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Abstract

To estimate annual average concentrations in Korean dwellings and the effective dose to the general public, nationwide surveys on radon were conducted in 1989, 1999-2000 and 2002-2005. The total number of dwellings was about 5600. A survey of thoron and its decay products was also conducted in 2002-2005. In 2008-2009, a new radon survey in 1100 public buildings was conducted. The annual arithmetic (AM) and geometric (GM) means of indoor radon concentration in total were 62.1 ± 66.4 and 49.0 ± 1.9 Bq m(-3), respectively. The annual AM and GM means of indoor thoron concentrations were 40.4 ± 56.0 and 10.7 ± 2.9 Bq m(-3), respectively. The radon and thoron concentrations in detached houses were much higher than those in apartments. The locations of the high radon or thoron houses seem to be correlated with the concentrations of their parent nuclides in surface soil. The mean individual doses of radon and thoron were calculated to be 1.65 and 0.17 mSv y(-1), respectively.

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... In Korea, four national indoor radon surveys were conducted by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in 1988-89, 1999-2000, 2002-05 and 2008-09, respectively. The sample size was ∼5600 dwellings and 1100 public buildings (schools and local governmental offices) (8) . As a result of these surveys, a national annual average indoor radon concentration with a GM of 49 Bq m −3 was obtained. ...
... In total 11 counties, Yeongwol, Jeongseon, Pyeongchang, Mungyeong, Bonghwa, Yeongyang, Uljin, Goesan, Danyang, Jecheon and Chungju were selected, which consists of a total of 99 townships. These counties belong to Gangwon and Chungbuk provinces where the annual indoor radon concentration showed relatively high values in the previous national radon survey (8,14) . In the case of Yeongyang county, although the indoor radon concentration was relatively low in the previous survey, only one township named Subi was selected for survey because it was adjacent to the higher concentration areas in Bonghwa and Uljin counties. ...
... The maximum was 2370 Bq m −3 . Yeongwol county showed the highest GM of 120 Bq m −3 , which is higher than that of the national annual average (49 Bq m −3 ) by a factor of 2.4 (8) . Also, Sangdong and Jungdong township, which belong to Yeongwol county, showed the highest GM of 141 Bq m −3 among all the townships. ...
Article
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The objective of this study is to determine indoor radon concentrations for 11 counties in Korea, develop a detailed radon distribution map and compare the results by some factors influencing indoor radon levels. The radon survey was conducted for 7 y in provisional radon-prone areas selected based on the previous national surveys. The total number of samples was >2.5% of the entire dwellings by each county. The annual average indoor radon concentration for the survey areas had a geometric mean of 94 Bq m−3 with 6.6% of all sampled dwellings showing values exceeding 300 Bq m−3. Some areas with relatively high indoor radon concentration were identified through a spatial distribution map. Seasonal variations were observed with commonly the highest concentration in winter, and house characteristics influencing indoor radon levels. This study can serve as a basis for developing national radon action plans and guide for additional regional radon surveys.
... About 8% of the surveyed households in Korea showed levels above the 300 Bq/m 3 recommended by the International Commission for Radiation Protection. The average radon exposure was an estimated 1.65 mSv/year [4], which contributed to approximately 36% of the average annual ionizing exposure dose in the Korean population in 2007 [5]. Since 2011, the reported concentrations of measured indoor radon ranged from 102 to 124 Bq/m 3 [6], suggesting the need for the implementation of effective residential radon control measures. ...
... Although the Republic of Korea has reported indoor radon concentrations since 1989 [4], few studies have assessed its health effects in Korea [11]. Here, we examined the incidence and gender differences in malignant tumors-i.e., lung cancer, leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), in association with indoor radon exposure-using a geographical correlational method based on a Bayesian approach. ...
... We obtained data from a national radon survey conducted four times by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety from 1989 to 2009, which performed a total of 5553 measurement points nationwide ( Figure 1A). A detailed description has been reported elsewhere [4]. Table 1 presents a summary of the survey. ...
Article
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Indoor radon is the second most important risk factor for lung cancer and may also be a risk factor for hematopoietic cancers, particularly in children and adolescents. The present study measured indoor radon concentration nationwide at 5553 points during 1989?2009 and spatially interpolated using lognormal kriging. The incidences of lung cancer, non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma (NHL), and leukemia, stratified by sex and five-year age groups in each of the 234 administrative regions in the country during 1999?2008, were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and used to calculate the standardized incidence ratios. After considering regional deprivation index values and smoking rates by sex in each region as confounding variables, the cancer risks were estimated based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling. We found that a 10 Bq/m3 increase in indoor radon concentration was associated with a 1% increase in the incidence of lung cancer in male and a 7% increase in NHL in female children and adolescents in Korea aged less than 20 years. Leukemia was not associated with indoor radon concentration. The increase in NHL risk among young women requires confirmation in future studies, and the radon control program should consider children and adolescents.
... Thus, in many cases, only a limited number of measurements are obtained. To overcome this data scarcity, spatial interpolation of IRC measurements is routinely applied to obtain exhaustive concentration values over the study area of interest Cafaro et al., 2014;Dubois et al., 2007;Kim et al., 2011;Kwak et al., 2017;Raspa et al., 2010). Even though advanced spatial interpolation methodologies are applied, spatial interpolation of IRCs is subject to the density of IRC measurements when only IRC measurements are used for spatial interpolation. ...
