Cyclophosphamide and fludarabine are highly active in treating follicular lymphoma (FL). However, many cyclophosphamide and fludarabine combination regimens, although highly effective, exhibited severe infectious toxicities including toxic death [1-7]. We designed a novel sequential regimen consisting of CVP (cyclophosphamide 400 mg/m(2) PO d1-5, vincristine 2 mg d1, prednisone 100 mg/m(2) d1-5) alternating with fludarabine (25 mg/m(2) IV d1-5) as induction chemotherapy for idiotype vaccination, with a goal of obtaining a higher quality of tumor debulking before vaccination. Herein, we report the safety and efficacy of this regimen. Thirty-four consecutive untreated patients with FL received this regimen. Toxicities were modest with no severe infections or toxic deaths. Complete response/unconfirmed complete response (CR/CRu) was achieved in 18 patients (53%) and PR in 38%. At a median follow-up of 12 years, overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), time to progression (TTP), and disease free survival (DFS) were 85, 37, 38, and 70%, respectively. Among a cohort of historical controls with similar characteristics receiving CVP, the CR rate was 34%, 12-year OS, EFS, TTP, and DFS were 64, 20, 21, and 37%, respectively. Thus, CVP/F exhibited favorable safety profile while maintaining the excellent efficacy of combining cyclophosphamide and fludarabine and warrants further evaluation in combination with rituximab.