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Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45.07, 152.44 ± 21.72 and 162.03 ± 21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of d-pinitol compared with the other d-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a suitable source of d-pinitol for medical use and d-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup.
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Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Antalya, Turkey
Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic
compounds and minerals. D-Pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human
metabolism. In this research, the D-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish
markets were determined. Mean D-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ^10.73,
385.90 ^45.07, 152.44 ^21.72 and 162.03 ^21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of
D-pinitol compared with the other D-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a
suitable source of D-pinitol for medical use and D-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup.
Keywords: Carob syrup, legume, D-pinitol, sugar profile, bioactive components, nutrition
The carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua L.), belonging to the
Caesalpinaceae subfamily of the Leguminosae, is from a
tree grown in the Mediterranean region. Carob trees
produce fruits of which the pods are 90% and the seeds
10% of the total fruit weight (Karkacier and Artik 1995,
Fletcher 1997). Whole carob fruit is not convenient to
consume because of the hard structure that comprises
the fleshy part. Carob seeds have been used for
production of a powder called locust bean gum (LBG),
which is a commercial product of high value that has
been used as a stabilizer in emulsions and dispersions.
Additionally, enzymatic extracts of carob seeds can be
used a biofertilizer due to the high proportion of water-
insoluble protein (Parrado et al. 2008). Because of the
high commercial value of LBG, carob seeds have
primarily been used for LBG production. Crushed and
deseeded carob pods have been evaluated as a cacao
substitute after a powdering process (Baumgartner et al.
1986), feed for livestock (Khair et al. 2001), feedstock
for the production of bioethanol (Roukas 1995, Turhan
et al. 2010) and as a substrate for citric acid production
(Roukas 1995). Most carob pods have been used for
pekmez production, a traditional concentrated
syrup native to Turkey, after a liquid–solid extraction
process with water (Petit and Pinilla 1995, Batu 2005,
Turhan et al. 2006).
The sugar profile (sucrose, glucose and fructose)
(Karkacier and Artik 1995, Biner et al. 2007), total
phenolic content (Turhan et al. 2006, O
¨zcan et al.
2007), minerals (Karhan et al. 2005, O
¨zcan et al.
2007), amino acid profile (Artik and Erbas 1988), and
protein and fat content (O
¨zcan et al. 2007) of carob
products have been determined by many researchers.
Recently, the demand for functional foods and food
components with health benefits has increased
(Verbeke 2005). Studies on the bioactive components
of carob products have been conducted. One of the
important bioactive components of carob is (3-O-
methyl-D-chiro-inositol) (Figure 1), a cyclitol that is
highly soluble in water (Dowd and Stevens 2002,
Dozois et al. 1938). D-initol is the most dominant
component of the low molecular weight carbohydrate
fraction of legumes (Baumgartner et al. 1986, Kim
et al. 2005), and approximately 99% of total chiro-
inositol (40.0 g/kg) in carob pod exists as D-pinitol
(Kim et al. 2005). D-Pinitol has an insulin-like effect
(Bates et al. 2000) and dietary intake of D-pinitol
represents the major metabolic source for being a
ISSN 0963-7486 print/ISSN 1465-3478 online q2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2011.560564
Correspondence: Nedim Tetik, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, 07058 Antalya, Turkey.
Tel: 90 242 310 6535. Fax: 90 242 227 4564. E-mail:
International Jour nal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,
September 2011; 62(6): 572–576
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precursor of D-chiro-inositol in vivo (Davis et al. 2000,
Kim et al. 2005). Also, only 10 mg D-pinitol/kg body
weight was found by Narayanan et al. (1987) to lower
blood glucose significantly during a period of 0.5 –2 h
following administration. In another study, the anti-
inflammatory effect of D-pinitol was demonstrated as
compared with phenylbutazone in the carrageenin-
induced paw edema in rats (Singh et al. 2001). D-
Pinitol may play a critical role in the amelioration of the
pathogenetic process of asthma in rats (Lee et al.
2007). Park et al. (2005) reported that D-pinitol could
be effective in preventing cataract and cornea edema
caused by oxidative stress in a hyperglycemic environ-
ment. D-Pinitol may act as a lipid-lowering, antihyper-
lipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective action in
rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (Geethan
and Prince 2008, Choi et al. 2009). It is reported that
D-pinitol has no toxicity (Davis et al. 2000).