... To account for the environmental factors associated with IRC during spatial interpolation, multivariate geostatistical kriging has been used for IRC mapping (Borgoni et al., 2011;Bossew et al., 2008;Cafaro et al., 2014;Cinelli et al., 2011). In South Korea, Kim et al. (2011) produced geographical distributions of IRCs over South Korea using univariate ordinary kriging and reported high IRC areas, which seemed to be correlated with radium concentration in the surface soil and granite distribution. However, the geology and radium concentration associated with IRCs were not incorporated into the spatial interpolation and the combined analysis was purely based on qualitative visual inspection. ...
... It is noteworthy that Jurassic granite, which has been known to have high uranium concentration, did not have higher IRC distributions. Kim et al. (2011) reported that granite areas in South Korea were likely to show higher IRC values through a visual analysis. Lower IRC distributions in Jurassic granite would be explained by its large proportion over South Korea. ...
Article
This paper presents a geostatistical simulation approach to not only map the county-level indoor radon concentration (IRC) distributions in South Korea, but also quantify the uncertainty that can be used as decision-supporting information. For county-level IRC mapping in South Korea, environmental factors including geology, radium concentration in surface soil, gravel content in subsoil, and fault line density, which are known to be associated with the source and migration of radon gas, were incorporated into IRC measurements using multi-Gaussian kriging with local means. These four environmental factors could account for about 36% of the variability of noise-filtered IRCs, implying that regional variations of IRCs were affected by these factors. Sequential Gaussian simulation was then applied to generate alternative realizations of county-level IRC distributions. By summarizing the multiple simulation results, we identified some counties that lay on the great limestone series showed elevated IRCs. In addition, there were some counties in which the proportion of grids exceeding the recommended level was high but the uncertainty was also large according to the analysis of several uncertainty measures, which indicates that additional sampling is required for these counties. From the local cluster analysis in conjunction with simulation results, we found that the counties with higher levels of IRC belonged to the statistically significant clusters of high values, and these counties should be the prime targets for radon management and in-depth survey. The geographical distributions of IRC and uncertainty measures presented in this study provide guidance for effective radon management if they are consistently combined with both future IRC measurements and a geogenic radon potential map.
... 11 Since 1989, in Korea, radon doses have been continuously measured, to estimate the annual average exposure in residential spaces. 12 The arithmetic mean of the radon concentrations in the country, from 1989 to 2009, was estimated to be 62.1 Bq/m 3 ; this is twice higher than the worldwide average. ...
... The residential radon concentrations in 2011-2014 were found to be higher than those previously measured in 1989-2009. 12 This may have been caused by the differences in the households selected for the survey. In addition, large variations were observed in the radon concentrations measured in winter, depending on the heating temperatures and ventilation rates, according to the outdoor air temperatures at the time of the measurement. ...
Article
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Background Residential radon exposure is known to be an important risk factor for the development of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to calculate the disease burden of lung cancer attributable to residential radon exposure in Korea. Methods We calculated the national exposure level using Korean national radon survey data from 2011 to 2014, and house structure distribution data from each administrative region. Using the exposure-risk function, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated and applied to calculate the disease burden for lung cancer attributable to residential radon exposure. Results Residential radon exposure levels were the highest, at 116.4 ± 50.4 Bq/m³ (annual mean radon concentration ± standard deviation) in detached houses, followed by 74.1 ± 30.0 Bq/m³ in the multi-family dwellings, and 55.9 ± 21.1 Bq/m³ in apartments. The PAF for lung cancer, due to long-term radon exposure in Korean homes, was 6.6% and 4.7% in men and women, respectively. The total disease burden of lung cancer attributable to residential radon exposure was 14,866 years of life lost (YLL) and 1,586 years lost due to disability (YLD) in 2013. Overall, 1,039 deaths occurred due to residential radon exposure, of which 828 were in men and 211 in women. Conclusion The smoking rate of men in Korea exceeded 70% in the 1990s, and is still near 40%. Although the size of the effect varies depending on the estimation method, it is a critical aspect as a risk factor of lung cancer because of the synergistic relationship between smoking and radon exposure. Because the Korean society is rapidly aging, population who were formerly heavy-smokers are entering a high-risk age of lung cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to inform the public about the health benefits of reduced radon exposure and to strengthen the risk communication.
... It is also referred that the most reliable way to define radon-prone area is to use the measuring the radon concentrations in a representative sample of existing dwellings [3]. Since 1989, national radon in Korea was surveyed continuously, and the results of these surveys were indicated that indoor radon concentration in some dwellings in some regions were higher than reference level (300 Bq·m −3 ) of ICRP and the high radon areas were founded in central part of Korea, which were related to radium concentration in surface soil456. About 5,600 dwellings were surveyed [4], and the survey result was not enough to define radon-prone area because of insufficient survey results for indoor radon. ...
... Since 1989, national radon in Korea was surveyed continuously, and the results of these surveys were indicated that indoor radon concentration in some dwellings in some regions were higher than reference level (300 Bq·m −3 ) of ICRP and the high radon areas were founded in central part of Korea, which were related to radium concentration in surface soil456. About 5,600 dwellings were surveyed [4], and the survey result was not enough to define radon-prone area because of insufficient survey results for indoor radon. For this reason, the vicinity of registered uranium mining lot areas can be considered as one of the radon-prone area. ...
