“Domestic violence and child nutrition and growth: A conceptual review of the pathways of influence,”
Hubert Department of Global Health, Department of Sociology, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Rd. NE, Room 7029, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States.Social Science [?] Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.89). 05/2011; 72(9):1534-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.02.042
Domestic violence against women is a global problem, and young children are disproportionate witnesses. Children's exposure to domestic violence (CEDV) predicts poorer health and development, but its effects on nutrition and growth are understudied. We propose a conceptual framework for the pathways by which domestic violence against mothers may impair child growth and nutrition, prenatally and during the first 36 months of life. We synthesize literatures from multiple disciplines and critically review the evidence for each pathway. Our review exposes gaps in knowledge and opportunities for research. The framework also identifies interim strategies to mitigate the effects of CEDV on child growth and nutrition. Given the global burden of child malnutrition and its long-term effects on human-capital formation, improving child growth and nutrition may be another reason to prevent domestic violence and its cascading after-effects.
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- "Within male-dominated societies, acts of violence against wives are justified especially when wives' behavior is perceived to deviate from local norms of femininity (Schuler, Lenzi, & Yount, 2011; Visaria, 2000). In Vietnam, men have a higher status and more entitlements than do women (Gold, 1992; Rydstrøm, 2003b). "
ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) harms the health of women and their children. In Vietnam, 31% of women report lifetime exposure to physical IPV, and surprisingly, women justify physical IPV against wives more often than do men. We compare men's and women's rates of finding good reason for wife hitting and assess whether differences in childhood experiences and resources and constraints in adulthood account for observed differences. Probability samples of married men (n = 522) and women (n = 533) were surveyed in Vietnam. Ordered logit models assessed the proportional odds for women versus men of finding more "good reasons" to hit a wife (never, 1-3 situations, 4-6 situations). In all situations, women found good reason to hit a wife more often than did men. The unadjusted odds for women versus men of reporting more good reasons to hit a wife were 6.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] = [4.82, 8.91]). This gap disappeared in adjusted models that included significant interactions of gender with age, number of children ever born, and experience of physical IPV as an adult. Having children was associated with justifying wife hitting among women but not men. Exposure to IPV in adulthood was associated with justifying wife hitting among men, but was negatively associated with justification of IPV among women. Further study of the gendered effects of resources and constraints in adulthood on attitudes about IPV against women will clarify women's more frequent reporting than men's that IPV against women is justified. © The Author(s) 2015.
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- "In the United States, more African American (44%) than European American (35%) or Hispanic (37%) women report IPV during their lifetime, and African American women experience recurrent IPV at a rate 6 times higher than that of European American women (Black et al., 2011). IPV predicts poor health outcomes and high health care costs for women and their children (Rivara et al., 2007;Sobkoviak, Yount, & Halim, 2012;Yount, DiGirolamo, & Ramakrishnan, 2011). The physical consequences of IPV range from minor injuries such as lacerations and contusions to more severe injuries, disability, and death (Black et al., 2011;Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). "
ABSTRACT: Statement of purpose The purpose of this work is to determine the circumstances in which low income African American women are most likely to report sensitive or risky behaviours associated with intimate partner violence. Methods Consenting African American women receiving Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) services in WIC clinics were randomised to complete an IPV screening (Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, Short-Form) via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) or face-to-face interview (FTFI). Results Among the women in this study (n = 616), reports of sensitive or risky behaviours were generally higher when engaging women face-to-face verses via computer interview. For example, those who engaged in risky behaviours were more likely exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) over the course of their life (aOR: 1.59). Reported rates of risk exposure were high for tobacco usage (23%,25%), drug usage (6%,8%), and alcohol usage (50%, 51%). Mode of screening, but not interviewer race, affected disclosure of these behaviours. Women screened via FTFI reported significantly more tobacco (aOR: 1.8) and more alcohol (aOR: 1.5) usage than CASI- screened women. Significance African American women in a WIC setting disclosed sensitive information more often in face-to-face than computer screening, and race-matching of client and interviewer did not affect disclosure. These findings put into question the argument that computer based interviews increase exposure of high risk behaviours. This evidence suggests that trained interviewers could enhance disclosure above computer based assessments. Previous findings have observed similar outcomes for IPV disclosure. This might suggest that there are types of computer assessments that are not effective, possibly due to miscalculated assumptions of computer and/or reading literacy. This might also suggest that the quality of the face-to face interaction might be contributing to the improved disclosure of sensitive information.
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- "Yount et al. have described several pathways by which IPV can impair child growth. IPV can affect maternal and fetal/infant health during and after pregnancy . Our results showed that birthweight did not significantly modify the association between different forms of IPV during pregnancy and early child growth. "
ABSTRACT: This study analyses whether a mother's exposure to different forms of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy was associated with the index child linear growth, and whether these associations were modified by the gender of the child. A pregnancy cohort of 478 women in León, Nicaragua, resulted in 461 live births. From this group, 81% (375/461) children were available for anthropometric follow-up at 40 to 46 months. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the association between IPV and height-for-age Z-scores, adjusting for confounding factors. Sixty-three percent (236/375) of the mothers had been exposed to some form of IPV during pregnancy (emotional, physical, sexual or controlling behavior). After adjustment for confounding factors, maternal exposure to any IPV during pregnancy was associated with 0.24 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p = 0.02). A separate analysis of each IPV type showed that emotional, physical or sexual IPV during pregnancy were not significantly associated with lower mean height-for-age Z-scores, whereas ever exposure to controlling behavior by the father of the child was related to 0.29 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p < 0.01) When stratified by gender, these associations remained significant only for young girls. This study has contributed to the growing amount of evidence pointing to the pervasive effect of different forms of IPV on child health. Our study highlights the relevance of maternal autonomy for linear child growth, especially for young girls in the Nicaraguan context.
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