However, there is a lack of data on the D-pinitol
content of carob syrup. It is speculated that D-pinitol is
extracted along with the sugars, phenols, and minerals
in syrup production. Therefore, the goal of the present
study was to determine D-pinitol in the carob
syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets.
Materials and methods
Ten different syrup samples in glass jars were obtained
from local markets in August 2009. The samples
represented all the brands of syrup available on the
market. The sample jars were stored at þ48C until
analysis. All samples were analyzed in duplicate.
Total soluble solids (8Brix) were determined using an
Abbe refractometer (Atago, Tokyo, Japan). Titratable
acidity (anhydrous citric acid), the formol number and
pH of the samples were performed according to the
AOAC methods (AOAC 1990). The total phenolic
content was analyzed by the Folin Ciocalteau phenol
reagent assay with slight modification (Spanos and
Wrolstad 1990). Folin Ciocalteau phenol reagent for
the analysis of the polyphenols and Na
supplied from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie (Schnelldorf ,
Germany). Then 5 ml Folin– Ciocalteau phenol
reagent (0.2 N) and 4 ml Na
(7.5% w/v) were
added to 100 ml of each sample with 900 ml distilled
water and incubated at ambient temperature for 2 h.
The absorbance was measured at 765 nm using a UV –
VIS spectrophotometer (model UV-160A; Shimadzu,
Tokyo, Japan). Results were calculated and expressed
as grams of gallic acid equivalent per kilogram dry
D-Pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructo se analyses were
carried out using a Shimadzu LC-20AD high-
performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) solvent
delivery system equipped with a guard column
(CARBOsep Coregel 87P, 4 £20 mm
nomic, Omaha, NE, USA) connected to an analytical
column (CARBOsep Coregel 87P, 7.8 £300 mm
Transgenomic) and a Shimadzu RID-10A refractive
index detector. The columns were heated to 858C with a
Varian Mistral column oven (Varian, Palo Alto, CA,
USA). MilliQ water as the mobile phase was allowed to
flow at the rate of 0.6 ml/min. The method used for
chromatographic analysis of the samples was offered by
the manufacturer of the analytical column (Transge-
nomic). The samples of 2 g were weighed approxi-
mately and diluted with MilliQ water (1:25), shaken
gently and diluted with MilliQ water (1:10) again.
MilliQ water was purified with a Millipore Milli-Q Plus
system (Millipore, Espoo, Finland). Diluted samples
were passed through a 0.45 mm membrane filter
PET-45/25; Macherey-Nagel,
¨ren, Germany) before injection. The samples were
injected with a 20 ml injection volume using a Shimadzu
SIL-20A autosampler. D-Pinitol, sucrose, glucose and
fructose concentrations were calculated using standard
curves obtained from the injection of the mixed
standard solutions prepared in MilliQ water in the
range of 25 –200 mg/ml as the external standards. D-
Pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose standards were
purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie (St Louis, MO,
Results and discussion
Total acidity of the carob syrup samples ranged from
9.9 to 13.4 g anhydrous citric acid/kg dry weight
while mean value was found to be 11.7 ^1.3 g
(Table I). The determination of the formol number in
fruit juices and concentrates represents a parameter
for the characterization of fruit juice and concentrates.
The lower formol numbers indicate that less fruits are
used for carob syrup production. Formol number values
ranged from 59.5 to 93.0 while the mean was
78.6 ^11.4. The pH ranged from 4.96 to 5.44 while
the mean was 5.15 ^0.15. The soluble solid content of
samples ranged from 66.6 to 73.78Brix while the mean
value was 71.7 ^2. 0 8Brix. The total phenolic content of
Mono methyl
Figure 1. Chemical structure of D-pinitol.
Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup 573
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samples ranged from 7.16 to 12.45 g gallic acid
equivalent/kg dry weight while the mean value was
8.86 ^2.07 g gallic acid equivalent/kg dry weight.
Ayaz et al. (2007) reported that total phenolic content
of carob pods was 13.51 g gallic acid equivalent/kg
dry weight.