... It is also referred that the most reliable way to define radon-prone area is to use the measuring the radon concentrations in a representative sample of existing dwellings [3]. Since 1989, national radon in Korea was surveyed continuously, and the results of these surveys were indicated that indoor radon concentration in some dwellings in some regions were higher than reference level (300 Bq·m −3 ) of ICRP and the high radon areas were founded in central part of Korea, which were related to radium concentration in surface soil456. About 5,600 dwellings were surveyed [4], and the survey result was not enough to define radon-prone area because of insufficient survey results for indoor radon. ...
... Since 1989, national radon in Korea was surveyed continuously, and the results of these surveys were indicated that indoor radon concentration in some dwellings in some regions were higher than reference level (300 Bq·m −3 ) of ICRP and the high radon areas were founded in central part of Korea, which were related to radium concentration in surface soil456. About 5,600 dwellings were surveyed [4], and the survey result was not enough to define radon-prone area because of insufficient survey results for indoor radon. For this reason, the vicinity of registered uranium mining lot areas can be considered as one of the radon-prone area. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seasonal indoor radon concentration was surveyed, and the annual effective dose was estimated for the residents in some dwellings near the registered uranium mining lot areas, considered as one of the potential radon-prone area. The range of indoor radon concentration in each dwelling was from 17.7 to 1,610 Bq·m −3 . The range of annual effective dose due to inhaled radon of the resident in each dwelling was from 0.93 to 20.5 mSv.
... Various levels of radon exposure occur naturally across the population. Since 1989, the Republic of Korea has also reported indoor radon concentrations (4). How ever, there has been no report on the health risks of lung cancer due to radon exposure. ...
... In door radon concentrations depend on factors such as the soil, building materials, house type, and ventilation. Kim et al. re ported that the radon distribution was correlated with the geo logical distribution of granite, and that the concentration in tra ditional Korean houses was higher than that in apartments (4). As the second leading cause of lung cancer, after smoking, accumulated evidence supports the carcinogenicity of radon and its decay products (3). ...
Article
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Radon is likely the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. We estimated the lung cancer risk due to radon using common risk models. Based on national radon survey data, we estimated the population-attributable fraction (PAF) and the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon. The exposure-age duration (EAD) and exposure-age concentration (EAC) models were used. The regional average indoor radon concentration was 37.5 95 Bq/m3. The PAF for lung cancer was 8.3% (European Pooling Study model), 13.5% in males and 20.4% in females by EAD model, and 19.5% in males and 28.2% in females by EAC model. Due to differences in smoking by gender, the PAF of radon-induced lung cancer deaths was higher in females. In the Republic of Korea, the risk of radon is not widely recognized. Thus, information about radon health risks is important and efforts are needed to decrease the associated health problems. Graphical Abstract
... In Korea, Kim et al. (2005Kim et al. ( , 2011 was the first to investigate indoor radon concentrations and did so in 34 households with basement floors, underground shopping malls, subways, underpasses, and underground parking lots from February 1988 to January 1989, as well as houses located in four different parts of Korea (i.e., Seoul, Gunsan, Songtan, and Dogo) from December 1988 to April 1989. Radon concentrations in various indoor environments have been investigated since then, but there have not been any studies-especially epidemiological ones-on the health effects of radon (Lee et al. 2012). ...
... Moreover, single-detached houses can be sorted into traditional Korean-style and Western-style houses. Excluding apartments that were shown to have low radon concentrations in previous studies (Kim et al. 2005(Kim et al. , 2011, the present study compared the concentrations measured in the first-floor indoor areas of singledetached, row, and multiplex houses. The house type with the highest concentration was the Western-style single-detached house (123.7 ± 83.4 Bq/m 3 ), while the traditional Korean-style single-detached house had the lowest concentration (106.1 ± 81.4 Bq/m 3 ). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the factors that go into a highly reliable estimate of radon exposure levels for use in setting up the case-control study. To this end, the present study conducted a multi-faceted investigation of the distribution of radon concentrations in the bedrooms and living rooms of 400 households in the target areas during the winter months from December 2014 to February 2015. We determined that taking the mean value of the radon concentration levels detected in the bedroom and living room as the representative value of residential concentration is appropriate, given the usability of previous research data and the difference in the concentration levels between the two. In terms of detector placement, we found that detectors should not inconvenience residents or be affected by an air current. Further, we found that housing type should distinguish between regular housing (single-detached, row, and multiplex housing) and apartments but that the building type was not a key factor in the assessment of radon exposure levels. Houses should be classified into those constructed with soil (red clay) and those with constructed with general building materials for the assessment of radon exposure levels.
... Considering the latter and as far as the authors' knowledge goes, in the last five years 19 studies regarding radon in indoor air of nursery and primary schools can be found. The majority of them were only focused on primary schools [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21], while others also considered nursery schools [10,[22][23][24][25][26] and some others only considered nursery schools [27,28]. The extent of the studies varied considerably from study to study. ...
... The extent of the studies varied considerably from study to study. There are studies (surveys) that included a considerable number of nursery and primary schools of a particular country or region [14,16,27] and others studied only a limited number of buildings [25,26]. In the latter cases, a representative number of buildings was selected taking into account selection criteria that varied from case to case, like a comparison between two different cities [10] or a comparison between urban and rural contexts [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children's exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and primary schools from two districts in Portugal (Porto and Bragança), considering different influencing factors (occupation patterns, classroom floor level, year of the buildings' construction and soil composition of the building site), as well as the comparison with IAQ standard values for health protection. Fifteen nursery and primary schools in the Porto and Bragança districts were considered: five nursery schools for infants and twelve for pre-schoolers (seven different buildings), as well as eight primary schools. Radon measurements were performed continuously. The measured concentrations depended on the building occupation, classroom floor level and year of the buildings' construction. Although they were in general within the Portuguese legislation for IAQ, exceedances to international standards were found. These results point out the need of assessing indoor radon concentrations not only in primary schools, but also in nursery schools, never performed in Portugal before this study. It is important to extend the study to other microenvironments like homes, and in time to estimate the annual effective dose and to assess lifetime health risks.
