Melatonin promotes osteoblastic differentiation through the BMP/ERK/Wnt signaling pathways

Department of Orthodondritics, Kyung-Hee University College of Dental Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Journal of Pineal Research (Impact Factor: 9.6). 03/2011; 51(2):187-94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2011.00875.x
Source: PubMed


Although melatonin has a variety of biological actions such as antitumor, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant activities, the osteogenic mechanism of melatonin still remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the molecular mechanism of melatonin was elucidated in the differentiation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Melatonin enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization compared to untreated controls in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, melatonin increased wound healing and dose-dependently activated osteogenesis markers such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OCN), bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and -4 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Of note, melatonin activated Wnt 5 α/β, β-catenin and the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner while it attenuated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) in MC3T3-E1 cells. Consistently, confocal microscope observation revealed that BMP inhibitor Noggin blocked melatonin-induced nuclear localization of β-catenin. Furthermore, Western blotting showed that Noggin reversed activation of β-catenin and Wnt5 α/β and suppression of GSK-3β induced by melatonin in MC3T3-E1 cells, which was similarly induced by ERK inhibitor PD98059. Overall, these findings demonstrate that melatonin promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells via the BMP/ERK/Wnt pathways.

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    • "Study found that melatonin could inhibit tau hyperphosphorylation induced by inhibiting PI3K pathway (Deng et al. 2005) suggesting that melatonin maybe regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway. Subsequent studies have also demonstrated that melatonin is involved in regulating PI3K/Akt/GSK3 pathway (Hoppe et al. 2010; Park et al. 2011; Wang et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Social isolation (SI) is considered as a chronic stress. Here, middle-aged rats (8 months) were group or isolation reared for 6 weeks. Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Changes in recognition memory, depression and anxiety-like behavior, and phosphorylated tau were investigated. We found that SI did not lead to obvious depression/anxiety-like behavior in middle-aged rats. Memory deficits and increased tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1, Ser396 episodes could be almost reversed by citalopram. The level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was significantly decreased in the SI group which also could be almost reversed by citalopram, suggesting that the citalopram could prevent GSK-3β from SI-induced overactivation. The melatonin level was decreased in SI group compared with group housed (GH) group, and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin. We also found that citalopram could increase MT1 and MT2 in mRNA level. Our results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3β and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by SI in middle-aged rats. Suggesting that SI might constitute a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and citalopram may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD.
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    • "MEL increases the phosphorylative activation of ERK1/2 in order to constrain ROS production[Luchetti et al., 2009]. Furthermore, MEL promotes osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells though this ERK signaling pathway[Park et al., 2011]. In the same way, we here demonstrated that 5-MTX induces the ERK pathway in both MC3T-E1 and RAW264.7 cells, according to a higher osteoblast differentiation and a lower ROS production respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the direct action of 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTX) in both MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cells and compares it with melatonin (MEL), another 5-methoxyindol known to play a significant role on bone metabolism. We first screened increasing doses of both 5-MTX and MEL to determine their effect on metabolic activity and viability of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The optimal dose was used to determine its effect on differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and preosteoclastic RAW264.7 cells. Finally, we investigated the mechanism of action by adding the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (LUZ) and detecting the immunostaining of phospho-ERK.In MC3T3-E1 cells, most of the 5-MTX doses reduced slightly the metabolic activity of osteoblasts compared with the control, while MEL only decreased it for the highest dose (2.5 mM). As regards to cytotoxicity, low doses (0.001–0.1 mM) of both indoles showed a protective effect on osteoblasts, while the highest dose of MEL showed a higher cytotoxicity than the 5-MTX one. After 14 days of cell culture, Rankl mRNA levels were decreased, especially for 5-MTX. 5-MTX also induced a higher osteocalcin secretion and mineralization capacity than MEL. In RAW264.7 cells, 5-MTX decreased the number of osteoclast formed and its activity whereas MEL did not affect significantly the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells formed and showed a lower activity. Finally, MEL and 5-MTX promoted activation of the ERK1/2 pathway through the phosphorylation of ERK, while LUZ addition suppressed this effect.In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a new role of 5-MTX inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and promoting osteoblast differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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    • "It protects neurons from disorders associated with misfolded proteins (Jeong and Park, 2013). Melatonin has been reported to activate beta-catenin in osteoblastic cells (Park et al., 2011) and to increase beta-catenin levels in the brain of aged mice (Gutierrez-Cuesta et al., 2008), but to decrease beta-catenin levels in breast cancer cells (Mao et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Proteasome inhibitors and melatonin both are intimately involved in the regulation of major signal transduction proteins including p53, cyclin p27, transcription factor NF-kB, apoptotic factors Bax and Bim, caspase 3, caspase 9, anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, TRAIL, NRF2 and transcription factor beta-catenin. The fact that these factors are shared targets of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and melatonin suggests the working hypothesis that melatonin is a proteasome inhibitor. Supporting this hypothesis is the fact that melatonin shares with bortezomib a selective pro-apoptotic action in cancer cells. Furthermore, both bortezomib and melatonin increase the sensitivity of human glioma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Direct evidence for melatonin inhibition of the proteasome was recently found in human renal cancer cells We raise the issue whether melatonin should be investigated in combination with proteasome inhibitors to reduce toxicity, to reduce drug resistance, and to enhance efficacy. This may be particularly valid for hematological malignancies in which proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be useful. Further studies are necessary to determine whether the actions of melatonin on cellular signaling pathways are due to a direct inhibitory effect on the catalytic core of the proteasome, due to an inhibitory action on the regulatory particle of the proteasome, or due to an indirect effect of melatonin on phosphorylation of signal transducing factors.
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