Autoimmune cholangitis associated to IgG4 related sclerosing disease.
Departamento de Medicina-Hepatología, Hospital General de Agudos C. Argerich, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana 03/2011; 41(1):55-9.
The IgG4-related sclerosing disease is characterized by the presence of plasmatic IgG4 positive cells and T-lymphocytes infiltration in different organs. We herein report a case of cholestasis due to autoimmune cholangitis associated to IgG4 disease. A 40-year-old woman with a history of pruritus, anosmia, Sjögren's syndrome and diabetes, was referred for a pancreatic tumor. Alkaline phosphatase was 24-fold upper limit of normal (ULN), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase 21-fold ULN, aspartate aminotransferase 3-fold ULN, alanine aminotransferase 2-fold ULN, cholesterol 408 mg/dL, bilirubin normal, gamma-globulin 3.92 g/dL, IgG4 4.6 g/L, antinuclear antibody positive (1/320), and antimitochondrial antibodies negative. Ultrasound scan (US) showed a mass in the pancreatic head and thickening of the gallbladder and the bile duct walls. Dilation and strictures of the main pancreatic duct and intrahepatic bile ducts were detected by MR cholangiopancreatography. Liver biopsy showed chronic inflammatory lesions, ductal damage (autoimmune cholangitis) (METAVIRA2, F2) and IgG4 bearing plasmatic cells. A cervical lymph node showed IgG4 bearing plasmatic cells. After 2 weeks of treatment with meprednisone, ursodeoxycholic acid and insulin, pruritus and anosmia disappeared. After eleven months of treatment imaging studies showed disappearance of the pancreatic tumor, atrophy of the body and the pancreatic tail and normal biochemical parameters, except for alkaline phosphatase 2-fold ULN. The final diagnosis of our patient was autoimmune hepatitis with cholangitis associated to IgG4 systemic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related kidney disease characterizing tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is an organ complication recognized in IgG4-related systemic diseases that has some unique aspects compared to other types of TIN. TIN lesions in the kidney can be tumor-like, focal or diffuse. Abnormal urinalysis is usually mild or absent even in the cases with deteriorated renal dysfunction. Some cases are accidentally diagnosed from radiological findings without renal dysfunction and/or abnormal urinalysis. The typical pathological findings of TIN are unique fibrosis and infiltration of massive lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells. Glomerular lesions are rare but the complication of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and membranous nephropathy is occasionally reported. Pathogenic mechanisms are unclear until now; however, auto-immune and allergic mechanisms have been suspected from laboratory data. The initial response to steroid agents is generally favorable; however, recurrence is possible after the discontinuation of steroid treatment. Long-term follow-up is necessary with continuous systemic checks for organ disorders due to IgG4-related systemic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation is indicated for terminal phases of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Indications for transplantation in autoimmune liver diseases are similar to those used in other acute or chronic liver diseases. Therapeutic advances have reduced the need for transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis but not for primary sclerosing cholangitis. Overall, outcomes of transplantation for autoimmune liver diseases are excellent. However, recurrence of autoimmune liver diseases in the allograft has variable impacts on graft and patient survivals. Treatment of recurrent diseases requires changes in immunosuppression or addition of ursodeoxycholic acid. Among autoimmune liver diseases, only autoimmune hepatitis occurs de novo in recipients transplanted for other diseases. Patients transplanted for autoimmune hepatitis or primary sclerosing cholangitis are at risk for reactivation or de novo onset of ulcerative colitis. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of recurrent autoimmune liver diseases is needed to devise effective means of prevention and treatment.
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