... Measuring indoor radon and thoron concentrations and radon mapping was considered for years and several papers were published on the topic around the world [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17], including in many Iranian cities [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] to increase public awareness of environmental radioactivity and to predict radon-prone areas, which would help authorities with regard to the development of an appropriate strategy to reduce public exposure to radon and thoron. This reduced exposure would increase the quality of life and improve public long-term health. ...
... Measuring indoor radon and thoron concentrations and radon mapping was considered for years and several papers were published on the topic around the world [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17], including in many Iranian cities [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] to increase public awareness of environmental radioactivity and to predict radon-prone areas, which would help authorities with regard to the development of an appropriate strategy to reduce public exposure to radon and thoron. This reduced exposure would increase the quality of life and improve public longterm health. ...
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive study was carried out to measure indoor radon/thoron concentrations in 78 dwellings and soil-gas radon in the city of Mashhad, Iran during two seasons, using two common radon monitoring devices (NRPB and RADUET). In the winter, indoor radon concentrations measured between 75 ± 11 to 376 ± 24 Bq·m−3 (mean: 150 ± 19 Bq m−3), whereas indoor thoron concentrations ranged from below the Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to 166 ± 10 Bq·m−3 (mean: 66 ± 8 Bq m−3), while radon and thoron concentrations in summer fell between 50 ± 11 and 305 ± 24 Bq·m−3 (mean 115 ± 18 Bq m−3) and from below the LLD to 122 ± 10 Bq m−3 (mean 48 ± 6 Bq·m−3), respectively. The annual average effective dose was estimated to be 3.7 ± 0.5 mSv yr−1. The soil-gas radon concentrations fell within the range from 1.07 ± 0.28 to 8.02 ± 0.65 kBq·m−3 (mean 3.07 ± 1.09 kBq·m−3). Finally, indoor radon maps were generated by ArcGIS software over a grid of 1 × 1 km2 using three different interpolation techniques. In grid cells where no data was observed, the arithmetic mean was used to predict a mean indoor radon concentration. Accordingly, inverse distance weighting (IDW) was proven to be more suitable for predicting mean indoor radon concentrations due to the lower mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Meanwhile, the radiation health risk due to the residential exposure to radon and indoor gamma radiation exposure was also assessed.
... However, following media coverage and Nuclear Safety and and thorium ( 232 Th) present in the earth's crust or construction materials slowly decay [3]. concentrations in indoor and outdoor atmospheres [4]. Although thoron may be an important 79 substance, radon is the major source of background radiation exposure because of thoron's 80 short half-life. ...
Article
Full-text available
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed by the slow decay of uranium and thorium found in the earth’s crust or construction materials. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose to which humans are exposed annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. An association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mine workers and the general population with indoor radon exposure. However, associations have not been clearly established between radon and other diseases, such as leukemia and thyroid cancer. Radiation doses are assessed by applying specific dose conversion coefficients according to the source (e.g., radon or thoron) and form of exposure (e.g., internal or external). However, regardless of the source or form of exposure, the effects of a given estimated dose on human health are identical, assuming that individuals have the same sensitivity to radiation. Recently, radiation exceeding the annual dose limit of the general population (1 mSv/yr) was detected in bed mattresses produced by D company due to the use of a monazite-based anion powder containing uranium and thorium. This has sparked concerns about the health hazards for mattress users caused by radiation exposure. In light of this event, this study presents scientific information about the assessment of radon and thoron exposure and its human implications for human health, which have emerged as a recent topic of interest and debate in society.
... According to indoor radon concentration research in Korea, places with high indoor radon concentrations include Kangwondo, Choongcheondo, Jeonrado, and Kyoungsangbookdo. These areas of higher indoor radon concentration mostly coincide with geological distributions of radium deposits in granite and surface soil [34,36,37]. A similar link between indoor radon concentrations and geological deposits was also noted in North America and Europe. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements release α-rays that affect lung tissue, causing lung cancer upon long-term exposure thereto. Epidemiological studies first outlined a high correlation between the incidence rate of lung cancer and exposure to radon progeny among miners in Europe. Thereafter, data and research on radon exposure and lung cancer incidence in homes have continued to accumulate. Many international studies have reported increases in the risk ratio of lung cancer when indoor radon concentrations inside the home are high. Although research into indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence is actively conducted throughout North America and Europe, similar research is lacking in Korea. Recently, however, studies have begun to accumulate and report important data on indoor radon concentrations across the nation. In this study, we aimed to review domestic and foreign research into indoor radon concentrations and to outline correlations between indoor radon concentrations in homes and lung cancer incidence, as reported in ecological studies thereof. Herein, we noted large differences in radon concentrations between and within individual countries. For Korea, we observed tremendous differences in indoor radon concentrations according to region and year of study, even within the same region. In correlation analysis, lung cancer incidence was not found to be higher in areas with high indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Through our review, we identified a need to implement a greater variety of statistical analyses in research on indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence. Also, we suggest that cohort research or patient-control group research into radon exposure and lung cancer incidence that considers smoking and other factors is warranted.
