Spontaneous Growth and Phase Transformation of Highly Conductive Nickel Germanide Nanowires

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798.
ACS Nano (Impact Factor: 12.88). 05/2011; 5(6):5006-14. DOI: 10.1021/nn201108u
Source: PubMed


We report the synthesis, phase transformation, and electrical property measurement of single-crystal NiGe and ε-Ni(5)Ge(3) nanowires (NWs). NiGe NWs were spontaneously synthesized by chemical vapor deposition of GeH(4) onto a porous Ni substrate without the use of intentional catalysts. The as-grown NWs of the orthorhombic NiGe phase were transformed to the hexagonal ε-Ni(5)Ge(3) phase by thermal annealing induced Ni enrichment. This controllable conversion of germanide phases is desirable for phase-dependent property study and applications, and the observation of novel metastable ε-Ni(5)Ge(3) phase suggests the importance of kinetic factors in such nanophase transformations. Electrical studies reveal that NiGe NWs are highly conductive, with an average resistivity of 35 ± 15 μΩ·cm, while the resistivity of ε-Ni(5)Ge(3) NWs is more than 4 times that of the NiGe phase. NWs of nickel germanides, particularly NiGe, would be useful building blocks for germanium-based nanoelectronic devices.

3 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of partial substitution of Ge for Si in cobalt germanosilicide (CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) and Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x)) nanowires (NWs) on the electrical transport, magnetic properties, and magnetoresistance (MR) have been investigated. Cobalt germanosilicide NWs were synthesized by a spontaneous chemical vapor transport growth method. The Ge concentration can be selectively controlled from 0 to 15% and 0-50% for CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) and Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x) NWs, respectively, by varying the reaction temperature. Electrical measurements showed that the resistivities of CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) NWs are 90, 60, 30, and 23 μΩ-cm for x = 0, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.15, respectively. Therefore, the electrical resistivity of CoSi(1-x)Ge(x) NWs was found to decrease significantly with an increasing Ge concentration, which is believed to be a result of the band gap narrowing. On the other hand, the Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x) (x ≤ 0.5) NWs exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K, which is attributed to the uncoordinated Co atoms on the NW surface and spin-glass behavior at low temperature. The highest MR response of Co(2)Si(1-x)Ge(x) NWs occurred at x = 0.5, where a MR ratio of 11.7% can be obtained at 10-25 K with a magnetic field of 8 T. The enhanced physical properties of cobalt germanosilicide NWs with Ge substitution shall lead to promising application in the fabrication of nanodevices, including spintronics and serving as the gate and interconnect material.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · ACS Nano
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review covers recent developments in our group regarding the synthesis, characterization and applications of single-crystalline one-dimensional nanostructures based on a wide range of material systems including noble metals, metal silicides and metal germanides. For the single-crystalline one-dimensional nanostructures growth, we have employed chemical vapor transport approach without using any catalysts, capping reagents, and templates because of its simplicity and wide applicability. Au, Pd, and Pt nanowires are epitaxially grown on various substrates, in which the nanowires grow from seed crystals by the correlations of the geometry and orientation of seed crystals with those of as-grown nanowires. We also present the synthesis of numerous metal silicide and germanide 1D nanostructures. By simply varying reaction conditions, furthermore, nanowires of metastable phase, such as and , and composition tuned cobalt silicides (CoSi, , ) and iron germanides ( and ) nanowires are synthesized. Such developments can be utilized as advanced platforms or building blocks for a wide range of applications such as plasmonics, sensings, nanoelectronics, and spintronics.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: If nanostructured thermoelectric materials are to be used for future energy harvesting and power generation applications, scalable production of thermoelectric nanostructures must be developed. Herein we report a vapor phase conversion method to synthesize nanowire (NW) arrays of semiconducting higher manganese silicides (HMS, or MnSi1.75) for enhanced thermoelectric applications. Dense arrays of silicon NWs obtained by metal-assisted chemical etching were converted to single-crystalline HMS NW arrays with the original nanoscale morphology preserved by reacting with Mn vapor in a sealed stainless steel reactor at 950 °C. Structural characterization by X-ray and electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm that the converted NWs are single-crystalline NWs of HMS phases such as Mn7Si12, Mn27Si47, and Mn39Si68. Investigations of the conversion process using in situ high resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) and mechanistic experiments reveal that the presence of excess Si substrate underneath the Si NWs, careful control of Mn precursor, and high reaction temperature are crucial to the selective formation of HMS phase. The electrical resistivity of these HMS NWs are similar to that of the bulk HMS.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Chemistry of Materials
Show more