Thyroid cancer and lymph node metastases

ArticleinJournal of Surgical Oncology 103(6):615-8 · May 2011with2 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/jso.21804 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
There is considerable controversy about the prognostic implications of lymph node metastases in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and whether patients with papillary thyroid cancer should have a prophylactic or selective central (level VI) neck dissection. Some experts report that a prophylactic ipsilateral neck dissection results in fewer patients having elevated thyroglobulin levels but others do not agree. A comprehensive review of the literature suggests that the presence of macroscopic metastases of papillary thyroid cancer in cervical lymph nodes results in a higher recurrence rate and increased death rate, especially in patients 45 years of age or older, whereas microscopic nodal metastases do not appear to adversely influence survival. Until more information is available we recommend preoperative ultrasonography and a selective ipsilateral neck dissection for patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
    • "Other authors propose routine CND [6] which is supported by the rationale that surgical morbidity is justified by potential avoidance of morbidity associated with not necessary RAI, although a potential overtreatment [18,35]. In clinical practice, due to the lack of evidence, some authors recommend lymphadenectomy only for high risk patients [36,37] or suggest to limit it to ipsilateral lymph nodes thus avoiding unnecessary surgical related morbidity [38]. Among complications following CND, transient hypoparathyroidism is the more common. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prognosis of thyroid cancer is strictly related to loco-regional metastases. Cervical lymphadenectomy has a specific oncologic role but may lead to significant increase of morbidity. Aim of the study is the analysis of surgical morbidity in cervical lymphadenectomy for thyroid cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 1.765 thyroid cancers operated over a period of 25 years at S. Maria University Hospital, Terni, University of Perugia, Italy. Type of lymphadenectomy, histology and complications were analysed. A prevalence of differentiated and medullary cancers was observed (respectively 88% and 7.2%). Central lymphadenectomy was carried out in 425 patients, lateral modified and radical lymphadenectomy respectively in 651 and 17 cases. Following central neck dissection we observed: bilateral and unilateral temporary recurrent nerves palsy respectively of 0.7% and 3.5%, unilateral permanent palsy in 1.6% of cases, temporary and permanent hypoparathyroidism respectively in 17.6% and 4.4%. After lateral neck dissection we observed: intra and post-operative haemorrhage respectively in 2% and 0.29%, respiratory distress in 0.29%, lesions of facial nerve in 0.44%, of vagus in 0.14%, of phrenic nerve in 0.14%, of hypoglossal nerve in 0.29%, of the accessory nerve, transient in 1.34% and permanent in 0.29%, permanent lesion of cervical plexus in 0.29%, salivary fistula in 0.14% and chylous fistula in 1.04 % of patients. Student's t test was used to compare groups when applicable. Central and lateral cervical lymph node dissection are associated to severe morbidity. Correct indication, surgical expertise, high volume of patients and early multidisciplinary management of complications is the key of an acceptable balance between oncologic benefits and surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "A strong expert consensus supported by evidence emerging from large studies is that when lymph nodes are palpable or visible on ultrasonography, en bloc compartment-oriented lymph node dissection should be performed , as opposed to the so-called berry picking of only the obviously abnormal nodes because the former approach is associated with a lower risk of recurrence and mortality despite earlier reports of no adverse effects on survival [1, 5, 6]. When there is no suspicion of metastatic disease to lymph nodes on imaging or palpation, prophylactic or elective central neck dissection (pCND) is a matter of debate789101112131415161718. Proponents of routine pCND argue that removing subclinical lymph node involvement reduces disease persistence. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for nodal recurrence in the lateral neck (NRLN) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) who underwent total thyroidectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection (TT + pCND). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with PTC who underwent TT + pCND. Data of all patients treated over a 10-year period (between 1998 and 2007) were analysed. The primary outcome was prevalence of NRLN within the 5-year follow-up after initial surgery. Predictors of NRLN were determined in the univariable and multivariable analysis. Of 760 patients with PTC included in this study, 44 (6.0 %) developed NRLN. In the univariable analysis, the following factors were identified to be associated with an increased risk of NRLN: positive/negative lymph node ratio ≥0.3 (odds ratio (OR) 14.50, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 7.21 to 29.13; p < 0.001), central lymph node metastases (OR 7.47, 95 % CI 3.63 to 15.38; p < 0.001), number of level VI lymph nodes <6 in the specimen (OR 2.88, 95 % CI 1.21 to 6.83; p = 0.016), extension through the thyroid capsule (OR 2.55, 95 % CI 1.21 to 5.37; p = 0.013), localization of the tumour within the upper third of the thyroid lobe (OR 2.35, 95 % CI 1.27 to 4.34; p = 0.006) and multifocal lesions (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.01 to 3.41; p = 0.048). Central lymph node metastases together with positive to negative lymph node ratio ≥0.3 represent the strongest independent prognostic factors for the PTC recurrence in the lateral neck.
    Article · Nov 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review on the unique patterns of metastases by common and rare types of cancer addresses regional lymphatic metastases but also demonstrates general principles by consideration of vital organ metastases. These general features of successfully treated metastases are relationships to basic biological behavior as illustrated by disease-free interval, organ-specific behavior, oligo-metastatic presentation, genetic control of the metastatic pattern, careful selection of patients for surgical resection, and the necessity of complete resection of the few patients eligible for long-term survival after resection of vital organ metastasis. Lymph node metastases, while illustrating these general features, are not related to overall survival because lymph node metastases themselves do not destroy a vital organ function, and therefore have no causal relationship to overall survival. When a cancer cell spreads to a regional lymph node, does it also simultaneously spread to the systemic site or sites? Alternatively, does the cancer spread to the regional lymph node first and then it subsequently spreads to the distant site(s) after an incubation period of growth in the lymph node? Of course, if the cancer is in its incubation stage in the lymph node, then removal of the lymph node in the majority of cases with cancer cells may be curative. The data from the sentinel lymph node era, particularly in melanoma and breast cancer, is consistent with the spectrum theory of cancer progression to the sentinel lymph node in the majority of cases prior to distant metastasis. Perhaps, different subsets of cancer may be better defined with relevant biomarkers so that mechanisms of metastasis can be more accurately defined on a molecular and genomic level. J. Surg. Oncol. 2011;103:607–614. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Article · May 2011
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