... Therefore, lithology can be considered as a key predictor in defining geogenic radon-prone areas, in line with former studies including Przylibski et al. (2011) and Cho et al. (2015), who revealed the relationship between radon levels and variability of lithological units in the study area. In addition, Kim et al. (2011) pointed out that the high IRC values were correlated with the concentration of radionuclides in the surface soil and granitic rocks distribution in South Korea. Furthermore, elevation had a greater effect on the IRC values in the present study than lithology, according to the IGR analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous generation of radon gas by soil and rocks rich in components of the uranium chain, along with prolonged inhalation of radon progeny in enclosed spaces, can lead to severe respiratory diseases. Detection of radon-prone areas and acquisition of detailed knowledge regarding relationships between indoor radon variations and geogenic factors can facilitate the implementation of more appropriate radon mitigation strategies in high-risk residential zones. In the present study, 10 factors (i.e., lithology; fault density; mean soil calcium oxide [CaO], copper [Cu], lead [Pb], and ferric oxide [Fe 2 O 3 ] concentrations; elevation; slope; valley depth; and the topographic wetness index [TWI]) were selected to map radon potential areas based on measurements of indoor radon levels in 1,452 dwellings. Mapping was performed using three machine learning methods: long short-term memory (LSTM), extreme learning machine (ELM), and random vector functional link (RVFL). The results were validated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), root mean square error (RMSE), and standard deviation (StD). The prediction abilities of all models were satisfactory; however, the ELM model had the best performance, with AUROC, RMSE, and StD values of 0.824, 0.209, and 0.207, respectively. Moreover, approximately 40% of the study area was covered by very high and high-risk radon potential zones that mainly included populated areas in Danyang-gun, South Korea. Therefore, the map can be used to establish more appropriate construction regulations in radon-priority areas, and identify more cost-effective remedial actions for existing buildings, thus reducing indoor radon levels and, by extension, radon exposure-associated effects on human health.
... In recent years, many studies on radon monitoring in indoor air and water were carried out in several countries such as in India (Sonkawade et al. [4]; Ramola et al. [5]), Korea (Kim et al. [6]), Spain (Tondeur et al. [7]), Belgium (Cinelli et al. [8]), Italy (Venoso et al. [9]), Greece (Manousakas et al. [10]), Kenya (Mustapha et al. [11]), and the USA (Harris et al. [12]). In Turkey also, many researchers are engaged in the measurement of radon levels in dwellings and water sources for the assessment and control of the health risk (Baldık et al. [13]; Gurler et al. [14]; Akar et al. [15]; Mihci et al. [16]; Yalcin et al. [17]; Yalım et al. [18]; Çevik et al. [19]; Kucukomeroglu et al. [20]; Karadeniz et al. [21]; Can et al. [22]). ...
Article
Radon (222Rn) and its decay products are the major sources of natural radiation exposure. Taking this into account, indoor radon measurement studies were carried out in some houses belonging to Karacabey district of Bursa province in Turkey using a professional radon monitor AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO. Also, the behavior of the radon concentration with time and its relationship with the building material was investigated. It was found that the estimated average indoor radon concentrations in the surveyed houses ranged from 18 ±7 to 102 ±33 Bq m-3with an overall average value of 42± 14 Bq m-3. The average value of the annual effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was estimated as 1.05 mSv. The 222Rn activity concentration in a well water source used for drinking was measured and the annual effective dose due to consumption of 222Rn with water was also calculated. PACS number: 29.40.Cs, 29.25.Rm, 92.20.Td, 92.60.Sz
... The percentage of dwellings above upper value of radon reference level proposed by ICRP (9,13) were 8 and 22.2 %, respectively. These exceeding ratios were much higher than that of the previous nationwide surveys (4) . The contour map of Bonghwa county was obtained using kriging method (Figure 2). ...
... In recent years, many studies on radon monitoring in indoor air and water were carried out in several countries such as in India (Sonkawade et al. [4]; Ramola et al. [5]), Korea (Kim et al. [6]), Spain (Tondeur et al. [7]), Belgium (Cinelli et al. [8]), Italy (Venoso et al. [9]), Greece (Manousakas et al. [10]), Kenya (Mustapha et al. [11]), and the USA (Harris et al. [12]). In Turkey also, many researchers are engaged in the measurement of radon levels in dwellings and water sources for the assessment and control of the health risk (Baldık et al. [13]; Gurler et al. [14]; Akar et al. [15]; Mihci et al. [16]; Yalcin et al. [17]; Yalım et al. [18]; Çevik et al. [19]; Kucukomeroglu et al. [20]; Karadeniz et al. [21]; Can et al. [22]). ...
... As the UNT region is located in different radon potential basin areas of granite, there is abundant uranium and its decay products around this area 29,30 . Reportedly, granitic gneiss has high frequency ratios for radon levels 31,32 . ...
Article
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Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer, after smoking. In upper northern Thailand (UNT), lung cancer incidence was frequently reported by Thailand National Cancer Institute. Besides smoking, radon exposure may also influence the high lung cancer incidence in this region. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 192 houses in eight provinces of UNT. Indoor radon concentrations ranged from 11 to 405 Bq m−3 and estimated annual effective dose ranged from 0.44 to 12.18 mSv y−1. There were significant differences in indoor radon concentrations between the houses of lung cancer cases and healthy controls (p = 0.033). We estimated that 26% of lung cancer deaths in males and 28% in females were attributable to indoor radon exposure in this region. Other factors influencing indoor radon levels included house characteristics and ventilation. The open window-to-wall ratio was negatively associated with indoor radon levels (B = −0.69, 95% CI −1.37, −0.02) while the bedroom location in the house and building material showed no association. Indoor radon hence induced the fractal proportion of lung cancer deaths in UNT.
