Antidepressant use, depression, lifestyle factors, and new-onset diabetes

aSchool of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA.
International clinical psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.46). 05/2011; 26(3):159-68. DOI: 10.1097/YIC.0b013e328342ce31
Source: PubMed


We assessed the short-term association between antidepressant drug use and the risk of new-onset diabetes in 2-years of observation. This study used longitudinal data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for years 2004-2007. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to examine the link between use of antidepressants with and without depression, and new-onset diabetes, after controlling for independent variables in blocks. In unadjusted models, the risk of new-onset diabetes was significantly increased for persons using antidepressants with depression compared with those without antidepressant use or depression [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-3.09]. When lifestyle risk factors were entered in the model, statistical significance disappeared [adjusted OR (AOR)=1.42, 95% CI: 0.98-2.08]. Independently, lifestyle risk factors significantly increased the risk of new-onset diabetes: hypertension (AOR=2.55, 95% CI: 1.86-3.50, P<0.001), lipid disorders (AOR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.14-2.24), overweight (AOR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.35-2.98), obesity (AOR=3.57, 95% CI: 2.50-5.10), and no physical exercise (AOR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.53-2.57, P<0.001). Future studies on the risk of new-onset diabetes by duration and intensity of antidepressant use and depression are needed.

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    • "All studies were published in the 2000s. The countries in which the studies had been conducted were as follows: the United States (n = 6),7,8,14,33-35) Netherlands (n = 1),11) the UK (n = 1),36) Finland (n = 1),9) Norway (n = 1),10) Australia (n = 1),37) and multiple countries (n = 1).13) We identified 15 eligible estimates from 3 nested case control articles,9,13,36) 6 retrospective cohort studies,8,10,11,14,33,35) and 3 prospective cohort studies.7,34,37) "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between the use of antidepressants and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) risk. We performed a meta-analysis to systematically assess the association between antidepressants and type 2 DM risk. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (through Dec 31, 2011), including references of qualifying articles. Studies concerning the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), or other antidepressants and the associated risk of diabetes mellitus were included. Out of 2,934 screened articles, 3 case-control studies, 9 cohort studies, and no clinical trials were included in the final analyses. When all studies were pooled, use of antidepressants was significantly associated with an increased risk of DM in a random effect model (relative risk [RR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29 to 1.71). In subgroup analyses, the risk of DM increased among both SSRI users (RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.58) and TCA users (RR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.96). The subgroup analyses were consistent with overall results regardless of study type, information source, country, duration of medication, or study quality. The subgroup results considering body weight, depression severity, and physical activity also showed a positive association (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.28). A publication bias was observed in the selected studies (Egger's test, P for bias = 0.09). Our results suggest that the use of antidepressants is associated with an increased risk of DM.
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    ABSTRACT: Whether the prevalence of type 1 or 2 diabetes is rising among people with psychopathology is uncertain. This study investigates changes in the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes associated with psychopathology in the adult Australian population from 2001 to 2008. Data analysed were from 48,359 participants aged ≥25 years from the 2001, 2004-05 or 2007-08 National Health Surveys. Lifetime diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report. Psychopathology status was determined with the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (using scores ≥30), contemporaneous use of antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications, or both. Overall, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes remained stable whereas the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased by 36% between 2001 and 2008. On average, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for type 1 and type 2 diabetes ranged from 1.43 (0.98, 2.10) to 2.44 (1.63, 3.64) and 1.32 (1.13, 1.53) to 1.67 (1.39, 2.02) for people with compared to those without psychopathology by any definition independent of socio-demographic covariates, consistently over the 8-year period. After further adjustments for lifestyle covariates, the strength of these odds ratios were attenuated and ranged from 1.32 (0.90, 1.95) to 2.24 (1.49, 3.36) and 1.16 (0.99,1.36) to 1.51 (1.24, 1.83) for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Data were self-report from serial surveys. The prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes was consistently higher for people with psychopathology from 2001 to 2008. Clinicians should consider routinely screening patients with diabetes for psychopathology and vice versa, as well as lifestyle risk factors, to inform practice for more effective management and prevention planning.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Depression and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are frequently comorbid conditions. It is of considerable clinical significance to avoid metabolic risks in nondiabetic depressed patients and to consider effects on glucose regulation in depressed DM2 patients. This review is an overview on antidepressant treatment and its potential metabolic risks. Recent findings: It is increasingly recognized that effective treatment with antidepressants improves glucose homeostasis in nondiabetic depressed patients in the short run, whereas long-term effects are a matter of debate. Cognitive behavioral and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment may improve glycemic control in depressed DM2 patients, whereas noradrenergic antidepressants and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may cause the metabolic situation to deteriorate. Summary: SSRIs are preferable in nondiabetic depressed patients since they improve glucose regulation in the short run and may have little untoward effects in the long run. In depressed DM2 patients, SSRIs are the only class of antidepressants with confirmed favorable effects on glycemic control.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Current opinion in psychiatry
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