Epidemiology and Control of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Infections in Rural Poultry in Italy

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università, 10, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.
Avian Diseases (Impact Factor: 1.24). 03/2011; 55(1):13-20. DOI: 10.1637/9620-950011-DIGEST.1
Source: PubMed


We analyzed the involvement of the rural poultry sector in outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (AI) in Italy in 2007-2009 and discuss possible measures for improving monitoring and control. A description of how the rural poultry sector is organized also is provided. Data were obtained by the AI surveillance system established in the areas affected by the outbreaks. The surveillance activities identified two H7N3 epidemics, in 2007 and 2009, both of which mainly involved the rural sector, yet these activities did not allow for the prompt eradication of the disease. Additional strategies could be adopted to avoid the persistence of AI within the rural sector, based on the regulation and control of poultry holdings at the top of the production chain.

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    • "It was anticipated that the confirmation of the first outbreak of HPAI on the African continent could have multiple consequences [4] if it spread further to wild and domestic birds. This is because, it is common practice to keep rural poultry in free-range, multispecies, multiage holdings that have low biosecurity levels thus exposing them to many at-risk contacts, and they could act as the epidemiologic link between the wild reservoir of AI viruses [5] and industrial poultry. This was evident in Nigeria as new cases of HPAI (H5N1) were detected during the surveillance activities [6] at the live bird markets in July 2008 in Gombe city, Gombe state after a 9-month period of influenza outbreak. "
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    ABSTRACT: Backyard poultry farms infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Nigeria between 2006 and 2008 were investigated for morbidity, mortality and Pathology. Affected farms raised local chickens, duck, turkey, guinea fowl and geese and were already confirmed to be infected with HPAI virus by virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom Nigeria. Backyard local chickens recorded the highest number of death with 89.4% of the total flock size while the duck had the highest mortality rate at 87.1%. Mortality rate was least in guinea fowls (20.55%), and above average in geese (54.64%). For Pathology, submitted carcasses comprised of sixty (60) chickens, twenty-nine (29) ducks, thirty-seven (37) turkeys, fourteen (14) guinea fowls and twelve (12) geese which were examined for gross morphological changes and histopathology. Though lesions sparingly occurred in these village poultry, main pathologic findings were associated with the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and gastro-intestinal systems and occasionally lesions were general unspecific and multi-systemic. It was observed that mortality rate was highest in duck, then chicken and turkey compared to guinea fowl and geese while lesions were milder and mortality were acute in these flocks. Key words: backyard poultry, morbidity, mortality, pathology
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    • "Although the rural poultry handlers are interested to know about possible steps to block transmission of similar outbreaks of infectious diseases, almost no study has been conducted at Bangladesh to address their queries. It is true that studies have been conducted in mainly developed countries about possible blocking of transmission cycle of infections agents (Sims et al., 2005; Ellis et al., 2006; Khan et al., 2009; Martin et al., 2010; Cecchinato et al., 2011). However, raising of family poultry is endowed with specific features in each developing country on the basis of their socio-economic and cultural heritages. "
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    ABSTRACT: Key words: Avian influenza (H5N1) Family poultry Integrated farming Risks of infection Rural area Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus type H5N1 represents one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality of poultry in both developed and developing countries. However, little is known about the transmission of this virus in developing countries that usually raise poultry as family-based farming. The study was conducted at 10 of total 64 administrative districts of Bangladesh that experienced H5N1 virus outbreaks since 2007. Trained field workers visited 30 rural families at each district to check family poultry management system. The collected data were transcribed and coded according to the standardized mutual performance of the field workers. Approximately two-third of farmers (67%) were rearing only chickens and remaining (33%) both chickens and ducks. Most of the farmers provided night shelter to their birds inside their living room (24%) or close proximate (69%). Usually ducks were scavenged in water land (58.6%) or paddy field (18.2%). The majority of owners (93%) also shared the same water land with migratory/wild birds for their daily necessity. The marketing system of poultry was characterized by comprehensive interactions among family poultry and commercial birds for prolonged duration. Unsold or newly bought birds were brought back to farmer's house in almost all instances (97.8%). Findings from this study indicated that interactions of domestic chickens and ducks with their owners (through contaminated agricultural and fisheries tools or clothing) are partially, if not solely, responsible for wide spread transmission of Avian influenza virus type H5N1. ©2011 PVJ. All rights reserved To Cite This Article: Khan MSI, SMF Akbar, ST Hossain, M Mahatab, MM Hossain and Z Idrus, 2012. Possible route of transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus type H5N1 in family poultry at rural Bangladesh. Pak Vet J, 32(x): xxx.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Pakistan Veterinary Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-nine distinct epizootics of high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred since 1959. The H5N1 HPAI panzootic affecting Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe has been the largest among these, affecting poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. A stamping-out programme achieved eradication in 24 of these epizootics (and is close to achieving eradication in the current H5N2 epizootic in South African ostriches), but vaccination was added to the control programmes in four epizootics when stamping out alone was not effective. During the 2002 to 2010 period, more than 113 billion doses of avian influenza (AI) vaccine were used in at-risk national poultry populations of over 131 billion birds. At two to three doses per bird for the 15 vaccinating countries, the average national vaccination coverage rate was 41.9% and the global AI vaccine coverage rate was 10.9% for all poultry. The highest national coverage rate was nearly 100% for poultry in Hong Kong and the lowest national coverage was less than 0.01% for poultry in Israel and The Netherlands. Inactivated AI vaccines accounted for 95.5% and live recombinant virus vaccines for 4.5% of the vaccines used. Most of these vaccines were used in the H5N1 HPAI panzootic, with more than 99% employed in the People's Republic of China, Egypt, Indonesia and Vietnam. Implementation of vaccination in these four countries occurred after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry and vaccination did not result in the enzootic infections. Vaccine usage prevented clinical disease and mortality in chickens, and maintained rural livelihoods and food security during HPAI outbreaks. Low-pathogenicity notifiable avian influenza (LPNAI) became reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health in 2006 because some H5 and H7 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have the potential to mutate to HPAI viruses. Fewer outbreaks of LPNAI have been reported than of HPAI and only six countries used vaccine in control programmes, accounting for 8.1% of the total H5/H7 AI vaccine usage, as compared to 91.9% of the vaccine used against HPAI. Of the six countries that have used vaccine to control LPNAI, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Italy have been the biggest users. In countries with enzootic HPAI and LPNAI, development and implementation of exit strategies has been difficult.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics)
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