... In South Korea, the nationwide survey for radon and thoron was done using RADUETs in 2008-2009 at 1110 public buildings (schools and local governmental offices) [50]. The annual means of indoor radon and thoron concentrations were 61 ± 2 and 11 ± 3 Bq m −3 , respectively. ...
Article
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Radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn), sources of natural background radiation, have been the subjects of long-standing studies, including research into radon and thoron as major causes of lung cancer at domestic and international levels. In this regard, radon and thoron measurement studies have been widely conducted all over the world. Generally, the techniques used relate to passive nuclear track detectors. Some surveys have shown that passive monitors for radon are sensitive to thoron, and hence some measured results have probably overestimated radon concentrations. This study investigated radon and thoron measurements in domestic and international surveys using the passive radon–thoron discriminative monitor, commercially named RADUET. This paper attempts to provide an understanding of discriminative measurements of radon isotopes and to present an evidence-based roadmap.
... Furthermore, since information on radon concentrations in soil in Korea is lacking and radon concentrations in soil are not measured under the same conditions, they are not suitable for use as a representative value of C s . In Korea, indoor radon concentrations are high in granite zones, compared to other areas [16]. The nationwide radon survey data for measured radon concentrations that we used in this study were obtained only during the winter season, reducing the impact of factors such as ventilation thereon. ...
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Estimating long-term exposure to indoor radon is necessary to determine the effects of indoor radon exposure on health. However, measuring long-term exposure to radon is labor intensive and costly. While developing models for estimating indoor radon concentrations are very difficult and unrealistic due to the many factors affecting radon concentrations, several studies have attempted to estimate indoor radon concentrations with mathematical models based on mass balance equations. However, these models are only applicable to specific regions or situations, and some require actual measurement data. This study sought to develop a widely applicable model for estimating mean annual indoor radon concentrations in actual residences considering seasonal variations in indoor radon. The model is based on a mass balance equation using data on geographical factors, building characteristics, meteorological factors, and nationwide radon surveys. The primary factor in our model is the infiltration factor, which can vary according to region, building materials, cracks, floor type, etc. In this study, infiltration factor was calculated according to the type of housing and groundwater usage, and the results thereof were applied to estimate indoor radon concentrations. Overall, measured concentrations and estimates of indoor radon concentrations using the infiltration factor were similar. This model showed better performance than our previous model, except for a few high concentration residences.
... Nationwide surveys on radon were conducted to estimate annual average concentrations in Korean dwellings and the effective dose to the general public in 1989, 1999-2000 and 2002-05 (6) . In addition, other natural radiation sources were also surveyed and evaluated in 2002-05 (7) . ...
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Radon exposure in schools is different from that in dwellings because the residence pattern is very different each other. So, when effective dose is calculated in schools, different approach should be considered from in dwellings. The aim of this study was to estimate actual effective dose due to inhaled radon considering the residence time in schools. It could help avoid overestimation when effective dose is calculated in schools. The range of radon concentration in 376 schools was 18.1-2810 Bq m −3 and that of annual effective dose was estimated 0.0902-8.92 mSv y −1 considering the residence time in spring and autumn semesters.
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Radon is a radioactive gas, abundant in granitic areas, such as in the city of Porto at the northeast of Portugal. This gas is a recognised carcinogenic agent, being appointed by the World Health Organization as the leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The aim of this preliminary survey was to determine indoor radon concentrations in public primary schools, to analyse the main factors influencing their indoor concentration levels and to estimate the effective dose in students and teachers in primary schools. Radon concentrations were measured in 45 classrooms from 13 public primary schools located in Porto, using CR-39 passive radon detectors for about 2 months period. In all schools, radon concentrations ranged from 56 to 889 Bq/m3 (mean=197 Bq/m3). The results showed that the limit of 100 Bq/m3 established by WHO IAQ guidelines was exceeded in 92% of the measurements, as well as 8% of the measurements exceeded the limit of 400 Bq/m3 established by the national legislation. Moreover, the mean annual effective dose was calculated as 1.25 mSv/y (ranging between 0.58 and 3.07 mSv/y), which is below the action level (3-10 mSv). The considerable variability of radon concentration observed between and within floors indicates a need to monitor concentrations in several rooms for each floor. A single radon detector for each room can be used provided that the measurement error is considerable lower than variability of radon concentration between rooms. The results of the present survey will provide useful baseline data for adopting safety measures and dealing effectively with radiation emergencies. In particular, radon remediation techniques should be used in buildings located in the highest radon risk areas of Portugal. The results obtained in the current study concerning radon levels and their variations, will be useful to optimize the design of future research surveys.
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Rn exists in nature in the form of a rare radioactive gas. In terms of environmental radiation, issues regarding ²²²Rn have persisted because of its radiological hazardousness. Ulju County is one of the regions of Ulsan metropolitan city, with a population of 227,699. Ulju County has the highest density of industrial complexes in Korea. In this study, ²²²Rn radioactivity concentration was measured and analyzed in 57 schools in Ulju County using 114 passive LR-115 type detectors to secure radiological safety and confirm basic information for reduction of resident exposure to ²²²Rn. The effective dose of ²²²Rn was assessed to find the actual risk of the concentration surveyed in schools to human beings. The dose depended on four factors: subjects, ²²²Rn concentration, dose coefficient, and time. The individuals subjected to dose estimation were classified into three types: students, teachers, and office workers. The subjects had different dwelling locations and times. The findings demonstrate that the radiological hazard to students and workers at schools in Ulju County owing to ²²²Rn is negligible in terms of ²²²Rn activity recommendation level.
