoes photolysis to vitamin D2 when exposed to UV radiation [74]. A study conducted by Zheng et al. [75] showed that ergosterol exhibited cytotoxicity towards acute promyelocytic leukaemia cancer cells and liver cancer cells. ...
Full-text available
Medicinal mushrooms, e.g., Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers.), Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.), Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát), Cordyceps (Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones and Spatafora), Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler), and Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor (L.) Lloyd), are considered new-generation foods and are of growing interest to consumers. They are characterised by a high content of biologically active compounds, including (1,3)(1,6)-β-D-glucans, which are classified as dietary fibre, triterpenes, phenolic compounds, and sterols. Thanks to their low-fat content, they are a low-calorie product and are classified as a functional food. They have a beneficial effect on the organism through the improvement of its overall health and nutritional level. The biologically active constituents contained in medicinal mushrooms exhibit anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and immunomodulatory effects. In addition, these mushrooms accelerate metabolism, help fight obesity, and slow down the ageing processes thanks to their high antioxidant activity. The vast therapeutic properties of mushrooms are still not fully understood. Detailed mechanisms of the effects of medicinal mushrooms on the human organism still require long-term clinical studies to confirm their nutraceutical effects, their safety of use, and their dosage. Medicinal mushrooms have great potential to be used in the design of innovative functional foods. There is a need for further research on the possibility of incorporating mushrooms into food products to assess the interactions of their bioactive substances with ingredients in the food matrix. This review focuses on the properties of selected medicinal mushrooms and their effects on the human organism and presents current knowledge on the possibilities of their use in the production of functional foods.
... Natural sources of Vitamin D are very few and most of them are non-vegetarian. Among the vegetarian foods, mushrooms are fair source of vitamin D and concentrated source of ergosterol (vitamin D 2 precursor) (Urbain et al. 2011). ...
Background: Vitamin D and protein deficiencies are amongst the most prevalent malnutrition problems of India and several other developing nations. In the present study an attempt has been made to develop a Vitamin D and protein rich energy bar utilizing mushroom powder. Among the vegetarian foods, mushroom is a very good source of Vitamin D and also rich in good quality protein. Methods: Twelve formulations of energy bar prepared with varying proportions of mushroom powder (0-30%), sweeteners (40-50%) and cereals (20- 45%) were analyzed for nutritional, anti-oxidative, sensory, color and textural properties. Result: A significant improvement in vitamin D, protein, crude fiber, ash and antioxidant activity contents of energy bars with increasing proportions of mushroom powder was observed. Energy bar prepared with 20% mushroom powder, 40% sweetener, 25% cereals, 10% peanuts and a 5% dry fruits showed good sensory acceptability along with a good amount of vitamin D (423.99 IU/100 g), protein (15.18 g/100 g), antioxidant activity (78.52% scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) crude fiber (4.76 g/100 g) and ash content (2.60 g/100 g). Single bar (50 g) of this snack can provide 53% of recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of Vitamin D and 12.7% of RDA of protein for an adult.
Full-text available
To obtain reliable data that allow health authorities to re-evaluate recommendations for oral vitamin D uptake, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the impact of supplementation on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in healthy adults in Europe. Of the publications identified (n = 4005) in our literature search (PUBMED, through 2 January 2022), 49 primary studies (7320 subjects, 73 study arms) were eligible for inclusion in our meta-analysis. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane RoB tool based on seven categories, according to which each study is rated using three grades, and overall was rated as rather low. The median duration of intervention was 136.78 days (range, 1088 days); the mean weighted baseline 25(OH)D concentration and mean age were 33.01 vs. 33.84 nmol/L and 46.8 vs. 44.8 years in the vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively. Using random-effects models, 25(OH)D levels were increased by 36.28 nmol/L (95% CI 31.97–40.59) in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo, with a relative serum increment of 1.77 nmol/L per 2.5 μg of vitamin D daily. Notably, the relative serum 25(OH)D increment was affected by various factors, including the dosage and baseline serum 25(OH)D concentration, decreasing with increasing vitamin D doses and with increasing baseline serum levels. We estimate that supplementation in all healthy adults in Europe with appr. 25 μg of vitamin D (1000 IU) daily would raise serum 25(OH)D levels in 95% of the population to ≥50 nmol/L. Our work provides health authorities with reliable data that can help to re-evaluate recommendations for oral vitamin D supplementation.
