Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony-stimulating Factor Autoantibodies and Increased Intestinal Permeability in Crohn Disease

Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.63). 05/2011; 52(5):542-8. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181fe2d93
Source: PubMed


Alterations in intestinal permeability have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn disease (CD). We have reported that granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is required for mucosal barrier function in mice, and elevated neutralizing GM-CSF autoantibodies (Ab) are associated with stricturing ileal disease and surgery in patients with CD. We hypothesized that children with CD with elevated GM-CSF Ab would exhibit increased intestinal permeability.
Subjects were divided into 3 groups: 15 with CD and high GM-CSF Ab (≥ 1.6 μg/mL, GM-CSF Ab Hi), 12 with CD and low GM-CSF Ab (<1.6 μg/mL, GM-CSF Ab Lo), and 15 healthy controls. Subjects ingested a lactulose:mannitol (L:M) solution, and urinary excretion of LM was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum GM-CSF Ab, endotoxin core Ab (EndoCAb), and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and fecal S100A12 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The CD groups did not vary by age, sex, disease location, or activity. Neither systemic (serum LBP) nor mucosal (fecal S100A12) inflammation differed between the CD groups. Intestinal permeability as measured by the urine L:M ratio and endotoxin exposure as measured by serum EndoCAb were increased in the GM-CSF Ab Hi group compared to the GM-CSF Ab Lo group and controls.
Patients with CD with elevated GM-CSF Ab exhibit an increase in bowel permeability relative to patients with CD with lower levels of GM-CSF Ab in the absence of differences in systemic or intestinal inflammation. Therapies that target the mucosal barrier may be of particular benefit in this subgroup of patients with CD.

9 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Growth failure remains a common complication of pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) and has been associated with small bowel involvement and need for surgery. We have reported that patients with elevated (≥ 1.6 μg/mL) granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor autoantibodies (GM-CSF Ab) are more likely to experience complicated ileal disease requiring surgery. We hypothesized that concurrent GM-CSF Ab and CARD15 risk allele carriage (C15(+) GMAb(+) ) would be associated with growth failure in CD and growth hormone (GH) resistance in murine ileitis. We enrolled 229 pediatric CD patients at two sites and determined CARD15 genotype, serum GM-CSF Ab, and GH binding protein (GHBP), and height (HTz) and weight (WTz) z-scores at diagnosis. Ileitis was induced in card15-deficient mice by GM-CSF neutralization and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure. Hepatic GH receptor (GHR) abundance and GH-dependent Stat5 activation were determined by western blot and Igf-I mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) HTz at diagnosis was reduced to -0.48 (-4.2, 2.3) in C15(+) GMAb(+) patients, compared to -0.07 (-4.9, 3.4) in disease controls (P ≤ 0.05). Circulating GHBP, as a marker for tissue GHR abundance, was reduced in C15(+) GMAb(+) patients. Hepatic GHR abundance, GH induction of Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation, and Igf-I mRNA expression were reduced in male card15-deficient mice with ileitis due to GM-CSF neutralization and NSAID exposure. Innate dysfunction due to concurrent genetic variation in CARD15 and neutralizing GM-CSF Ab is associated with linear growth failure in pediatric CD, and hepatic GH resistance in murine ileitis.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent translational studies have provided new insights into pathogenesis, disease behavior, and treatment responses in pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Registry studies have identified distinct clinical phenotypes with increasing age of onset; this has led to a revision of the clinical phenotyping system, now termed the Paris classification system. It is recognized that there are infantile (age <2 years), very early onset (VEO, age 2-10), and early onset (EO, age 10-17) forms of disease. Rare genetic mutations affecting anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory pathways have been discovered in infantile and VEO forms, while genetic pathways identified in EO disease have been similar to adult-onset IBD. Genetic and serologic patterns measured soon after diagnosis have been shown to be associated with more aggressive stricturing behavior; these patterns may now be used clinically to help predict disease course. More recently, clinical and genetic models have been developed that, if validated, could be used to predict treatment responses.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Current Gastroenterology Reports
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Environmental enteropathy (also called tropical enteropathy) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination and resulting in blunting of intestinal villi and intestinal inflammation. Although these histological changes were discovered decades ago, the clinical impact of environmental enteropathy is just starting to be recognized. The failure of nutritional interventions and oral vaccines in the developing world may be attributed to environmental enteropathy, as the intestinal absorptive and immunologic functions are significantly deranged. Here we review the existing literature and examine potential mechanisms of pathogenesis for this poorly understood condition.
    Preview · Article · May 2012 · Trends in Molecular Medicine
Show more