Predictors of Long-Term Weight Loss in Adults With Modest Initial Weight Loss, by Sex and Race

Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 04/2011; 20(9):1820-8. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2011.88
Source: PubMed


Effective weight management interventions could reduce race-sex disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance in race-sex subgroups. In the Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM), overweight/obese (BMI 25-45 kg/m(2)) adults who lost ≥4 kg in a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention (phase I) were randomized into one of three 30-month maintenance interventions (phase II). To investigate predictors in subgroups, randomized groups were combined for this analysis. Of 1,685 phase I participants, 1,032 (61%) entered phase II, including 12% black men (BM), 26% black women (BW), 25% white men (WM), and 37% white women (WW). Weight change over the 36-month study ranged from -2.3% (95% confidence interval = -3.1 to -1.5%) in BW to -4.5% (95% confidence interval = -5.7 to -4.0%) in WM, the result of differential weight loss during phase I. Within race, men lost significantly more weight than women, but within sex group, weight loss did not differ significantly between races. Although participants regained weight during phase II, regain did not differ by race-sex group, and mean weight at the end of the study was significantly lower than phase I entry weight for each subgroup. In regression models, phase I weight loss predicted overall 36-month weight loss in all race-sex groups. Healthy dietary pattern at entry, improvement in dietary pattern, or both were predictive in three of four race-sex groups. Few other variables other than initial weight loss and dietary pattern were predictive. Future research should identify additional modifiable influences on long-term maintenance after a modest weight loss.

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Available from: Leonor Corsino, Sep 29, 2014
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    • "The longer term findings clearly indicate a need to strengthen intervention delivery after the initial period in order to achieved sustained effects on BMI. Several studies that have included Black women report that initial weight loss is a major predictor of longer term weight loss [66,67], which suggests that alterations to improve the potential for early weight loss may also improve results over the longer term. This could involve identifying culturally salient strategies to motivate overweight and obese women to lose weight rather than only control weight initially and strengthening advice regarding how to do this. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 x 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary changes persisted Enhanced social support and the ability to interact with others during the show were not effective complementary intervention components as conducted in this trial. Future research to strengthen the ability of this approach to achieve long term effects may offer even more promising outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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    • "The impact of initial weight loss on long term weight loss is well described in several studies [19-21]. In a recent American study of 1,685 multi ethnic obese participants, weight loss at 6 months was found to be a consistent predictor of weight loss after 36 months across gender and ethnic groups [22]. The same was reported in a Swedish study of 247 participants undergoing a two-step weight loss program lasting for 8–10 months. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of lifestyle intervention programs in morbid obesity report large variations in weight loss outcomes. This is reported not only between but also within standardized programs. Such reports point to participants' characteristics as possible predictors of this outcome. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify predictors of weight loss after a 1-year partly residential intensive lifestyle intervention program (ILI). Morbidly obese patients (n=199), all Caucasian, 71 % women, mean (SD) age 45.2 (11.1) years, body mass index (BMI) 42.0 (6.2) kg/m2, and excess body weight (>BMI=25 kg/m2) 49.4 (19.6) kg, were referred from public hospitals to a rehabilitation center and enrolled consecutively. The 1-year ILI comprised of four (n=104) or five (n=95) stays at the rehabilitation center. In both cases there was one main stay for 4 weeks and the remaining stays lasted 1 week each. In the home periods the patients were followed up by telephone and by their general practitioners (GP). The patients were also encouraged to use a predefined paper based diary. Health related quality of life (HRQL), diagnostic, anthropometric, socio-demographic, psychosocial and intervention characteristics were measured at baseline, 12 weeks and 1 year. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to extract possible predictors of weight loss at 1-year. Direct and indirect effects of these predictors were tested through structural equation modeling. The mean (SD) 1-year weight loss was 10 (11) kg, corresponding to an 8 (8) % reduction of body weight from baseline. Mean excess weight loss (EWL) was 20 (22) % ranging from 104% to -77%. The adherence to a diary (r=.16), type 2 diabetes (r=-.14) and frequency of GP-visits (r=.23) were significantly associated with EWL at 12 weeks. Predictors of 1-year EWL were 12 week EWL (r=.66), occupational status (r=.11), age (r=.19), and mental HRQL (r=-.16), all p<.05. The path model explained 50% of the variation (r2=.50) of 1-year EWL. Larger 12 week weight loss, being employed, lower mental HRQL and being older predicts larger weight loss after 1 year in morbidly obese patients following ILI. Not having type 2 diabetes, using a diary combined with regular GP follow-up influence the 12-week weight loss.Trial NCT00477399.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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    • "Education: College degree or higher: AAW: 56% CW: 72% [8] Formal Theoretical Framework: SCT Cultural Adaptations: Yes, Minority Implementation committee, AA cultural-training for all interventionists, cultural sensitivity training, development of specific strategies for enhancing intervention effectiveness for AA [57] Duration of maintenance phase: "
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
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