The effect of RBC transfusions on cytokine gene expression after cardiac surgery in patients developing post-operative multiple organ failure
Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanquin Blood Supply, Research Division Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, LUMC, Leiden, The Netherlands. Transfusion Medicine
(Impact Factor: 1.65).
04/2011; 21(4):236-46. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3148.2011.01075.x
To determine the effect of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions during cardiac surgery on cytokine gene expression (GE) in relation to multiple organ failure (MOF) development after systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
RBC transfusion in cardiac surgery patients is dose-dependently associated with post-operative MOF, possibly acting as a second hit after cardiopulmonary bypass.
For this observational study, 29 patients divided into four groups of cardiac surgery patients were selected from a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Group 1: no-RBC, no-MOF (N = 8); group 2: MOF, no-RBC (N = 7); group 3: RBC, no-MOF (N = 6); group 4: RBC and MOF (N = 8). Selection was based on age, gender, number of (leukocyte-depleted) RBC transfusions, type and duration of surgery. A 114 cytokine GE array was applied to blood samples withdrawn before and 24 h after surgery. Expression of selected genes was confirmed with reverse transcriptase real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Nineteen of the 39 detectable genes showed a significant change in GE after surgery. Confirmed by RT-PCR, transfused MOF patients exhibit significantly less downregulation of CD40 ligand than control patients. Patients who would develop MOF show significantly larger increases in GE of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-superfamily members 10 and 13B (TNFsf10/13B).
When tested at 24 h after surgery, cytokine GE in peripheral blood leucocytes showed no significant differences between those transfused and those not transfused. Some alterations were seen in those developing MOF compared to those who did not, but the findings offer no role of leukocyte depleted (LD) RBC transfusion in the development of MOF.
Available from: Nabil E Hassan
- "In addition, transfusions have poorly characterized but multi-systemic effects that are thrombogenic, immunosuppressive, and inflammatory in nature leading to deterioration independent of presenting illness45678. Thus, red blood cell (RBC) transfusions could have direct and indirect effects by interacting with the presenting illness, leading to a significant impact on ICU morbidity and mortality910111213. The above pathophysiologic factors may explain why restrictive transfusion protocols have been shown to reduce transfusions without any negative impact on outcomes . "
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ABSTRACT: Severity of illness is an important consideration in making the decision to transfuse as it is the sicker patient that often needs a red cell transfusion. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions could potentially have direct effects and interact with presenting illness by contributing to pathologies such as multi-organ dysfunction and acute lung injury thus exerting a considerable impact on overall morbidity and mortality. In this study, we examine if transfusion is an independent predictor of mortality, or if outcomes are merely a result of the initial severity as predicted by Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III, Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM2), and day 1 Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores.
A single center retrospective study was conducted using data from a prospectively maintained transfusion database and center-specific data at our pediatric ICU between January 2009 and December 2012. Multivariate regression was used to control for the effects of clinical findings, therapy, and severity scores, with mortality as the dependent variable. Likelihood ratios and area under the curve were used to test the fidelity of severity scores by comparing transfused vs. non-transfused patients.
There were 4975 admissions that met entry criteria. In multivariate analysis, PRISM III scores and serum hemoglobin were significant predictors of transfusion (p < 0.05). Transfused and non-transfused subjects were distinctly disparate, so multivariate regression was used to control for differences. Severity scores, age, volume transfused, and vasoactive agents were significantly associated with mortality whereas hemoglobin was not. A substantial number of transfusions (45 %) occurred in the first 24 h, and patients transfused later (24–48 h) were more likely to die compared to this earlier time point. Likelihood ratio testing revealed statistically significant differences in severity scoring systems to predict mortality in transfused vs. non-transfused patients.
This study suggests that RBC transfusion is an important risk factor that is statistically independent of severity. The timing of transfusions that related strongest to mortality remained outside the purview of severity scoring, as these happened beyond the timing of data collection for most scoring systems.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "SIRS occurs after CPB mainly because of the contact of blood with foreign body surfaces during CPB. This leads to multi-system and multi-cell activation and produces a large number of humoral and cellular inflammatory mediators through a cascade reaction, which eventually causes tissue and organ damage or even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome [8-10]. Causes of SIRS also include surgical injury, anesthesia, changes in body temperature, organ ischemia/reperfusion injury, machine blood transfusion, hemodilution, and heparin-protamine complexes [11,12]. "
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ABSTRACT: To compare the effect of totally thoracoscopic with conventional, open repair of atrial septal defect.
Forty atrial septal defect cases were divided into two groups by surgical approach: totally thoracoscopic approach (group A, n = 20) and conventional open approach (group B, n = 20). In group A, surgical procedures were performed through three portal incisions in the right lateral chest wall under thoracoscopic vision without the aid of a computerized robotic surgical system. Notably, all operations were completed by one surgeon who had just begun using this technique. In group B, the atrial septal defects were repaired in conventional open fashion. Clinical outcomes and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and creatine kinase isoenzyme-myocardial band (CK-MB) for the two groups were evaluated and compared.
All operations were performed successfully without serious complications. Durations of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), CPB setup, aortic cross-clamping, and operative procedure were significantly longer in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). The recovery times for body temperature and laboratory values of leukocytes were significantly shorter for group A than for group B (P < 0.05). There were no differences in durations of postoperative assisted ventilation or intensive care unit and hospital stays, volumes of blood transfused intraoperatively or thoracic drainage, or medical costs between the two groups. Serum levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, and ICAM-1) and CK-MB increased significantly in both groups after surgery. However, 6 h and 12 h after surgery, levels of these inflammatory factors and CK-MB were significantly lower in group A than in group B (P < 0.05).
Thoracoscopic cardiac surgery is technically feasible and safe, with less trauma and quicker recovery even when done by a surgeon newly introduced to the technique.
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ABSTRACT: To examine outcomes in patients who receive small amounts of intraoperative blood transfusion.
Longitudinal, uncontrolled observational study evaluating results of intraoperative transfusion in patients entered into the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. We made propensity-matched comparisons between patients who received and did not receive intraoperative transfusion to minimize confounding when estimating the effect of intraoperative transfusion on postoperative outcomes.
We queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for patients undergoing operations between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009.
A large sample of surgical patients from 173 hospitals throughout the United States.
Operative mortality and serious perioperative morbidity (≥1 of 20 complications).
After exclusions, 941,496 operations were analyzed in patients from 173 hospitals. Most patients (893,205 patients [94.9%]) did not receive intraoperative transfusions. Patients who received intraoperative infusion of 1 unit of packed red blood cells (15,186 patients [1.6%]) had higher unadjusted rates of mortality and more serious morbidity. These rates further increased with intraoperative transfusion of more than 1 unit of packed red blood cells in a dose-dependent manner. After propensity matching to adjust for multiple preoperative risks, transfusion of a single unit of packed red blood cells increased the multivariate risk of mortality, wound problems, pulmonary complications, postoperative renal dysfunction, systemic sepsis, composite morbidity, and postoperative length of stay compared with propensity-matched patients who did not receive intraoperative transfusion.
There is a dose-dependent adverse effect of intraoperative blood transfusion. It is likely that a small, possibly discretionary amount of intraoperative transfusion leads to increased mortality, morbidity, and resource use, suggesting that caution should be used with intraoperative transfusions for mildly hypovolemic or anemic patients.
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