The use of group sequential, information-based sample size re-estimation in the design of the PRIMO study of chronic kidney disease

Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA.
Clinical Trials (Impact Factor: 1.93). 04/2011; 8(2):165-74. DOI: 10.1177/1740774511399128
Source: PubMed


Chronic kidney disease is associated with a marked increase in risk for left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Therapy with vitamin D receptor activators has been linked with reduced mortality in chronic kidney disease and an improvement in left ventricular hypertrophy in animal studies.
PRIMO (Paricalcitol capsules benefits in Renal failure Induced cardia MOrbidity) is a multinational, multicenter randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of paricalcitol (a selective vitamin D receptor activator) on mild to moderate left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Subjects with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease are randomized to paricalcitol or placebo after confirming left ventricular hypertrophy using a cardiac echocardiogram. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is then used to assess left ventricular mass index at baseline, 24 and 48 weeks, which is the primary efficacy endpoint of the study. Because of limited prior data to estimate sample size, a maximum information group sequential design with sample size re-estimation is implemented to allow sample size adjustment based on the nuisance parameter estimated using the interim data. An interim efficacy analysis is planned at a pre-specified time point conditioned on the status of enrollment. The decision to increase sample size depends on the observed treatment effect. A repeated measures analysis model, using available data at Week 24 and 48 with a backup model of an ANCOVA analyzing change from baseline to the final nonmissing observation, are pre-specified to evaluate the treatment effect. Gamma-family of spending function is employed to control family-wise Type I error rate as stopping for success is planned in the interim efficacy analysis.
If enrollment is slower than anticipated, the smaller sample size used in the interim efficacy analysis and the greater percent of missing week 48 data might decrease the parameter estimation accuracy, either for the nuisance parameter or for the treatment effect, which might in turn affect the interim decision-making.
The application of combining a group sequential design with a sample-size re-estimation in clinical trial design has the potential to improve efficiency and to increase the probability of trial success while ensuring integrity of the study.

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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is associated with decreased cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality, possibly by modifying cardiac structure and function, yet firm evidence for either remains lacking. To determine the effects of an active vitamin D compound, paricalcitol, on left ventricular mass over 48 weeks in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Multinational, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial among 227 patients with chronic kidney disease, mild to moderate left ventricular hypertrophy, and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, conducted in 11 countries from July 2008 through September 2010. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral paricalcitol, 2 μg/d (n =115), or matching placebo (n = 112). Change in left ventricular mass index over 48 weeks by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary end points included echocardiographic changes in left ventricular diastolic function. Treatment with paricalcitol reduced parathyroid hormone levels within 4 weeks and maintained levels within the normal range throughout the study duration. At 48 weeks, the change in left ventricular mass index did not differ between treatment groups (paricalcitol group, 0.34 g/m(2.7) [95% CI, -0.14 to 0.83 g/m(2.7)] vs placebo group, -0.07 g/m(2.7) [95% CI, -0.55 to 0.42 g/m(2.7)]). Doppler measures of diastolic function including peak early diastolic lateral mitral annular tissue velocity (paricalcitol group, -0.01 cm/s [95% CI, -0.63 to 0.60 cm/s] vs placebo group, -0.30 cm/s [95% CI, -0.93 to 0.34 cm/s]) also did not differ. Episodes of hypercalcemia were more frequent in the paricalcitol group compared with the placebo group. Forty-eight week therapy with paricalcitol did not alter left ventricular mass index or improve certain measures of diastolic dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Identifier: NCT00497146.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Several observational studies have indicated that vitamin D receptor activators (VDRA), including paricalcitol, are associated with greater survival in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, patients with higher serum parathyroid hormone, a surrogate of higher death risk, are usually given higher VDRA doses, which can lead to confounding by indication and attenuate the expected survival advantage of high VDRA doses. Methods: We examined mortality-predictability of low (>1 but <10 µg/week) versus high (≥10 µg/week) dose of administered paricalcitol over time in a contemporary cohort of 15 442 MHD patients (age 64 ± 15 years, 55% men, 44% diabetes, 35% African-Americans) from all DaVita dialysis clinics across the USA (7/2001-6/2006 with survival follow-ups until 6/2007) using conventional Cox regression, propensity score (PS) matching, and marginal structural model (MSM) analyses. Results: In our conventional Cox models and PS matching models, low dose of paricalcitol was not associated with mortality either in baseline (hazard ratio (HR): 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.97-1.09)) and (HR: 0.99, 95%CI:(0.86-1.14)) or time-dependent (HR: 1.04, 95%CI: (0.98-1.10)) and (HR: 1.12, 95%CI: (0.98-1.28)) models, respectively. In contrast, compared to high dose of paricalcitol, low dose was associated with a 26% higher risk of mortality (HR: 1.26, 95%CI: (1.19-1.35)) in MSM. The association between dose of paricalcitol and mortality was robust in almost all subgroups of patients using MSMs. Conclusions: Higher dose of paricalcitol appears causally associated with greater survival in MHD patients. Randomized controlled trials need to verify the survival effect of paricalcitol dose in MHD patients are indicated.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease exhibit a high mortality risk that is not fully explained by the classical cardiovascular risk factors. Vitamin D deficiency highly prevalent among CKD patients is independently associated with an increased mortality risk in this population. Advances in the understanding of vitamin D physiology dramatically changed the view on the role of this vitamin in kidney disease. Extra-renal actions on a variety of tissues have been identified. By its cardiovascular effects for instance, correction of vitamin D insufficiency might help to reduce the excess of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease. This article summarizes the sum of knowledge on the roles of vitamin D in kidney disease. Recommendations on screening and substitution with vitamin D in this high-risk population are then proposed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Revue médicale suisse
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