Mean values of D-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and
fructose were 84.63, 385.90, 152.44 and 162.03 g/kg
dry weight, respectively (Table II). This indicated that
sucrose was the main sugar followed by glucose and
fructose in all samples. The fructose/glucose ratio was
found 1:1 in the present study, while other researchers
found the fructose/glucose ratio to be 3:1 (Biner et al.
2007) or 1:10 (Ayaz et al. 2007). These differences in
results may arise from the differences between HPLC
analysis methods. Sugars have classically been
analyzed by HPLC using an acetonitrile:water mixture
as a mobile phase and a NH
-bonded column as a
stationary phase. The sugar profile of carob products
has been analyzed with this classic HPLC method.
Ayaz et al. (2007) analyzed the sugar composition of
carob pods using a cation-exchange column, 0.0085
mol/l H
as a mobile phase and a photodiode array
detector at 210 –300 nm scanning range. Previous
studies on the sugar profile of carob have not detected
the presence of D-pinitol using the other methods of
sugar determination by HPLC with a refractive index
detector (Karkacier et al. 2003, Biner et al. 2007).
In the present study, a different mobile phase (water)
and column (gel column) described in the sugar
analysis were used. In gel columns, D-pinitol and
sugars can be analyzed simultaneously (Figure 2).
The D-pinitol content of carob syrup samples
ranged from 63.7 to 95.7 g/kg dry weight while the
mean value was 84.6 ^10.7 g/kg dry weight. How-
ever, there has been no study to characterize the carob
syrup related to the content of D-pinitol. Kim et al.
(2005) reported that carob pods contain 40 g/kg total
chrio-inositol, which consists of 99% D-pinitol.
Soy bean and dried soy whey, both rich sources of
D-pinitol, contain approximately 5 g/kg and 20 g/kg of
this compound, respectively (Kim et al. 2005). The
study showed that carob syrup was the richest source
of D-pinitol compared with other food legumes.
Baumgartner et al. (1986) reported that D-pinitol in
cacao powder could be used as a marker to indicate
adulteration by addition of carob pulp powder. On the
contrary, carob syrup could be sometimes adulterated
with low-quality sugar-containing products. In this
case, the D-pinitol concentration may be considered to
Table I. Results from some descriptive analyses of carob syrup.
Sample Total acidity
Formol number pH value Soluble solids (8Brix) Total phenolic content (g/kg dry weight)
1 10.97 ^0.05 87.50 ^2.12 5.02 ^0.01 66.65 ^0.07 11.99 ^0.39
2 9.88 ^0.12 75.00 ^1.41 5.15 ^0.00 70.95 ^0.07 7.60 ^0.02
3 13.41 ^0.07 76.50 ^0.71 5.10 ^0.01 73.00 ^0.00 12.45 ^0.12
4 12.57 ^0.05 65.50 ^3.54 5.12 ^0.03 71.50 ^0.15 7.24 ^0.06
5 10.45 ^0.18 59.50 ^0.71 4.96 ^0.03 71.85 ^0.21 7.16 ^0.03
6 11.08 ^0.17 93.00 ^1.41 5.34 ^0.03 73.05 ^0.07 7.81 ^0.05
7 11.32 ^0.05 93.00 ^2.83 5.20 ^0.00 71.75 ^0.07 7.94 ^0.08
8 12.53 ^0.06 83.50 ^0.71 5.44 ^0.00 73.75 ^0.07 10.94 ^0.05
9 13.32 ^0.03 85.50 ^0.71 5.07 ^0.04 73.60 ^0.14 7.85 ^0.20
10 12.58 ^0.07 76.00 ^2.83 5.12 ^0.00 71.50 ^0.14 7.61 ^0.17
Minimum 9.88 59.50 4.96 66.65 7.16
Maximum 13.41 93.00 5.44 73.75 12.45
Mean 11.73 ^1.27 78.61 ^11.44 5.15 ^0.15 71.76 ^2.04 8.86 ^2.07
Data presented as mean ^standard deviation.
Anhydrous citric acid (g/kg dry weight).
Table II. D-Pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of carob syrup determined by HPLC.
