Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis-Ville, Tūnis, Tunisia
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.7). 05/2011; 84(5):653-61. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0598
Source: PubMed


Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors carried anti-saliva IgG antibodies, primarily of IgG4 isotype. Positive sera reacted differentially with seven salivary proteins. The protein PpSP30 was prominently recognized by all the sera. The salivary proteins triggered the production of various antibody isotypes. Interestingly, the immunodominant PpSP30 was recognized by all IgG subclasses, whereas PpSP12 was not by IgG4. Immunoproteomic analyses may help to identify the impact of each salivary protein on the L. major infection and to select potential vaccine candidates.

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Available from: Soumaya Marzouki
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    • "Indeed, individuals in contact with the vectors' bites could produce various levels (high to low) of antisaliva Ab response which depend on the real level of human exposure to vectors bites. This evidence has been demonstrated for a wide range of vectors, such as tick [11] [12] [13] [14], mosquito [15– 19], and sand flies [20] [21] [22] [23]. Furthermore, this biomarker approach has been used to evaluate the efficacy of vector control strategy employed in the field by the quantitative evaluation of antisaliva immunoglobulin G (IgG). "
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    • "These results were validated in a sample of 1077 individuals, and detection levels improved significantly when the two proteins were used in combination (85). A prospective study conducted in Tunisia with a cohort of 200 children showed that IgG antibodies (primarily IgG4) against P. papatasi SGS were associated with an increased risk of CL caused by L. major (86). In a subsequent study, recombinant PpSP32 was described as the immunodominant antigen in the humoral response, acting as a marker of sand-fly exposure (87). "
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    • "The isotypes of the induced antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2) were different from those induced by other immunogenic salivary proteins. The 12-kDa protein was not targeted by IgG4 antibodies, suggesting that the immune response induced by this protein was not polarized toward a Th2 phenotype [7]. If this 12-kDa protein is PPTSP12, this could represent a potential vaccine candidate or a marker of vector exposure. "
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