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    • "Heritable factors play a very significant, but not exclusive, role in determining susceptibility to IgE-mediated atopic allergic reactions to high-molecular weight (protein) allergens, atopy being defined as a predisposition to mounting IgE antibody responses. However, in the case of chemical allergy, there is no association with atopy, and only weak genetic links have thus far been described (Corsini and Kimber, 2007;Taylor, 2001), including interestingly an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-4Rα, IL-13, and CD14 with diisocyanate-induced asthma (Bernstein et al., 2011). Nevertheless, it is possible that epigenetic effects may play an important role in governing interindividual differences in susceptibility to chemical allergens and the threshold dose required for the acquisition of sensitization. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that epigenetic regulation of gene expression plays a pivotal role in the orchestration of immune and allergic responses. Such regulatory mechanisms have potentially important implications for the acquisition of sensitization to chemical and drug allergens; and in determining the vigor, characteristics, and longevity of allergic responses. Importantly, the discovery of long-lasting epigenetic alterations in specific immunoregulatory genes provides a mechanistic basis for immune cell memory, and thereby the potential of chemical allergens to influence the subsequent orientation of the adaptive immune system. In this article, we consider the implications of epigenetic mechanisms for the development of sensitization to chemical and drug allergens and the form that allergic reactions will take.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Toxicological Sciences
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    • "Bernstein et al. investigated the effect of genetic nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin 4 receptor alpha (IL4RA), IL-13, and CD14 in isocyanate exposed workers and found a statistically significant association of diisocyanate asthma with the IL4RA (I50V), IL13 (R110Q), and CD14 (C159T) genotype combinations, but only in HDI exposed workers and not in those exposed to MDI or TDI. As discussed by the authors, the reason for this finding might be a statistical artifact due to the greater number of HDI-exposed subjects available in these studies [73,74]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational diseases affect more and more people every year. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), in 2000 an estimated amount of at least 160 million people became ill as a result of occupational-related hazards or injuries. Globally, occupational deaths, diseases and injuries account for an estimated loss of 4% of the Gross Domestic Product. Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products. These substances, which are used in a lot of different industrial processes, are not only toxic and irritant, but also allergenic. Although the exposure to higher concentrations could be monitored and restricted by technical means, very low concentrations are difficult to monitor and may, over time, lead to allergic reactions in some workers, ending in an occupational disease. In order to prevent the people from sickening, the mechanisms underlying the disease, by patho-physiological and genetical means, have to be known and understood so that high risk groups and early signs in the development of an allergic reaction could be detected before the exposure to isocyanates leads to an occupational disease. Therefore, this paper reviews the so far known facts concerning the patho-physiologic appearance and mechanisms of isocyanate-associated toxic reactions and possible genetic involvement that might trigger the allergic reactions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Business forms are used as the main input to the process of derivation of a set of functional dependencies. A form model is developed which abstracts the set of forms in a desired format. By analyzing the form schemas, a system deduces the functional dependencies which exist between the form fields. A rule-based inferential approach is used. System knowledge is divided into form selection, single-attribute-determinant identification, single-attribute-determinant functional dependencies, and multiattribute-determinant functional dependencies. The rules in the first category use knowledge about the form flow to determine the order in which the forms are analyzed. The rules in the next three categories determine functional dependencies
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 1989
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