Timing of insemination and fertility in dairy and beef cattle receiving timed artificial insemination using sex-sorted sperm

Department of Animal Reproduction, FMVZ-USP, Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, CEP 05508-270, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Theriogenology (Impact Factor: 1.8). 04/2011; 76(3):427-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.02.019
Source: PubMed


The objective was to evaluate the effects of timing of insemination and type of semen in cattle subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In Experiment 1, 420 cyclic Jersey heifers were bred at either 54 or 60 h after P4-device removal, using either sex-sorted (2.1 × 10(6) sperm/straw) or non-sorted sperm (20 × 10(6) sperm/straw) from three sires (2 × 2 factorial design). There was an interaction (P = 0.06) between time of AI and type of semen on pregnancy per AI (P/AI, at 30 to 42 d after TAI); it was greater when sex-sorted sperm (P < 0.01) was used at 60 h (31.4%; 32/102) than at 54 h (16.2%; 17/105). In contrast, altering the timing of AI did not affect conception results with non-sorted sperm (54 h = 50.5%; 51/101 versus 60 h = 51.8%; 58/112; P = 0.95). There was an effect of sire (P < 0.01) on P/AI, but no interaction between sire and time of AI (P = 0.88). In Experiment 2, 389 suckled Bos indicus beef cows were enrolled in the same treatment groups used in Experiment 1. Sex-sorted sperm resulted in lower P/AI (41.8%; 82/196; P = 0.05) than non-sorted sperm (51.8%; 100/193). In addition, there was a tendency for greater P/AI (P = 0.11) when TAI was performed 60 h (50.8%; 99/195) versus 54 h (42.8%; 83/194) after removing the progestin implant. In Experiment 3, 339 suckled B. indicus cows were randomly assigned to receive TAI with sex-sorted sperm at 36, 48, or 60 h after P4 device removal. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed twice daily in all cows to confirm ovulation. On average, ovulation occurred 71.8 ± 7.8 h after P4 removal, and greater P/AI was achieved when insemination was performed closer to ovulation. The P/AI was greatest (37.9%) for TAI performed between 0 and 12 h before ovulation, whereas P/AI was significantly less for TAI performed between 12.1 and 24 h (19.4%) or >24 h (5.8%) before ovulation. In conclusion, sex-sorted sperm resulted in a lesser P/AI than non-sorted sperm following TAI. However, improvements in P/AI with delayed time of AI were possible (Experiments 1 and 3), and seemed achievable when breeding at 60 h following progestin implant removal, compared to the standard 54 h normally used in TAI protocols.