Full-text available
Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health concern with significant implications for bone health and chronic disease prevention. Our aim was to summarize the evidence from Cochrane and other systematic reviews evaluating the benefits or harms of vitamin D fortification of staple foods for household use. In April 2023, we systematically searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Epistemonikos and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews investigating the effects of vitamin D fortification of food in general populations of any age. We used Cochrane methodology and assessed the methodological quality of included studies using AMSTAR (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews). We assessed the degree of overlap among reviews. All outcomes included in systematic reviews were assessed. The protocol is registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42023420991). We included 27 systematic reviews out of 5028 records for analysis. Overall, 11 out of 12 systematic reviews calculating pooled estimates reported a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The mean change in serum 25(OH)D concentrations per additional 100 units of vitamin D ranged from 0.7 to 10.8 nmol/L. Fortification of food with vitamin D showed a reduction in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency based on high-certainty evidence. Parathormone (PTH) levels were described to decrease, bone mineral density to increase, while the effects on other bone turnover markers were inconsistent. Fortification did not significantly impact most anthropometric parameters, but it seemed to positively influence lipid profiles. In summary, fortification of food with vitamin D results in a reduction of vitamin D deficiency and might increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations, to varying extents depending on the fortified vehicle and population characteristics. Additionally, fortification may have a positive impact on bone turnover and lipid metabolism but may only have a limited effect on anthropometric parameters.
Vitamins are essential components of enzyme systems involved in normal growth and function. The quantitative estimation of the proportion of dietary vitamins, that is in a form available for utilization by the human body, is limited and fragmentary. This review provides the current state of knowledge on the bioavailability of thirteen vitamins and choline, to evaluate whether there are differences in vitamin bioavailability when human foods are sourced from animals or plants. The bioavailability of naturally occurring choline, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K in food awaits further studies. Animal-sourced foods are the almost exclusive natural sources of dietary vitamin B-12 (65% bioavailable) and preformed vitamin A retinol (74% bioavailable), and contain highly bioavailable biotin (89%), folate (67%), niacin (67%), pantothenic acid (80%), riboflavin (61%), thiamin (82%), and vitamin B-6 (83%). Plant-based foods are the main natural sources of vitamin C (76% bioavailable), provitamin A carotenoid β-carotene (15.6% bioavailable), riboflavin (65% bioavailable), thiamin (81% bioavailable), and vitamin K (16.5% bioavailable). The overview of studies showed that in general, vitamins in foods originating from animals are more bioavailable than vitamins in foods sourced from plants.
Nutrigenomics attempts to characterize and integrate the relation between dietary molecules and gene expression on a genome-wide level. One of the biologically active nutritional compounds is vitamin D3, which activates via its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) the nuclear receptor VDR (vitamin D receptor). Vitamin D3 can be synthesized endogenously in our skin, but since we spend long times indoors and often live at higher latitudes where for many winter months UV-B radiation is too low, it became a true vitamin. The ligand-inducible transcription factor VDR is expressed in the majority of human tissues and cell types, where it modulates the epigenome at thousands of genomic sites. In a tissue-specific fashion this results in the up- and downregulation of primary vitamin D target genes, some of which are involved in attenuating oxidative stress. Vitamin D affects a wide range of physiological functions including the control of metabolism, bone formation and immunity. In this review, we will discuss how the epigenome- and transcriptome-wide effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its receptor VDR serve as a master example in nutrigenomics. In this context, we will outline the basis of a mechanistic understanding for personalized nutrition with vitamin D3.
Full-text available
Background: The bioavailability of vitamin D from mushrooms in humans is unknown. Objective: We investigated the bioavailability of vitamin D from wild edible mushrooms (Cantharellus tubaeformis) using the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations as a measure of vitamin D bioavailability. Design: Twenty-seven volunteers with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <60 nmol/L (x̄: 38.5 nmol/L; range: 15–60 nmol/L) were randomly divided into 3 groups of 9 persons each. For 3 wk, excluding Saturdays and Sundays, group 1 received mushrooms (C. tubaeformis) providing 14 μg ergocalciferol/d with their lunch, group 2 (control) received an ergocalciferol supplement providing 14 μg/d, and group 3 (also a control) received no supplementation. Results: At the beginning of the study, mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.280). When all 3 groups were considered, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations showed different time-related changes among the groups during the study: group (P = 0.388), time (P = 0.000), and group × time (P = 0.001). When groups 1 and 2 were compared with group 3, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 3 wk differed significantly between groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.032) as well as between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.004). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 3 wk did not differ significantly between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.317). Conclusions: We showed for the first time that ergocalciferol was well absorbed from lyophilized and homogenized mushrooms in humans and that vitamin D bioavailability can be studied in humans with such an experimental protocol.
