Detection of platelet-binding anti-measles and anti-rubella virus IgG antibodies in infants with vaccine-induced thrombocytopenic purpura

Department of Pediatrics and Child Neurology, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Hasama, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 05/2011; 29(31):4878-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.04.036
Source: PubMed


A 15-month-old infant presented with thrombocytopenic purpura after sequential administration of measles-rubella combined vaccine, varicella vaccine and mumps vaccine every 4 weeks. Her thrombocytopenia persisted for more than 12 months. Both anti-measles and anti-rubella virus IgG antibodies were detected in the patient's-isolated platelets on day 154 of illness, which were not detected when there was a reduction of the serum IgG antibody titers on days 298 and 373 of illness, respectively.We also detected the isolated platelet-binding anti-measles and anti-rubella virus IgG antibodies in two other pediatric patients. This is the first report demonstrating direct evidence of vaccine-induced thrombocytopenic purpura.

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Available from: So-ichi Suenobu, Jun 27, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The most important reasons cited by the opponents of vaccines are concerns about vaccine safety. Unlike issues such as autism for which no indisputable documentation of direct relationship with vaccine use is available, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an adverse event that can really follow vaccine administration, and may limit vaccine use because little is known about which vaccines it may follow, its real incidence and severity, the risk of chronic disease, or the possibility of recurrences after new doses of the same vaccine. The main aim of this review is to clarify the real importance of thrombocytopenia as an adverse event and discuss how it may interfere with recommended vaccination schedules. The available data clearly indicate that ITP is very rare and the only vaccine for which there is a demonstrated cause-effect relationship is the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine that can occur in 1 to 3 children every 100,000 vaccine doses. However, also in this case, the incidence of ITP is significantly lower than that observed during the natural diseases that the vaccine prevents. Consequently, ITP cannot be considered a problem limiting vaccine use except in the case of children suffering from chronic ITP who have to receive MMR vaccine. In these subjects, the risk-benefit ratio of the vaccine should be weighed against the risk of measles in the community.
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    ABSTRACT: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune condition characterized by low platelet count with mucocutaneous and other bleedings. Clinical manifestations may range from spontaneous formation of purpura and petechiae, especially on the extremities, to epistaxis, bleeding at the gums or menorrhagia, any of which occur usually if the platelet count is below 20,000 per μl. A very low count may result in the spontaneous formation of hematomas in the mouth or on other mucous membranes. Fatal complications, including subarachnoid or intracerebral, lower gastrointestinal or other internal bleeding can arise due to an extremely low count. Vaccines may induce ITP by several mechanisms. Vaccine-associated autoimmunity may stem not only from the antigen-mediated responses but also from other constituents of the vaccine, such as yeast proteins, adjuvants, and preservatives diluents. The most likely is through virally induced molecular mimicry. The binding of pathogenic autoantibodies to platelet and megakaryocytes may cause thrombocytopenia by different mechanisms, such as opsonization, direct activation of complement, or apoptotic pathways. The autoantibodies hypothesis is not sufficient to explain all ITP cases: In the anti-platelet antibody-negative cases, a complementary mechanism based on T cell immune-mediated mechanism has been suggested. In particular, T cell subsets seem dysregulated with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as IFN-γ and TNF, and chemokines, as CXCL10. Vaccines are one of the most striking discoveries in human history that changed dramatically life expectancy. Nonetheless, the occurrence of adverse events and autoimmune phenomena has been described following vaccination, and ITP may represent one of this.
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