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Available from: Kedson Neves, Aug 26, 2015
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    • "Ovulation synchronization allows cows to be inseminated at a predetermined time point, thereby avoiding the need for estrus detection [1]. Ovulation synchronization is important in situations in which the flexibility in relation to the time of AI is low, as in cows inseminated with sex-sorted semen [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of estradiol benzoate (EB) and estradiol cypionate (EC) on induction of ovulation after a synchronized LH surge and on fertility of Bos indicus females submitted to timed AI (TAI) were evaluated. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized Nelore heifers were used to evaluate the effect of EB (n = 5) and EC (n = 5) on the circulating LH profile. The LH surge timing (19.6 and 50.5 h; P = 0.001), magnitude (20.5 and 9.4 ng/mL; P = 0.005), duration (8.6 and 16.5 h; P = 0.001), and area under the LH curve (158.6 and 339.4 ng/mL; P = 0.01) differed between the EB and EC treatments, respectively. In Experiment 2 (follicular responses; n = 60) and 3 (pregnancy per AI; P/AI; n = 953) suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to an estradiol/progesterone-based synchronization protocol were assigned to receive one of two treatments to induce synchronized ovulation: 1 mg of EB im 24 h after progesterone (P4) device removal or 1 mg of EC im at P4 device removal. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between EB and EC treatments on follicular responses (maximum diameter of the ovulatory follicle, 13.1 vs. 13.9 mm; interval from progesterone device removal to ovulation, 70.2 vs. 68.5 h; and ovulation rate, 77.8 vs. 82.8%, respectively). In addition, P/AI was similar (P < 0.22) between the cows treated with EB (57.5%; 277/482) and EC (61.8%; 291/471). In conclusion, despite pharmacologic differences, both esters of estradiol administered either at P4 device removal (EC) or 24 h later (EB) were effective in inducing an LH surge which resulted in synchronized ovulations and similar P/AI in suckled Bos indicus beef cows submitted to TAI.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Theriogenology
    • "The shorter interval to estrus after CIDR insert removal (32 h), longer mean interval from the start of estrus to insemination (12 h), and time required for sperm to acquire fertilization ability (up to 10 h) equals 54 h after CIDR insert removal [31]. Considering the recommendation that AI should occur 15 to 23 h before ovulation [7] and findings that ovulation occurs 66 h after implant removal [30], it is reasonable to expect insemination of heifers at 56 h will improve pregnancy rate compared to 72 h after CIDR insert removal. Cavalieri and Fitzpatrick (1995) reported a pregnancy rate of 34.5% in heifers inseminated 3.6 h after the onset of estrus in a fixed-time insemination program [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine whether timed artificial insemination (TAI) 56 h after removal of a Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone) insert would improve AI pregnancy rate in beef heifers compared to TAI 72 h after CIDR insert removal in a 5-days CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. Angus cross beef heifers (n = 1098) at nine locations [WA (5 locations; n = 634), ID (2 locations; n = 211), VA (one location; n = 193) and WY (one location; n = 60)] were included in this study. All heifers were given a body condition score (BCS; 1-emaciated; 9-obese), and received a CIDR insert and 100 μg of gonadorelin hydrochloride (GnRH) on Day 0. The CIDR insert was removed and two doses of 25 mg of dinoprost (PGF(2α)) were given, first dose at CIDR insert removal and second dose 6 h later, on Day 5. A subset of heifers (n = 629) received an estrus detector aid at CIDR removal. After CIDR removal, heifers were observed thrice daily for estrus and estrus detector aid status until they were inseminated. Within farm, heifers were randomly allocated to two groups and were inseminated either at 56 h (n = 554) or at 72 h (n = 544) after CIDR removal. All heifers were given 100 μg of GnRH at AI. Insemination 56 h after CIDR insert removal improved AI pregnancy rate compared to insemination 72 h (66.2 vs. 55.9%; P < 0.001; 1 - β = 0.94). Locations, BCS categories (≤ 6 vs. > 6) and location by treatment and BCS by treatment interactions did not influence AI pregnancy rate (P > 0.1). The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with BCS ≤ 6 and > 6 were 61.8 and 60.1%, respectively (P > 0.1). The AI pregnancy rates among locations varied from 54.9 to 69.2% (P > 0.1). The AI pregnancy rate for heifers observed in estrus at or before AI was not different compared to heifers not observed in estrus [(65.4% (302/462) vs. 52.7% (88/167); P > 0.05)]. In conclusion, heifers inseminated 56 h after CIDR insert removal in a 5-days CO-Synch + CIDR protocol had, on average, 10.3% higher AI pregnancy rate compared to heifers inseminated 72 h after CIDR insert removal.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Theriogenology
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    • "Also, longer intervals between the onset of estrus and insemination with sex-sorted sperm have increased the pregnancy success of AI programs (Sá Filho et al., 2010). Recent studies reported an increased pregnancy rate with longer intervals between intravaginal device removal for TAI and insemination with sex-sorted sperm (Schenk et al., 2009; Sales et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different insemination times (12 and 24h or 18 and 30h) and different types of semen (sex-sorted or non-sorted sperm) on embryo production in Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) superstimulated donors. In the first experiment, hormonal superstimulation of ovarian follicular development in Nelore donors (n=71) was performed in randomly allocated animals to one of the three treatment groups, and they were inseminated at 12 and 24h after an ovulatory stimulus with pLH treatment was applied, either with sex-sorted (4.2×10(6) sperm/insemination; S12/24; n=17) or non-sorted sperm (20×10(6) sperm/insemination; NS12/24; n=18), or they were inseminated at 18 and 30h using sex-sorted sperm (4.2×10(6) sperm/insemination; S18/30; n=19). A greater number of transferable embryos were found when sex-sorted sperm was used to inseminate the animals at 18 and 30h (4.5±3.0) compared to insemination at 12 and 24h (2.4±1.8; P<0.001). However, a greater embryo production (6.8±2.6) was obtained with non-sorted sperm. In the second experiment, the same insemination times and semen types were used in lactating high-production Holstein cows (n=12). A crossover design was employed in this trial. A lesser embryo production (P=0.007) was found in Holstein donors that were inseminated using sex-sorted sperm at 12 and 24h (4.6±3.0) compared to non-sorted sperm (8.7±2.8). However, intermediate results were obtained when the inseminations with sex-sorted sperm were performed at 18 and 30h (6.4±3.1). These results supported the current hypothesis that it is possible to improve embryo production using sex-sorted sperm in B. indicus and B. taurus superstimulated donors when the inseminations are performed near the same time as time-synchronized ovulations. However, the embryo production for timed artificial insemination (TAI) with sex-sorted sperm was still less than the production with non-sorted sperm.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Animal reproduction science
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