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis that the age-related decline in skin thickness may contribute to the age-related decline in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We measured skinfold thickness on the back of the hand, serum 25(OH)D, height, and weight in 433 normal postmenopausal women. We also noted the average daily hours of sunlight in the month in which the observations were made and in the preceding 2 mo. Serum 25(OH)D was positively related to hours of sunlight (with a time lag of 2 mo) and to skin thickness, and negatively to body mass index (wt/ht²). Serum 25(OH)D fell significantly after age 69 y. Seasonal variation of serum 25(OH)D was greater in lean than in fat subjects, which we attributed to the larger fat mass and consequent larger pool size in the latter group. The results suggest that the tendency for serum 25(OH)D to fall with age is due in part to the age-related decline in skin thickness.
Full-text available
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in egg yolk is described. The egg yolk samples were purified by saponification and extraction as well as efficient solid-phase extraction and semipreparative straight-phase HPLC. Vitamin D3 was quantitated with reverse-phase HPLC using an internal standard (vitamin D2) method and diode array detection. The suitability of the method was tested by analyzing eggs on sale through retail outlets as well as samples obtained straight from farms. The detection and determination limits of the method were 2 and 8 ng per injection, respectively. Overall mean recovery for both vitamins was 70%. The recovery of vitamin D3 calculated on the basis of the internal standard was 94%. The day to day repeatability of the method expressed by the coefficient of variation was 3.6%. The method introduced here is well suited for the determination of vitamin D3 contents in egg yolks; quantification was reliable and accurate.
Full-text available
The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm (2)), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm (2)), and postharvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D 2 formation in Portabella mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D 2 degradation in treated mushrooms during storage. Within each intensity application, dose had the largest effect where more exposure converted more vitamin D 2 from ergosterol. Similar dose across each intensity application resulted in similar vitamin D 2 concentration. Practical commercial production requires as short a treatment time as possible, and intensity was a major factor from this standpoint where the time it took to achieve a similar vitamin D 2 concentration for similar dose exposure was significantly reduced as intensity increased. By using an intensity of 1.0 mW/cm (2) at a dose of 0.5 J/cm (2), the concentration of vitamin D 2 produced was 3.83 microg/g dry solids of mushrooms in 8 min, whereas using an intensity of 0.5 mW/cm (2) at a dose of 0.5 J/cm (2), the concentration of vitamin D 2 produced was 3.75microg/g dry solids of mushrooms in 18 min. Also, postharvest time did not have a significant effect on vitamin D 2 formation in mushrooms that were treated 1 and 4 days after harvest. Vitamin D 2 degraded in treated mushrooms during storage by apparent first-order kinetics, where the degradation rate constant was 0.025 h (-1). The information provided in this study will help mushroom producers develop commercial-scale UV treatment processes to add value to their crop while improving consumer health.
Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure in moderation is the major source of vitamin D for most humans. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, and foods that are fortified with vitamin D are often inadequate to satisfy either a child's or an adult's vitamin D requirement. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children and will precipitate and exacerbate osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures in adults. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of common cancers, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and infectious diseases. A circulating level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of >75 nmol/L, or 30 ng/mL, is required to maximize vitamin D's beneficial effects for health. In the absence of adequate sun exposure, at least 800–1000 IU vitamin D3/d may be needed to achieve this in children and adults. Vitamin D2 may be equally effective for maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D when given in physiologic concentrations.