Component (g/kg dry weight)
Sample D-Pinitol Sucrose Glucose Fructose
1 90.16 ^5.79 418.07 ^0.83 123.76 ^3.68 135.55 ^1.51
2 90.04 ^0.25 398.89 ^0.92 155.93 ^0.35 160.35 ^0.24
3 70.99 ^6.01 311.32 ^7.64 156.90 ^4.85 188.81 ^2.21
4 95.71 ^0.69 431.36 ^2.3 130.32 ^0.66 143.22 ^0.48
5 63.75 ^2.01 333.91 ^3.29 197.51 ^3.51 190.44 ^1.46
6 83.14 ^2.12 359.52 ^9.53 147.03 ^3.44 160.79 ^4.99
7 94.16 ^0.25 456.13 ^2.49 125.89 ^0.37 128.43 ^0.74
8 94.78 ^0.28 381.96 ^0.49 164.73 ^0.07 172.51 ^0.44
9 82.34 ^0.03 362.61 ^2.22 155.25 ^0.32 179.60 ^0.22
10 90.99 ^0.50 409.59 ^1.38 150.74 ^0.60 165.75 ^0.06
Minimum 63.75 311.32 123.76 128.43
Maximum 95.71 456.13 197.51 190.44
Mean 84.63 ^10.73 385.90 ^45.07 152.44 ^21.72 162.03 ^21.45
Data presented as mean ^standard deviation.
N. Tetik et al.574
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be an indicator for the detection of adulteration in
carob syrup.
The present study showed that carob syrup is a rich
source of D-pinitol compared with other known
sources such as soybean and soy products. Owing to
the high D-pinitol content (about 85 g/kg dry weight),
approximately 10 g carob syrup consumption could be
enough for the suggested dose (10 mg D-pinitol/kg
body weight) (Narayanan et al. 1987) that lowers the
blood sugar level in type II diabetes. Interdisciplinary
investigations might also be done to elucidate the
mechanism of lowering blood sugar by carob
syrup consumption. Also, D-pinitol may be a natural
marker for the detection of adulteration in carob
syrup with other adulteration materials.
Dr David Turner (School of Plant Biology, Faculty
of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, The University
of West Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia) and Mark
Bechara (Agricultural and Biological Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA,
USA) for their reviews and comments on manuscript.
Declaration of interest: The present study was
supported by the Akdeniz University Research Fund.
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0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5
Detector A
Figure 2. A standard chromatogram for (1) sucrose, (2) glucose, (3) D-pinitol and (4) fructose determined by HPLC.
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... The sugar contents of the carob syrups appeared to be intermediate to those of maple syrup that contains almost only sucrose, and date syrup where an invert-sugar-like composition predominates ( Table 2). The mass fractions of glucose, fructose and sucrose of the carob syrups included the mass fractions reported for 10 commercial carob syrups from Turkey (41). The glucose, fructose and sucrose mass fractions of maple and date syrups were similar to those reported for commercial date (32) and maple syrups (3). ...
... (7 samples, 36.8 %) from date syrup (Table 4). Notwithstanding the different solvents used in the extraction of polyphenols from the syrups, carob syrups included the average TPC (expressed as GAE on dry mass basis) of 8 samples from Tunisia (2.1−2.2 g/100 g) (15) and 10 samples from Turkey (0.72−1.2 g/100 g) (41). The TPC (expressed as GAE on dry mass basis) of maple syrup samples was higher than reported for amber and dark maple syrups at (45.6±18.7) ...
... mg/L (44). Notwithstanding the differences in the assay protocols and the use of extracts or whole syrups in the determinations, carob syrups have been reported to contain significant quantities of total phenols and to exhibit high antioxidant capacity, comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, in several in vitro antioxidant capacity assays (13,15,41). Similar findings have been reported for the total phenols and antioxidant capacity of maple (1,9,44) and date syrups (45). ...
