Article

Effects of carbohydrates on satiety: Differences between liquid and solid food

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 07/2011; 14(4):385-90. DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e328346df36
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To examine the satiety effect of carbohydrates with a focus on the comparison of liquid and solid food and their implications for energy balance and weight management.
A number of studies have examined the role of dietary fiber, whole grains, and glycemic index or glycemic load on satiety and subsequent energy intake, but results remain inconclusive. Intake of liquid carbohydrates, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages, has increased considerably across the globe in recent decades in both adolescents and adults. In general, liquid carbohydrates produce less satiety compared with solid carbohydrates. Some energy from liquids may be compensated for at subsequent meals but because the compensation is incomplete, it leads to an increase in total long-term energy intake. Recent studies also suggest some potential differential responses of satiety by characteristics of the patients (e.g., race, sex, and body weight status). These differences warrant further research.
Satiety is a complex process influenced by a number of properties in food. The physical form (solid vs. liquid) of carbohydrates is an important component that may affect the satiety process and energy intake. Accumulating evidence suggests that liquid carbohydrates generally produce less satiety than solid forms.

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    • "Greater prevalence of overweight and obesity however is supported by data showing that, whilst the energy content of a food is clearly an important driver of satiety, consumption of liquid CHO may be poorly recognised and engender less compensation than an isoenergetic high-CHO solid format meal. This has been shown in several[31,55], although not all, studies[56]. How strong is this evidence[57], and if there is a causative relationship with SSBs, whether this may be a consequence of the sweet nature of sugary CHO beverages, the high energy content, or simply the food form remains under debate[31]. "
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    • "Those who were unable to quit soda consumption preoperatively may have been less likely to comply with our dietary recommendations postoperatively. Furthermore, given that consuming liquid carbohydrates such as soda leads to poorer satiety compared with eating solid foods, caloric intake may have been significantly higher in patients who continued to drink soda postoperatively [34] [35]. "
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    • "2013 ) . A poten - tial mechanism in this association is that carbohy - drates in liquid form produce less satiety levels than solid carbohydrates thus increasing daily energy intake ( Pan & Hu 2011 ) . Apart from the association of SSBs with weight gain , fructose - sweetened bever - ages may increase visceral adiposity , which is linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases ( Stanhope et al . "
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