Persell SD. Prevalence of resistant hypertension in the United States, 2003-2008

Division of General Internal Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 750 N Lake Shore Dr, 10th Floor, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 06/2011; 57(6):1076-80. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.170308
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of resistant hypertension is unknown. Much previous knowledge comes from referral populations or clinical trial participants. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2003 through 2008, nonpregnant adults with hypertension were classified as resistant if their blood pressure was ≥140/90 mm Hg and they reported using antihypertensive medications from 3 different drug classes or drugs from ≥4 antihypertensive drug classes regardless of blood pressure. Among US adults with hypertension, 8.9% (SE: 0.6%) met criteria for resistant hypertension. This represented 12.8% (SE: 0.9%) of the antihypertensive drug-treated population. Of all drug-treated adults whose hypertension was uncontrolled, 72.4% (SE: 1.6%) were taking drugs from <3 classes. Compared with those with controlled hypertension using 1 to 3 medication classes, adults with resistant hypertension were more likely to be older, to be non-Hispanic black, and to have higher body mass index (all P<0.001). They were more likely to have albuminuria, reduced renal function, and self-reported medical histories of coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus (P<0.001). Most (85.6% [SE: 2.4%]) individuals with resistant hypertension used a diuretic. Of this group, 64.4% (SE: 3.2%) used the relatively weak thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Although not rare, resistant hypertension is currently found in only a modest proportion of the hypertensive population. Among those classified here as resistant, inadequate diuretic therapy may be a modifiable therapeutic target. Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and renal dysfunction were all common in this population.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cross-sectional studies show a strong association between chronic kidney disease and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, but the longitudinal association of the rate of kidney function decline with the risk of resistant hypertension is unknown. Methods: The population-based Three-City included 8,695 participants older than 65 years, 4265 of them treated for hypertension. We estimated the odds ratios (OR) of new-onset apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg despite use of 3 antihypertensive drug classes or ≥ 4 classes regardless of blood pressure, associated with the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level and its rate of decline over 4 years, compared with both controlled hypertension and uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension with ≤ 2 drugs. GFR was estimated with three different equations. Results: Baseline prevalence of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension and of controlled and uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension, were 6.5%, 62.3% and 31.2%, respectively. During follow-up, 162 participants developed apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. Mean eGFR decline with the MDRD equation was 1.5±2.9 mL/min/1.73 m² per year: 27.7% of the participants had an eGFR ≥3 and 10.1% ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73 m² per year. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular history, the ORs for new-onset apparent treatment-resistant hypertension associated with a mean eGFR level, per 15 mL/min/1.73m² drop, were 1.23 [95% confidence interval 0.91-1.64] compared to controlled hypertension and 1.10 [0.83-1.45] compared to uncontrolled nonresistant hypertension; ORs associated with a decline rate ≥ 3 mL/min/1.73m² per year were 1.89 [1.09-3.29] and 1.99 [1.19-3.35], respectively. Similar results were obtained when we estimated GFR with the CKDEPI and the BIS1 equations. ORs tended to be higher for an eGFR decline rate ≥ 5 mL/min/1.73m² per year. Conclusion: The speed of kidney function decline is associated more strongly than kidney function itself with the risk of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension in the elderly.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Approximately 1 billion adults have SH and this figure is estimated to reach 1.5 billion in 20251. In addition, approximately 12.8% of patients have resistant SH2. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Systemic hypertension is an important public health problem and a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its high prevalence and the low rates of blood pressure control have resulted in the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation emerged as a perspective in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of renal denervation using an irrigated catheter. Methods: Ten patients with resistant hypertension underwent the procedure. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by periprocedural adverse events, renal function and renal vascular abnormalities at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were changes in blood pressure levels (office and ambulatory monitoring) and in the number of antihypertensive drugs at 6 months. Results: The mean age was 47.3 (± 12) years, and 90% of patients were women. In the first case, renal artery dissection occurred as a result of trauma due to the long sheath; no further cases were observed after technical adjustments, thus showing an effect of the learning curve. No cases of thrombosis/renal infarction or death were reported. Elevation of serum creatinine levels was not observed during follow-up. At 6 months, one case of significant renal artery stenosis with no clinical consequences was diagnosed. Renal denervation reduced office blood pressure levels by 14.6/6.6 mmHg, on average (p = 0.4 both for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure levels on ambulatory monitoring decreased by 28/17.6 mmHg (p = 0.02 and p = 0.07 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.1 antihypertensive drugs was observed. Conclusion: Renal denervation is feasible and safe in the treatment of resistant systemic arterial hypertension. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate blood pressure control represents an important goal for all physicians due to the complications of hypertension which reduce patients' quality of life. A new interventional strategy to reduce blood pressure has been developed for patients with resistant hypertension. Catheter-based renal denervation has demonstrated excellent results in recent investigations associated with few side effects. With the growing diffusion of this technique worldwide, some medical societies have published consensus statements to guide physicians how to best apply this procedure. Questions remain to be answered such as the long-term durability of renal denervation, the efficacy in patients with other sympathetically mediated diseases, and whether renal denervation would benefit patients with stage 1 hypertension.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · International Journal of Hypertension
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