A Quantitative High-Throughput Screen Identifies Novel Inhibitors of the Interaction of Thyroid Receptor with a Peptide of Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2

NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening (Impact Factor: 2.42). 04/2011; 16(6):618-27. DOI: 10.1177/1087057111402199
Source: PubMed


The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily that regulate development, growth, and metabolism. Upon ligand binding, TR releases bound corepressors and recruits coactivators to modulate target gene expression. Steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC2) is an important coregulator that interacts with TRβ to activate gene transcription. To identify novel inhibitors of the TRβ and SRC2 interaction, the authors performed a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS) of a TRβ-SRC2 fluorescence polarization assay against more than 290 000 small molecules. The qHTS assayed compounds at 6 concentrations up to 92 µM to generate titration-response curves and determine the potency and efficacy of all compounds. The qHTS data set enabled the characterization of actives for structure-activity relationships as well as for potential artifacts such as fluorescence interference. Selected qHTS actives were tested in the screening assay using fluoroprobes labeled with Texas Red or fluorescein. The retest identified 19 series and 4 singletons as active in both assays with 40% or greater efficacy, free of compound interference, and not toxic to mammalian cells. Selected compounds were tested as independent samples, and a methylsulfonylnitrobenzoate series inhibited the TRβ-SRC2 interaction with 5 µM IC(50). This series represents a new class of thyroid hormone receptor-coactivator modulators.

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    ABSTRACT: Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily and regulate development, growth, and metabolism. Upon binding thyroid hormone, TR undergoes a conformational change that allows the release of corepressors and the recruitment of coactivators, which in turn regulate target gene transcription. Although a number of TR antagonists have been developed, most are analogs of the endogenous hormone that inhibit ligand binding. In a screen for inhibitors that block the association of TRβ with steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC2), we identified a novel methylsulfonylnitrobenzoate (MSNB)-containing series that blocks this interaction at micromolar concentrations. Here we have studied a series of MSNB analogs and characterized their structure activity relationships. MSNB members do not displace thyroid hormone T3 but instead act by direct displacement of SRC2. MSNB series members are selective for the TR over the androgen, vitamin D, and PPARγ NR members, and they antagonize thyroid hormone-activated transcription action in cells. The methylsulfonylnitro group is essential for TRβ antagonism. Side-chain alkylamine substituents showed better inhibitory activity than arylamine substituents. Mass spectrum analysis suggested that MSNB inhibitors bind irreversibly to Cys-298 within the AF-2 cleft of TRβ to disrupt SRC2 association.
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