In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Protocatechualdehyde Isolated from Phellinus gilvus

College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Impact Factor: 0.83). 02/2011; 57(1):118-22. DOI: 10.3177/jnsv.57.118
Source: PubMed


Although various biological activities of Phellinus gilvus (PG) have been reported, the active compounds responsible for these effects are not known. Here, we evaluated the activity of various solvent extracts of PG, and found the ethyl acetate extract (Fd) to be the most active fraction, showing a strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and COX-2 mRNA expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Six major compounds were identified from the ethyl acetate extract of PG, and protocatechualdehyde (PCA) was supposed to be the major phenolic compound of PG responsible for its DPPH free radical scavenging activity and its inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells. Further in vitro and in vivo experiments are currently underway to confirm this observation and to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the process as well as the biological activities of other fractions of Fd.

Download full-text


Available from: Jong Choon Kim, Aug 06, 2014
  • Source
    • "Meanwhile, it has been reported that PAL can potentially confer anti-fibrosis effects through the inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation and levels of transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, type I collagen and type III collagen in tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated HSCs [12]. It has also been reported that PAL possesses other biological activities, including anti-sepsis [13], inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication [14], and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities [15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL) has been reported to bind to DJ-1, a key protein involved in Parkinson's disease (PD), and exerts potential neuroprotective effects via DJ-1 in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of PAL against neurotoxin-induced cell and animal models of PD. In cellular models of PD, PAL markedly increased cell viability rates, mitochondrial oxidation-reduction activity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced intracellular ROS levels to prevent neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. In animal models of PD, PAL reduced the apomorphine injection, caused turning in 6-OHDA treated rats, and increased the motor coordination and stride decreases in MPTP treated mice. Meanwhile, in an MPTP mouse model, PAL prevented a decrease of the contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in the striatum and TH-positive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN). In addition, PAL increased the protein expression of DJ-1 and reduced the level of α-synuclein in the SN of MPTP lesioned mice. PAL also increased the spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons. The current study demonstrates that PAL can efficiently protect dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin injury in vitro and in vivo, and that the potential mechanisms may be related to its effects in increasing DJ-1, decreasing α-synuclein and its growth-promoting effect on spine density.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Typical phenol oxidase inhibitors such as phenylthiourea, potassium cyanide, and sodium azide, which are known to react with the copper at the active site, inhibited the reaction drastically, demonstrating the participation of the active site copper in the catalytic process. PA is a phenolic compound that exists in many herbs and for which various pharmacological effects have been reported (Chang et al., 2011; Himmelwrigh et al., 1980; Zhou et al., 2005, 2007). Antioxidative and antitumor activity of PA was reported (Kim et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tyrosinase is responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and usually catalyze the conversion of monophenols to o-diphenols and oxidation of diphenols to corresponding quinines. However, when 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid is provided as the substrate, it catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation reaction to generate 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (protocatechualdehyde, PA. In the present study, tyrosinase was purified from potato with 27.9 purification fold by salting out with ammonium sulfate, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. The purified tyrosinase was confirmed by tyrosinase active staining following SDS-PAGE. Tyrosinase activity was visualized in the gel as a dark band. The molecular weight of tyrosinase from potato was 38kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Purified tyrosinase mediated oxidative decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxymandelate. The identity of the reaction product, PA was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as ultraviolet spectral studies. Phenol oxidase inhibitors such as potassium cyanide, sodium azide, and phenylthiourea inhibited the participation of the active site copper of the enzyme in the catalysis.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 μM). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Show more