In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of Symplocos cochinchinensis S. Moore leaves containing phenolic compounds

Division of Ethnopharmacology, Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai 600034, India.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (Impact Factor: 2.9). 07/2011; 49(7):1604-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.010
Source: PubMed


Methanol extract of Symplocos cochinchinensis S. Moore leaves was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. The total phenolic content of the extract was 230 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g extract. The extract showed very good scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 620.30 ± 0.14 μg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 730.21 ± 1.05 μg/ml), nitric oxide (IC50 870.31 ± 0.19 μg/ml) radicals, as well as high reducing power. The extract also showed strong suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation. In in vivo study CCl4 induced oxidative stress produced significant increase in SGOT, SGPT and LDH levels along with reduction in liver SOD, CAT, GSH and GPx levels. Pre-treatment of rats with the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) for 7 days showed significant reduction in the levels of SGOT, SGPT and LDH compared to CCl4 treated rats. SOD, CAT, GSH and GPx levels were increased significantly due to treatment with the extract. The activity of the extract was comparable to the standard drug, silymarin (25 mg/kg). The results suggest that the leaves of S. cochinchinensis are a source of natural antioxidants.

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    • "The percent yield of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were 0.87%, 1.56% and 6.637% (w/w). The concentrations of extracts for in vitro a-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant assays were fixed based on the previous studies (Sunil & Ignacimuthu, 2011). 2.4. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Hedyotis biflora L. (Rubiaceae). In in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition and antioxidant activity, the methanol extract showed potent effect compared to hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. The methanol extract of H. biflora (HBMe) showed 50% α-glucosidase inhibition at the concentration of 480.20±2.37μg/ml. The total phenolic content of HBMe was 206.81±1.11mg of catechol equivalents/g extract. HBMe showed great scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC(50) 520.21±1.02μg/ml), hydroxyl (IC(50) 510.21±1.51μg/ml), nitric oxide (IC(50) 690.20±2.13μg/ml) and superoxide (IC(50) 510.31±1.45μg/ml) radicals, as well as high reducing power. HBMe also showed a strong suppressive effect on lipid peroxidation. Using the β-carotene method, the scavenging values of HBMe was significantly lower than BHT, and metal chelating ability of HBMe also showed a strong inhibition effect when compared to the reference standard. The active compound ursolic acid from HBMe was identified using various spectroscopical studies. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that HBMe has a significant potential to use as a natural α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant agent.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Food Chemistry
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    • "Although no substantial CAT activity results were observed in liver homogenate and red cells from the CCl 4 -treated group after extract administration in comparison to other antioxidant parameters , CAT results were statistically significant. With regard to flavonoids detected by HPLC analysis, the above results suggest the protective potential of Turnera leaf extract to scavenge free radicals produced by CCl 4 , since these compounds are associated with several health benefits and prevent oxidative damage (Sunil and Ignacimuthu, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to determine whether the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia Linn. var. elegans extract exert significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of its hydroethanolic extract (HEETU) was evaluated by assessing (a) its radical scavenging ability in vitro, and (b) its in vivo effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The in vitro antioxidant assay (DPPH) clearly supported HEETU free radical scavenging potential. Moreover, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) were significantly enhanced in CCl(4)-treated rats due to oral HEETU-treatment (500mg/kgb.w.) over 7 and 21days. In addition, an improvement was observed in lipid peroxidation and serum biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), indicating a protective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver injuries, confirmed by histopathological studies. The HEETU effect was comparable to the standard drug Legalon® (50mg/kgb.w.) under the same experimental condition. Quantitative analysis of the HPLC extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, wich mediate the effects of antioxidant and oxidative stress. In conclusion, extract components exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in vitro and in vivo.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
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    • "DPPH is a radical, purple in colour, which is reduced to the yellow coloured diphenylpicrylhydrazine by plant extracts. This antioxidant assay is based on the reduction of alcoholic DPPH solution in the presence of hydrogen-donating antioxidant due to the formation of the non-radical form, DPPH-H [48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Traditional Indian and Australian medicinal plant extracts were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activities were also assessed. Methods The evaluation of enzyme inhibitory activity of seven Australian aboriginal medicinal plants and five Indian Ayurvedic plants was carried out against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring (i) the scavenging effect of plant extracts against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2′-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and (ii) ferric reducing power. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also determined. Results Of the twelve plant extracts evaluated, the highest inhibitory activity against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes was exerted by Santalum spicatum and Pterocarpus marsupium with IC50 values of 5.43 μg/ml and 0.9 μg/ml, respectively, and 5.16 μg/ml and 1.06 μg/ml, respectively. However, the extracts of Acacia ligulata (IC50 = 1.01 μg/ml), Beyeria leshnaultii (0.39 μg/ml), Mucuna pruriens (0.8 μg/ml) and Boerhaavia diffusa (1.72 μg/ml) exhibited considerable activity against α-glucosidase enzyme only. The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent in extracts of Acacia kempeana, Acacia ligulata followed by Euphorbia drummondii against both DPPH and ABTS. The reducing power was more pronounced in Euphorbia drummondii and Pterocarpus marsupium extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 0.42 to 30.27 μg/mg equivalent of gallic acid and 0.51 to 32.94 μg/mg equivalent of quercetin, respectively, in all plant extracts. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between total flavonoids and total phenolics was 0.796. Conclusion The results obtained in this study showed that most of the plant extracts have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia, diabetes and the related condition of oxidative stress.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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