The Markers of Interplay Between the Music Therapist and the High Risk Full Term Infant
The purpose of this research was to discover the markers of interplay between the music therapist and the medically fragile newborn infant. Video footage of 3 infants was selected to exemplify 3 significant events in the therapeutic process. Four expert reviewers viewed the footage and completed a video-cued discussion with the therapist/researcher. Reviews and discussions were collated with the therapist-researcher's post-session notes to create rich descriptions from which the articulated and inferred behaviors of both therapist and infant were thematically analyzed. The outcome was 14 sets of behaviors used by the medically fragile newbom infants to indicate availability for interplay and 20 sets of behaviors the therapist used in response to the infants. The interaction between these behaviors provided 7 markers of interplay between the music therapist and the medically fragile newborn infant.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimThis study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of group music therapy (MT) intervention on behaviours of older people with dementia.Method Reported here are qualitative data from five, semi-structured focus groups; two comprising a total of seven family members and three comprising a total of 23 staff members.ResultsA number of core themes emerged: temporality, effect and policy with a number of subthemes. The MT effect is tempered by the temporality of (i) the older person's dementia state, (ii) the session and (iii) the psychosomatic effect on the older person. Music therapy is perceived to (i) evoke memories and facilitate reminiscence, (ii) act as a diversion (has an instrumental value) and it is contentious to discount the (iii) dichotomy between music and therapist in terms of the overall effect. Finally, policymakers need to know that MT is (i) highly prized and more, not less, MT is recommended.Conclusion Findings from this study illustrate that the timing of the MT session has consequences for the workflow in the residential aged care facility; MT has a psychosomatic effect and participants here evaluate this as temporal. Care providers and family members acknowledge the instrumental value of MT and its helping with cognition and exercise. They have mixed views about the effects of the music and the effect on the older person by the therapist but most definitely want policymakers to ensure more, not less, planned and better funded MT is part of ongoing care in the residential aged care context. Areas for future research and policy are also highlighted.Implications for practiceThese views on group MT in residential aged care can initiate critical reflection on current practices and systems. Research is needed exploring the timing and scheduling of MT sessions at different times in the day for older person with dementia exhibiting negative behaviours.
- "Although, the utilised research strategies and operational techniques (Tuckett, 2005a) coupled with findings confirmed in other studies (e.g. Magill, 2010; Shoemark & Grocke, 2010; Cevasco, 2010 ), suggest transferability and thus overall trustworthiness (Tuckett, 2005a). Further investigation of care providers' views must be examined in order to understand how to best deliver and provide MT services in residential aged care. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The primary aim of this case study was to explore the behavioural changes of a paediatric patient in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) during a music therapy session. A secondary objective was to measure the effect of the music therapy intervention on agitation. Method: Video data from pre, during and post-music therapy sessions were collected and analysed using video micro-analysis and the Agitated Behaviour Scale. Results: The participant displayed four discrete categories of behaviours: Neutral, Acceptance, Recruitment and Rejection. Further analysis revealed brief but consistent and repeated periods of awareness and responsiveness to the live singing of familiar songs, which were classified as Islands of Awareness. Song offered an Environment of Potential to maximise these periods of emerging consciousness. The quantitative data analysis yielded inconclusive results in determining if music therapy was effective in reducing agitation during and immediately post the music therapy sessions. Conclusion: The process of micro-analysis illuminated four discrete participant behaviours not apparent in the immediate clinical setting. The results of this case suggest that the use of familiar song as a music therapy intervention may harness early patient responsiveness to foster cognitive rehabilitation in the early acute phase post-TBI.
- "Issues of interpretation are problematic when working with non-verbal participants and the tri-tiered method aims to counter this through focusing on description and inference . A precedent for the use of this qualitative tool in music therapy was established by Shoemark and Grocke . The three steps of this method are: (1) Description, (2) Analysis and (3) Interpretation. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Findings of a previous video analysis of creative music therapy (CMT) with premature infants indicate that music therapy in neonatal care may contribute to more than the infant’s stabilization and relaxation, as predominantly recognized in the literature to date. The aim of this paper is to further investigate the interactive potential of CMT, by comparing a larger number of cases. Video footage of music therapy sessions with 18 premature infants (and their parents) with a broad range of social and diagnostic diversity, as well as interview data derived from their parents, have been analysed in a qualitative grounded theory-based study. The results confirm that CMT may actively assist premature infants to uncover their communicative musicality, which in turn may promote self-regulation and development. CMT also may empower parents by supporting their well-being, self-confidence, and quality of interactions with their infant through music. However, high-level awareness, responsiveness, and the professional use of CMT by a specially trained music therapist are recommended to continuously adjust to the changing individual needs of both the infant and parents.
- "There is a call to move beyond the prevailing focus on the effectiveness of music therapy in neonatal care. Research also should strive towards a deeper understanding of the clinically relevant therapeutic phenomena of more active 2 F.B. Haslbeck approaches, their interactive potential, parental perspectives, and individual premature infant responses (Ansdell, Davidson, Magee, Meehan, & Procter, 2010; Haslbeck, 2013; Shoemark, 2010). CMT with premature infants and their parents CMT with premature infants and their parents is an interactive, resource-and needs-oriented music therapy approach that is based upon principles developed by Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins (1977). "