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Indoor radon activity concentrations were measured in seven Museums of University of Naples, very old buildings of great historical value. The measurements were performed using a time-integrated technique based on LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The annual average concentrations were found to range from 40 up to 1935 Bq m(-3) and in 26 % of measurement sites, the values were higher than 500 Bq m(-3) which is the limit value of Italian legislation for workplace. Moreover, we analysed the seasonal variations of radon concentrations observing the highest average in cold weather than in warm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Article
The detailed indoor radon survey was conducted during a year (from September 2012 to August 2013) quarterly in Bonghwa county, one of the provisional radon-prone areas in Korea. The surveyed area was selected on the basis of previously conducted nationwide radon survey results. In order to minimise statistical and environmental uncertainties, ∼3 % of the entire dwellings were carefully selected based on the statistical annual report of Bonghwa county. The measurement is carried out by using solid-state nuclear track detector. The range of indoor radon concentration in each dwelling was 4.36–858 Bq m23 and that of annual effective dose due to inhaled radon of the resident in each dwelling was 0.19–23.5 mSv y21. Each dwelling was determined for geology criterion using one-way Analysis of Variance for the purpose of comparing indoor radon distribution with geology. Geographical distribution of indoor radon is closely related to the geological characteristics of basement rocks. In addition, the comparison between geographical distribution of indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation was done.
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BACKGROUND: A preliminary investigation of the radon () concentration has been conducted, employing solid-state nuclear-track detectors (SSNTD) and a continuous radon monitor (CRM), for fourteen randomly selected agricultural greenhouses in Jeju Island, where the underground-air was used for air conditioning and supplement. METHODS AND RESULTS: The SSNTD was used to measure the average radon concentration for three months and the CRM was used for an instantaneous measurement. In order to obtain the radon concentration of a greenhouse, the SSNTDs were placed at a number of evenly distributed points inside the greenhouse and the mean of the measured values was taken. In addition, in order to assess the radon concentration of the underground-air itself, measurement was also made at the borehole of the underground-air in each agricultural facility, employing both the SSNTD and CRM. It is found that the radon concentration of the greenhouses ranges higher than those not using the underground-air and the average of Korean dwellings. While the radon concentration of most agricultural facilities is still lower than the reference level (1,000 Bq/) recommended by the International Radiation Protection Committee (ICRP), three facilities at one site show higher concentrations than the reference level. The three-month-averaged radon concentration and the instantaneous radon concentration of the underground-air itself ranges 1,228- 5,259 and 3,322-17,900 Bq/, respectively, and regional variation is more significant. CONCLUSION: From this results, radon concentration of the underground-air is assumed that it is associated with the geological characteristics and the boring depth of the region located of their.
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This study aims to measure the indoor radon concentration (IRC) of 56 radiation areas at 34 medical institutions to assess their adequacy as required by the South Korean Ministry of Environment and international standards, and calculate the annual effective dose (AED) of individuals in radiation-related professions at each medical institution. The study was conducted for 9 months and the AED was calculated according to the South Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission's equation. The environmental factors that can affect IRC were analyzed by medical institution, floor level, province and ventilation system. The IRC of eight radiation areas exceeded the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, with max-AED and min-AED showing a difference of 1.42 mSv/y. Therefore, all radiation areas that exceed the recommended limits must set up preventative measures to minimize exposure. Furthermore, a systematic management plan involving the issuance of radon test reports is required.
Conference Paper
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On the basis of previous survey results of indoor radon for schools, detailed radon survey was conducted in one hundred three selected schools in Korea during the second semester in 2010. According to the results of effective dose assessment due to inhaled radon of during occupancy time, fourteen schools for requiring urgent mitigation action were selected, and recommended to the government.
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aterials and Methods: In this study, 52 homes and 8 public places were investigated to measure the concentration of indoor radon gas. Indoor radon concentrations were measured using passive sampling approach, alpha-track detectors (CR-39) for three months, and after that, detectors were sent to the laboratory to count the number of tracks. Results: The results of this research showed that the average radon concentration (±SD) in the homes and public places was 42.4 (±14.7) and 32.9 (±20.1) Bq/m 3, respectively. All radon concentration values were lower than the US Environmental Protection Agency standard and WHO guideline. The average of annual effective dose due to the radon exposure in homes was estimated to be 1.07 mSv. The evaluation of the results showed that there was a significant relationship between the room type and the number of floors with radon concentration in the residential …
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Unlabelled: In order to optimize the design of a national survey aimed to evaluate radon exposure of children in schools in Serbia, a pilot study was carried out in all the 334 primary schools of 13 municipalities of Southern Serbia. Based on data from passive measurements, rooms with annual radon concentration >300 Bq/m(3) were found in 5% of schools. The mean annual radon concentration weighted with the number of pupils is 73 Bq/m(3), 39% lower than the unweighted 119 Bq/m(3) average concentration. The actual average concentration when children are in classrooms could be substantially lower. Variability between schools (CV = 65%), between floors (CV = 24%) and between rooms at the same floor (CV = 21%) was analyzed. The impact of school location, floor, and room usage on radon concentration was also assessed (with similar results) by univariate and multivariate analyses. On average, radon concentration in schools within towns is a factor of 0.60 lower than in villages and at higher floors is a factor of 0.68 lower than ground floor. Results can be useful for other countries with similar soil and building characteristics. Practical implications: On average, radon concentrations are substantially higher in schools in villages than in schools located in towns (double,on average). Annual radon concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/m3 were found in 5% of primary schools (generally on ground floors of schools in villages). The considerable variability of radon concentration observed between and within floors indicates a need to monitor concentrations in several rooms for each floor. A single radon detector for each room can be used provided that the measurement error is considerable lower than variability of radon concentration between rooms.
