Development and characterization of rabbit and mouse antibodies against ebolavirus envelope glycoproteins

Division of Cellular and Gene Therapies, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, FDA, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Journal of virological methods (Impact Factor: 1.78). 06/2011; 174(1-2):99-109. DOI: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.04.003
Source: PubMed


Ebolaviruses are the etiologic agents of severe viral hemorrhagic fevers in primates, including humans, and could be misused for the development of biological weapons. The ability to rapidly detect and differentiate these viruses is therefore crucial. Antibodies that can detect reliably the ebolavirus surface envelope glycoprotein GP₁,₂ or a truncated variant that is secreted from infected cells (sGP) are required for advanced development of diagnostic assays such as sandwich ELISAs or Western blots (WB). We used a GP₁,₂ peptide conserved among Bundibugyo, Ebola, Reston, Sudan, and Taï Forest viruses and a mucin-like domain-deleted Sudan virus GP₁,₂ (SudanGPΔMuc) to immunize mice or rabbits, and developed a panel of antibodies that either cross-react or are virus-specific. These antibodies detected full-length GP₁,₂ and sGP in different assays such as ELISA, FACS, or WB. In addition, some of the antibodies were shown to have potential clinical relevance, as they detected ebolavirus-infected cells by immunofluorescence assay and gave a specific increase in signal by sandwich ELISA against sera from mouse-adapted Ebola virus-infected mice over uninfected mouse sera. Rabbit anti-SudanGPΔMuc polyclonal antibody neutralized gammaretroviral particles pseudotyped with Sudan virus GP₁,₂, but not particles pseudotyped with other ebolavirusGP₁,₂. Together, our results suggest that this panel of antibodies may prove useful for both in vitro analyses of ebolavirus GP₁,₂, as well as analysis of clinically relevant samples.

Download full-text


Available from: Krishna Kota, Jan 28, 2014
  • Source
    • "These methods require preparation of antigens by handling live Ebola virus and Marburg virus. To make it possible to detect antibodies to Ebola virus and Marburg virus without handling live viruses, increasing number of researchers have developed an IgG ELISA using recombinant Ebola virus and Marburg virus proteins (Saijo M, et al., 2006; Nakayama E, et al., 2010; Ou W, et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Full-length nucleoproteins from Ebola and Marburg viruses were expressed as His-tagged recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were established for the detection of antibodies specific to Ebola and Marburg viruses. The ELISAs were evaluated by testing antisera collected from rabbit immunized with Ebola and Marburg virus nucleoproteins. Although little cross-reactivity of antibodies was observed in anti-Ebola virus nucleoprotein rabbit antisera, the highest reactions to immunoglobulin G (IgG) were uniformly detected against the nucleoprotein antigens of homologous viruses. We further evaluated the ELISA's ability to detect antibodies to Ebola and Marburg viruses using human sera samples collected from individuals passing through the Guangdong port of entry. With a threshold set at the mean plus three standard deviations of average optical densities of sera tested, the ELISA systems using these two recombinant nucleoproteins have good sensitivity and specificity. These results demonstrate the usefulness of ELISA for diagnostics as well as ecological and serosurvey studies of Ebola and Marburg virus infection.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Virologica Sinica
  • Source
    • "As shown in Figures 4A and 4B, a TAFV GP1,2 fragment of approximately 50 kDa was repeatedly detected by the immune sera but not by R.F88-2. Since R.F88-2 was raised by injecting a conserved 38-mer GP1,2 peptide (aa72-109, [42]), the epitope on the TAFV fragment detected by the mice presumably is from a region outside of this domain, or the region that R.F88-2 recognizes is conformationally distinct. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genus Ebolavirus includes five distinct viruses. Four of these viruses cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. Currently there are no licensed vaccines for any of them; however, several vaccines are under development. Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (GP1,2) is highly immunogenic, but antibodies frequently arise against its least conserved mucin-like domain (MLD). We hypothesized that immunization with MLD-deleted GP1,2 (GPΔMLD) would induce cross-species immunity by making more conserved regions accessible to the immune system. To test this hypothesis, mice were immunized with retrovirus-like particles (retroVLPs) bearing Ebola virus GPΔMLD, DNA plasmids (plasmo-retroVLP) that can produce such retroVLPs in vivo, or plasmo-retroVLP followed by retroVLPs. Cross-species neutralizing antibody and GP1,2-specific cellular immune responses were successfully induced. Our findings suggest that GPΔMLD presented through retroVLPs may provide a strategy for development of a vaccine against multiple ebolaviruses. Similar vaccination strategies may be adopted for other viruses whose envelope proteins contain highly variable regions that may mask more conserved domains from the immune system.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Virology Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteins are effective immunogens for generation of antibodies. However, occasionally the native protein is known but not available for antibody production. In such cases synthetic peptides derived from the native protein are good alternatives for antibody production. These peptide antibodies are powerful tools in experimental biology and are easily produced to any peptide of choice. A widely used approach for production of peptide antibodies is to immunize animals with a synthetic peptide coupled to a carrier protein. Very important is the selection of the synthetic peptide, where factors such as structure, accessibility and amino acid composition are crucial. Since small peptides tend not to be immunogenic, it may be necessary to conjugate them to carrier proteins in order to enhance immune presentation. Several strategies for conjugation of peptide-carriers applied for immunization exist, including solid-phase peptide-carrier conjugation and peptide-carrier conjugation in solution. Upon immunization, adjuvants such as Al(OH)(3) are added together with the immunogenic peptide-carrier conjugate, which usually leads to high-titred antisera. Following immunization and peptide antibody purification, the antibodies are characterized based on their affinity or specificity. An efficient approach for characterization of peptide antibodies is epitope mapping using peptide based assays. This review describes standard solid-phase approaches for generation of peptide antibodies with special emphasis on peptide selection, generation of peptide conjugates for immunization and characterization of the resulting peptide antibodies.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Methods