Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils

Alterra, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 4.14). 04/2011; 159(11):3215-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.04.001
Source: PubMed


Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) direct soil emissions from agriculture are often estimated using the default IPCC emission factor (EF) of 1%. However, a large variation in EFs exists due to differences in environment, crops and management. We developed an approach to determine N(2)O EFs that depend on N-input sources and environmental factors. The starting point of the method was a monitoring study in which an EF of 1% was found. The conditions of this experiment were set as the reference from which the effects of 16 sources of N input, three soil types, two land-use types and annual precipitation on the N(2)O EF were estimated. The derived EF inference scheme performed on average better than the default IPCC EF. The use of differentiated EFs, including different regional conditions, allows accounting for the effects of more mitigation measures and offers European countries a possibility to use a Tier 2 approach.

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    • "Two methods of analysis were applied to derive EFs for mixed crops and rice using N-input sources and environmental factors. The first analysis (non-transformed data analysis) was based on good practise for emission calculation plus rules used in the literature (IPCC, 2006; Lu et al., 2006; Zheng et al., 2004; Lesschen et al., 2011). The second analysis (transformed data analysis) was based on good practise plus the back transformation correction of log transformed emission data (Finney, 1941; Sichel, 1966). "
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    ABSTRACT: China accounts for a third of global nitrogen fertilizer consumption. Under an International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 assessment, emission factors (EFs) are developed for the major crop types using country-specific data. IPCC advises a separate calculation for the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of rice cultivation from that of cropland and the consideration of the water regime used for irrigation. In this paper we combine these requirements in two independent analyses, using different data quality acceptance thresholds, to determine the influential parameters on emissions with which to disaggregate and create N2O EFs. Across China, the N2O EF for lowland horticulture was slightly higher (between 0.74% and 1.26% of fertilizer applied) than that for upland crops (values ranging between 0.40% and 1.54%), and significantly higher than for rice (values ranging between 0.29% and 0.66% on temporarily drained soils, and between 0.15% and 0.37% on un-drained soils). Higher EFs for rice were associated with longer periods of drained soil and the use of compound fertilizer; lower emissions were associated with the use of urea or acid soils. Higher EFs for upland crops were associated with clay soil, compound fertilizer or maize crops; lower EFs were associated with sandy soil and the use of urea. Variation in emissions for lowland vegetable crops was closely associated with crop type. The two independent analyses in this study produced consistent disaggregated N2O EFs for rice and mixed crops, showing that the use of influential cropping parameters can produce robust EFs for China. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    • "Differences in seasonal soil N 2 O emission across CRM treatments were expected, with changes in soil water content, soil temperature, and N rates. These are factors that influence soil N 2 O emissions through change in nitrification and denitrification process (Lesschen et al., 2011; Sainju et al., 2012; Al-Kaisi and Yin, 2005; Mosier et al., 2002). Differences in seasonal soil mineral N concentration, soil water content, and soil temperature were observed between two years (Figs. 2 and 3 "
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    ABSTRACT: In-field management practices of corn cob and residue mix (CRM) as a feedstock source for ethanol production can have potential effects on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of CRM piles, storage in-field, and subsequent removal on soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The study was conducted in 2010–2012 at the Iowa State University, Agronomy Research Farm located near Ames, Iowa (42.0°′N; 93.8°′W). The soil type at the site is Canisteo silty clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, mesic Typic Endoaquolls). The treatments for CRM consisted of control (no CRM applied and no residue removed after harvest), early spring complete removal (CR) of CRM after application of 7.5 cm depth of CRM in the fall, 2.5 cm, and 7.5 cm depth of CRM over two tillage systems of no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and three N rates (0, 180, and 270 kg N ha−1) of 32% liquid UAN (NH4NO3) in a randomized complete block design with split–split arrangements. The findings of the study suggest that soil CO2 and N2O emissions were affected by tillage, CRM treatments, and N rates. Most N2O and CO2 emissions peaks occurred as soil moisture or temperature increased with increase precipitation or air temperature. However, soil CO2 emissions were increased as the CRM amount increased. On the other hand, soil N2O emissions increased with high level of CRM as N rate increased. Also, it was observed that NT with 7.5 cm CRM produced higher CO2 emissions in drought condition as compared to CT. Additionally, no differences in N2O emissions were observed due to tillage system. In general, dry soil conditions caused a reduction in both CO2 and N2O emissions across all tillage, CRM treatments, and N rates.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Applied Soil Ecology
    • "Winter wheat represents about 44% of the total cereal area in Denmark and together with spring barley they constitute about 30% of the area under organic farming (Plantedirektoratet, 2009). According toLesschen et al. (2011), the cereal-based cropping systems investigated in this study were located in an area with high (Galicia, Spain) and low to moderate (Central Jutland, Denmark) risk of soil N 2 O emissions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture should be assessed across cropping systems and agroclimatic regions. In this study, we investigate the ability of the FASSET model to analyze differences in the magnitude of N2O emissions due to soil, climate and management factors in cereal-based cropping systems. Forage maize was grown in a conventional dairy system at Mabegondo (NW Spain) and wheat and barley in organic and conventional crop rotations at Foulum (NW Denmark). These two European sites represent agricultural areas with high and low to moderate emission levels, respectively. Field trials included plots with and without catch crops that were fertilized with either mineral N fertilizer, cattle slurry, pig slurry or digested manure. Non-fertilized treatments were also included. Measurements of N2O fluxes during the growing cycle of all the crops at both sites were performed with the static chamber method with more frequent measurements post-fertilization and biweekly measurements when high fluxes were not expected. All cropping systems were simulated with the FASSET version 2.5 simulation model. Cumulative soil seasonal N2O emissions were about ten-fold higher at Mabegondo than at Foulum when averaged across systems and treatments (8.99 and 0.71 kg N2O-N ha−1, respectively). The average simulated cumulative soil N2O emissions were 9.03 and 1.71 kg N2O-N ha−1 at Mabegondo and at Foulum, respectively. Fertilization, catch crops and cropping systems had lower influence on the seasonal soil N2O fluxes than the environmental factors. Overall, in its current version FASSET reproduced the effects of the different factors investigated on the cumulative seasonal soil N2O emissions but temporally it overestimated emissions from nitrification and denitrification on particular days when soil operations, ploughing or fertilization, took place. The errors associated with simulated daily soil N2O fluxes increased with the magnitude of the emissions. For resolving causes of differences in simulated and measured fluxes more intensive and temporally detailed measurements of N2O fluxes and soil C and N dynamics would be needed.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · European Journal of Agronomy
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