Article
The air concentrations of radon and thoron (Rn-220) emitted to the atmosphere from 4 types of construction materials (brick, tile, red clay tile, and gypsum tile) were measured and analyzed using continuous radon monitoring equipment (RTM 1688-2). Of the four samples examined, the cement brick showed the highest levels of radon emission, whereas the red clay tile showed the highest level of thoron emission. Gypsum tile showed the lowest radon and thoron emission. The level of radon emission was estimated based on the materials required for the construction per unit area (3.3 m2) in an actual construction. The values for cement brick were highest at 10,875.0 Bq/m3 for radon and 1,508.3 Bq/m3 for thoron. The value for gypsum tile was lowest for radon (24.6 Bq/m3), whereas the value for tile was lowest for thoron (21.0 Bq/m3). This study suggests methods to examine the effects of radon and reduce the personal radiation exposure dose. Government should be active in publicizing and encouraging the use of construction materials with lower levels of radon emission.
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A survey of indoor radon and thoron levels has been carried out in a number of villages in the vicinity of uranium bearing sites in the Hamirpur and Una districts of Himachal Pradesh (H.P.), India. Levels were analysed with reference to the nature of building material, soil type and different seasons of the year. The one year average for radon concentration was found to vary from a minimum of 19.7 to a maximum of 146.3 Bq/m3 while the minimum and maximum thoron concentrations were 9.1 and 70.7 Bq/m3, respectively. The dose rate varied from 0.1 to 8.67 microSv/h. These are discussed in the light of ICRP recommendations.
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A nationwide radon survey was conducted to provide data on the annual average indoor radon concentration in Korean homes. This survey also provided data on the variation of radon concentration with season, house type, and building age. The arithmetic mean (AM) of annual radon concentration in Korean homes was 53.4 +/- 57.5 Bq m(-3). The indoor radon concentration showed a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) and its standard deviation (GSD) of 43.3 +/- 1.8 Bq m(-3). The radon concentrations in the traditional Korean-style houses were about two times higher than those in apartments and row houses. The average annual outdoor radon concentration was 23.3 Bq m(-3). The average annual effective dose to the general public from radon was 1.63 mSv y(-1).
Article
Measurement of the radon concentration close to the ground surface can be used in search of environmental radiation for human safety, exploration for uranium, premonitory signals from earthquakes. We can detect radons in soil gas by alpha particle track method using the plastic track detectors, cellulose nitrate (LR115-Type 2 and CA80-15, Kodak
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A study for the assessment of dose given by outdoor radon to respiratory system has been carried out by making use of radon-cups containing CR-39 plastic track detectors. Detection efficiencies were determined by irradiation of the radon-cups in a standard radon chamber of known concentration. Thus determined detection factors of CR-39 plastic track detector in bare, open cup and filtered cup geometry are found to be 0.273, 0.0813 and 0.0371 /(37), respectively, which are chemically etched in 30% NaOH solution of for 220 minutes. The outdoor radon concentrations measured at Taejeon(Chungnam National University) from May 1988 to March 1989 are in the range of 27.4 - 135.8 Bq/(0.74 - 3.67pCi/l)by open cup and 16.7 - 143.9 Bq/(0.45 - 3.89 pCi/l) by filtered cup, which yield overall annual average value of outdoor radon concentration of (1.91 pCi/l). Corresponding effective dose equivalent rate to respiratory system of ICRP standard man is assessed to be 520 nSv /h.
Article
A nationwide survey for radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn), and thoron daughters has been conducted. The arithmetic mean of annual radon concentration in Korean dwellings was 53.4±57.5 Bq/m3. The indoor radon concentration showed a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean and its standard deviation of 43.3±1.8 Bq/m3. The arithmetic mean of annual thoron and its progeny concentrations in Korean dwellings were 45.2±110.1 and 0.99±1.00 Bq/m3, respectively. The equilibrium factor between thoron and its progeny was 0.022. The arithmetic mean indoor gamma dose rate was 212±52 nGy/h. The radon concentrations in the traditional and modern style houses were about two times higher than those in apartments. The average annual effective doses to the general public from radon, thoron, and gamma dose rate were 1.35, 0.23, and 1.03 mSv/y, respectively.
Article
Concentrations of 220Rn and its progeny were measured in 450 dwellings from 2002 to 2004 using two kinds of simple passive 222Rn and 220Rn monitors, RadopotTM and 220Rn progeny monitor. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) of 220Rn concentrations were 40.4 and , respectively. The annual arithmetic mean (AM) of EECTn concentration was , and the annual geometric mean (GM) was (95% confidence interval: ). The concentrations of 220Rn in Korean-style houses built with mud block were about two times higher than those in apartments. The average annual effective dose due to inhalation exposure to 220Rn and its progeny in dwellings was .
An Overview of Radon Surveys in Europe, Institute for Environment and Sustainabliltiy
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Nation Radiological Protection Board. Radon in dwellings in England: 1997 Review. NRPB-R293. NRPB Publication Office (1997).