Initial testing (Stage 1) of AT13387, an HSP90 inhibitor, by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas 79430-6450, USA. Pediatric Blood & Cancer
(Impact Factor: 2.39).
07/2012; 59(1):185-8. DOI: 10.1002/pbc.23154
AT13387, a non-geldanamycin inhibitor of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), was tested against the PPTP in vitro panel (1.0 nM to 10 µM) and against the PPTP in vivo panels (40 or 60 mg/kg) administered orally twice weekly. In vitro AT13387 showed a median EC(50) value of 41 nM and exhibited activity consistent with a cytotoxic effect. In vivo AT13387 induced significant differences in EFS distribution compared to controls in 17% evaluable solid tumor xenografts, but in none of the ALL xenografts. No objective tumor responses were observed. In vivo AT13387 demonstrated only modest single agent activity.
Available from: PubMed Central
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ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma, the most common malignant bone tumor of childhood, is a high-grade primary bone sarcoma that occurs mostly in adolescence. Standard treatment consists of surgery in combination with multi-agent chemotherapy regimens. The development and approval of imatinib for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and the fully human monoclonal antibody, anti-GD2, as part of an immune therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma patients have established the precedent for use of targeted inhibitors along with standard chemotherapy backbones. However, few targeted agents tested have achieved traditional clinical endpoints for osteosarcoma. Many biological agents demonstrating anti-tumor responses in preclinical and early-phase clinical testing have failed to reach response thresholds to justify randomized trials with large numbers of patients. The development of targeted therapies for pediatric cancer remains a significant challenge. To aid in the prioritization of new agents for clinical testing, the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP) has developed reliable and robust preclinical pediatric cancer models to rapidly screen agents for activity in multiple childhood cancers and establish pharmacological parameters and effective drug concentrations for clinical trials. In this article, we examine a range of standard and novel agents that have been evaluated by the PPTP, and we discuss the preclinical and clinical development of these for the treatment of osteosarcoma. We further demonstrate that committed resources for hypothesis-driven drug discovery and development are needed to yield clinical successes in the search for new therapies for this pediatric disease.
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There are > 75 histological types of solid tumors that are classified into two major groups: bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. These diseases are more prevalent in children, and pediatric sarcomas tend to be highly aggressive and rapidly progressive. Sarcomas in adults may follow a more indolent course, but aggressive tumors are also common. Sarcomas that are metastatic at diagnosis, or recurrent following therapy, remain refractory to current treatment options with dismal overall survival rates. A major focus of clinical trials, for patients with sarcoma, is to identify novel and more effective therapeutic strategies targeted to genomic or proteomic aberrations specific to the malignant cells. Critical to the understanding of the potential for targeted therapies are models of disease that are representative of clinical disease and predictive of relevant clinical responses.
In this article, the authors discuss the use of mouse xenograft models and genetically engineered mice in cancer drug discovery. The authors provide a special focus on models for the two most common bone sarcomas: osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing's sarcoma (ES).
Predicting whether a new anticancer agent will have a positive therapeutic index in patients with OS and ES remains a challenge. The use of mouse sarcoma models for understanding the mechanisms involved in the response of tumors to new treatments is an important step in the process of drug discovery and the development of clinically relevant therapeutic strategies for these diseases.
Available from: Erica A Golemis
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is usually detected at advanced stage and frequently lethal. While many patients respond to initial surgery and standard chemotherapy consisting of a platinum-based agent and a taxane, most experience recurrence and eventually treatment-resistant disease. Although there have been numerous efforts to apply protein-targeted agents in EOC, these studies have so far documented little efficacy. Our goal was to identify broadly susceptible signaling proteins or pathways in EOC.
As a new approach, we performed data-mining meta-analyses integrating results from multiple siRNA screens to identify gene targets that showed significant inhibition of cell growth. Based on this meta-analysis, we established that many genes with such activity were clients of the protein chaperone HSP90. We therefore assessed ganetespib, a clinically promising second-generation small molecule HSP90 inhibitor, for activity against EOC, both as a single agent and in combination with cytotoxic and targeted therapeutic agents.
Ganetespib significantly reduced cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro, inhibited growth of orthotopic xenografts and spontaneous ovarian tumors in transgenic mice in vivo, and inhibited expression and activation of numerous proteins linked to EOC progression. Importantly, paclitaxel significantly potentiated ganetespib activity in cultured cells and tumors. Moreover, combined treatment of cells with ganetespib and siRNAs or small molecules inhibiting genes identified in the meta-analysis in several cases resulted in enhanced activity.
These results strongly support investigation of ganetespib, a single-targeted agent with effects on numerous proteins and pathways, in augmenting standard EOC therapies.
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