Fresh common (Agaricus bisporus) and high-temperature mushrooms (A. bitorquis) were irradiated with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) for 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h at 12 °C. Fresh common, shiitake (Lentinula edodes), and straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) were irradiated with UV-B for 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h at 12 °C. After UV-C irradiation for 2 h, vitamin D2 contents in common and high-temperature mushrooms increased from 2.20 and 4.01 μg/g of dry weight to 7.30 and 5.32 μg/g, respectively. After UV-B irradiation for 2 h, the vitamin D2 content in common mushrooms reached 12.48 μg/g. UV-B irradiation resulted in higher vitamin D2 conversion for common mushrooms. After UV-B irradiation for 2 h, vitamin D2 contents in shiitake and straw mushrooms increased from 2.16 and 3.86 μg/g to 6.58 and 7.58 μg/g, respectively. The increase rates in shiitake and straw mushrooms were not as high as in common mushrooms. Keywords: Mushrooms; Agaricus bisporus; Agaricus bitorquis; Lentinula edodes; Volvariella volvacea; ultraviolet-B; ultraviolet-C; vitamin D2
The cholecalciferol and 25-hyroxycholecalciferol contents in 39 fish and fish product items were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The method included saponification and extraction, purification using semipreparative straight-phase HPLC, and quantification by reverse-phase HPLC. The quantification of cholecalciferol and 25-hyroxycholecalciferol was based on the internal standard method. Ergocalciferol was used as the internal standard for cholecalciferol and 25-hyroxyergoacalciferol was used as the internal standard for 25-hyroxycholecalciferol. Cholecalciferol was the predominant compound. The cholecalciferol contents in fish and fish products ranged from under the limit of determination (0.2 μg/100 g) to 47.7 μg/100 g fresh weight. Very small amounts of 25-hyroxycholecalciferol (near the limit of determination, 0.1 μg/100 g) were found only in some salmonids. Much variation was found in the cholecalciferol contents within the different fish species and in fish samples of the same species caught in different locations. The fattiness of the fish or the influence of the season had no significant effect on the vitamin D contents in the samples of fish and fish products. On the basis of the study findings, the daily intake of vitamin D from fish and fish products in Finland is estimated to be 4.4 μg/day per capita.
Analysis of ergosterol content in different tissues of Shiitake mushrooms showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) in its distribution. Thus, the conversion of ergosterol in whole mushrooms to vitamin D2, by exposure to UV irradiation, was significantly affected (p < 0.01) by the orientation of the mushroom tissues to the UV. The highest ergosterol content was found in button mushrooms (7.80 ± 0.35 mg/g DM) while the lowest was in enoki mushrooms (0.68 ± 0.14 mg/g DM). The conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 was about four times higher when gills were exposed to UV-A irradiation than when the outer caps were exposed to the same. The lowest conversion to vitamin D2 (12.5 ± 0.28 μg/g DM) was observed for button mushrooms while the highest value (45.1 ± 3.07 μg/g DM) was observed for oyster mushrooms. The optimum moisture content of mushrooms for this conversion was around 78% on a wet basis and the temperature was around 35 °C.
Fresh Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes), Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), and Abalone mushrooms (Pleurotus cystidus) were irradiated with Ultraviolet-A (UV-A; wavelength 315–400 nm), Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; wavelength 290–315 nm), and Ultraviolet-C (UV-C; wavelength 190–290 nm). Irradiation of each side of the mushrooms for 1 h, was found to be the optimum period of irradiation in this conversion. The conversions of ergosterol to vitamin D2 under UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C were shown to be significantly different (p < 0.01). The highest vitamin D2 content (184 ± 5.71 μg/g DM) was observed in Oyster mushrooms irradiated with UV-B at 35 °C and around 80% moisture. On the other hand, under the same conditions of irradiation, the lowest vitamin D2 content (22.9 ± 2.68 μg/g DM) was observed in Button mushrooms.
The contents of vitamin D2 and sterols in some wild and cultivated mushrooms were determined, and the distribution of these compounds in different parts of the wild mushrooms was evaluated. In addition, the variation in vitamin D2 contents between individual fruiting bodies of wild mushrooms was studied. Vitamin D2 was determined using an HPLC method, including saponification and semipreparative normal-phase HPLC purification before analytical reversed-phase quantification with an internal standard. Sterol contents were analysed with gas chromatography using an internal standard method, including saponification before derivatizing sterols to trimethylsilyl ethers. Mass-spectral analyses were used to further confirm the identification of sterols. Vitamin D2 was almost totally absent in cultivated mushrooms, while some wild mushrooms contained high concentrations of this vitamin (4.7–194 μg/100 g dry weight). Ergosterol was the most abundant sterol found in mushrooms, and its contents were higher in cultivated mushrooms (602.1–678.6) than in wild mushrooms (296–489 mg/100 g dry weight). The contents of vitamin D2 and ergosterol varied greatly and moderately, respectively, between different parts of the mushrooms and were lowest in stipes. In addition, high variation in vitamin D2 contents between individual fruiting bodies was found.