Cholangiocarcinoma in a 17-year-old Boy With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

*Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah and Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT 84113, USA.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.63). 05/2011; 52(5):617-20. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181f9a5d2
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Sclerosing cholangitis, an uncommon disorder in children, is progressive and is, therefore, an important indication for pediatric liver transplantation. This review summarizes current challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of this rare form of pediatric liver disease.
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    ABSTRACT: A 25-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with persistent upper abdominal pain. Preoperative imaging studies revealed a hilar bile duct stricture with portal venous encasement, and the patient underwent curative resection involving extended left hepatectomy and segmental portal vein resection. The pathological findings demonstrated a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma of the bile duct with regional lymph node metastasis (stage IIIB according to the UICC TNM classification), as well as the overexpression of p53 proteins and the K-ras gene mutation in tumor cells. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence in the 10 months since the operation. Although there are several reports of relatively young adults with cholangiocarcinoma, the majority of such patients demonstrate either an anomalous arrangement of the pancreaticobiliary duct system or primary sclerosing cholangitis. The absence of any morphological abnormalities in this patient's biliary system implicates de novo carcinogenesis as the most likely cause of the cholangiocarcinoma.
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The epidemiology and natural history of pediatric primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are not well characterized. Using multiple, overlapping search strategies followed by a detailed records review, we identified all cases of pediatric PSC, ASC, AIH, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a geographically isolated region of the United States. We identified 607 cases of IBD, 29 cases of PSC, 12 cases of ASC, and 44 cases of AIH. The mean age at diagnosis was 13.0 years for PSC, 11.3 years for ASC, and 9.8 years for AIH. The incidence and prevalence of PSC, ASC, and AIH were 0.2 and 1.5 cases, 0.1 and 0.6 cases, and 0.4 and 3.0 cases per 100,000 children, respectively. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.9 years. The probability of developing complicated liver disease within 5 years of the diagnosis of liver disease was 37% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 21%-58%] for PSC, 25% (95% CI = 7%-70%) for ASC, and 15% (95% CI = 7%-33%) for AIH. The 5-year survival rates with the native liver were 78% (95% CI = 54%-91%) for PSC, 90% (95% CI = 47%-99%) for ASC, and 87% (95% CI = 71%-95%) for AIH. Cholangiocarcinoma developed in 2 of the 29 PSC patients (6.9%). PSC occurred in 9.9% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and in 0.6% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). ASC occurred in 2.3% of UC patients and 0.9% of CD patients. AIH occurred in 0.4% of UC patients and in 0.3% of CD patients. Liver disease occurred in 39 of 607 IBD patients (6.4%) overall. Conclusion: Immune-mediated liver diseases are important sources of morbidity in children. Using a population-based design, this study quantifies the burden and natural history of immune-mediated liver disease in children.
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