Article

Xanthomonas campestris Diffusible Factor Is 3-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and Is Associated with Xanthomonadin Biosynthesis, Cell Viability, Antioxidant Activity, and Systemic Invasion

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (Impact Factor: 3.94). 05/2011; 24(8):948-57. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-02-11-0031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces a membrane-bound yellow pigment called xanthomonadin. A diffusible factor (DF) has been reported to regulate xanthomonadin biosynthesis. In this study, DF was purified from bacterial culture supernatants using a combination of solvent extraction, flash chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses resolved the DF chemical structure as 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HBA), which was further confirmed by synthetic 3-HBA. Significantly, bioassay and in silico analysis suggest that DF production is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species. Analysis of DF derivatives established the hydroxyl group and its position as the key structural features for the role of DF in xanthomonadin biosynthesis. In addition, we showed that DF is also associated with bacterial survival, H2O2 resistance, and systemic invasion. Furthermore, evidence was also presented that DF and diffusible signaling factor have overlapping functions in modulation of bacterial survival, H2O2 resistance, and virulence. Utilization of different mechanisms to modulate similar virulence traits may provide X. campestris pv. campestris with plasticity in response to various environmental cues.

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Available from: Bo-Le Jiang, Nov 03, 2014
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    • "In all assays 4-HBA was formed non-enzymatically (Figure S3.BIV) as reported before [16], [34], whereas 3-HBA was only detectable in assays containing ArcB (Figure S3.III). Since it was postulated that xanthomonadin biosynthesis is performed by a type II fatty acid synthase like biosynthesis using 3-HBA as polyene precursor [15], 3-HBA should be activated for the polyketide synthase (PKS) machinery. Such a reaction might be performed by the putative AMP-ligase encoded by Xcc4015 in X. campestris pv. "
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    • "This disease, even with all the damages caused in the Volumen 31 Número 2, 2013 147 REVISTA MEXICANA DE FITOPATOLOGÍA al., 2009). Las colonias bacterianas crecidas en medio artificial son usualmente amarillas debido a la presencia de p i g m e n t o e n l a s m e m b r a n a s c o n o c i d o c o m o xanthomonadina, el cual las protege del daño oxidativo (He et al., 2011). Dentro de este género, la especie X. axonopodis afecta a un amplio rango de hospedantes, encontrándose especies cultivadas de importancia económica (Hayward, 1993), entre ellos el frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris) ocasionando la enfermedad del tizón común bacteriano causado por el patovar phaseoli. "
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