Full-text available
Research background. The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is grown primarily for its seeds that are utilized in the production of the highly prized locust bean gum. The material left after the separation of seeds from the pods is utilized in the production of a range of traditional products including carob syrup, usually in cottage-type industries. The international market penetration of carob syrups is rather limited and, accordingly, scant information exists on their composition and phytochemical properties compared to mainstream syrups. The present study aims to determine key chemical parameters, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of carob syrups and benchmark these against those of date and maple syrups. Experimental approach. Carob syrups were prepared from 19 accessions of the carob, under laboratory conditions, by a similar procedure to those practiced by small-scale producers. The pH, browning index, the content of proteins, minerals, hydroxymethylfurfural, sugar composition, total phenols, antioxidant capacity and phenolic profiles of the produced syrups along with branded samples of date and maple syrups were analyzed. Results and conclusions. The pH and sugar composition of the carob syrups were comparable to those of date and maple syrups. In general, the carob syrups contained more proteins, minerals, phenolic acids, flavonoids and total phenols, and exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the date and maple syrups. The carob syrups exhibited excessive browning and contained more, or comparable content of hydroxymethylfurfural, than the date and maple syrups. The data indicate that carob syrups provide more nutrients and possess superior antioxidant potential to date and maple syrups. The high contents of the carcinogenic hydroxymethylfurfural of the carob syrups warrant milder heating regimens in the concentration step during production. Novelty and scientific contribution. In contrast to studies based on commercial and/or homemade syrups, this work utilized a relatively large number of laboratory-prepared samples for creating a robust database for carob syrup. The results indicated that carob syrups possess superior health promotion and disease prevention effects than the widely traded date and maple syrups. In addition to their potential positive contribution to public health, carob syrups have been shown to be promising candidates for bolstering the economic returns of farmers in carob-producing countries.
... ‫لقخون‬ . (Tetik et al., 2011 ;Tounsi et al., 2020) ...
Full-text available
Abstract: A field survey was conducted of the traditional method used in the manufacture of AlAkkah, Samn , and carob rub produced in Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar region, where a questionnaire was prepared that included 60 questions, The survey was conducted in several areas surrounding the city of Al-Bayda in the Al-Jabal Al Akhder. The questionnaire involved the method of making and processing the Al-Akkah, Samn ,carob rub and its raw materials. Among the most prominent results obtained , it was found that the raw material used in the Al-Akkah industry was the skin of goats and sheep, where the percentage of questioners reached 59%, and the percentage of preference for storing Samn and consuming it in the winter season was 49%.The time storage of Samn the ALAkkah from 6 month to 2 years and the percentage of questioners was 67%. As for the results of the questionnaire for carob rub, it was found that the raw material used in the manufacture of carob rub is carob pods, and the percentage questioners was 100%. The shelf life of traditional carob rub was reached from 6 months to a year and percentage questioners was 55%. As for the results of the questionnaire for Samn, it was found that 58% used butter from cows and goats’ milk in the manufacture of Samn, while the percentage of butter produced in the Samn industry was from natural fermentation. From the process of shaking milk 100% as for filling the Samn with the Al-Akkah , the results were 34%, and the period of storage in the Al-Akkah ranged from one year to a year and a half, where the percentage was 48% without spoilage. Keywords: Carob tree - carob pods - Samn - questionnaire - traditional preparation - preservation of Samn.
... Carob also contains a compound named D-pinitol, a carbohydrate that has an insulin-like effect. Tetik et al. (2011) stated that when carob fruit is compared with other plants for D-pinitol concentration, it has some advantages such as cheap raw material, an easy extraction method, and rich D-pinitol levels. The highest D-pinitol content was in wild-type carob pods (84.59 g/kg) compared to the cultivated carob pods (61.88 g/kg) (Turhan 2014). ...
Türkiye is one of the gene centers of medicinal and aromatic trees such as laurel, sumac, hawthorn, and carob. Laurel leaves, with their antiseptic and antibacterial properties and sumac extracts, with their antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal properties, and DNA-protective effects are very popular. The flower, leaf, and fruit extracts of the hawthorn are used for cardiovascular, hypertension, and diabetic diseases. Carob products for hemoglobin, cough, diabetes, and gall bladder diseases. Oleic acid and lauric acid are obtained from bay laurel berries. The main component of bay laurel leaf essential oil is 1,8-cineole. Since sumac oil has a high monounsaturated fatty acid content, it is more resistant to oxidative deterioration and can be stored for a longer time. Hawthorn fruits, leaves, and flowers contain a number of chemical constituents, such as flavonoids, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, triterpene acids, organic acids, sterols, and cardioactive amines. The dry matter of the carob fruit contains a high amount of sugar (more than 50%). In the future, it is expected that the interest will increase in the extracts and drugs of these species, as they are rich sources of bioactive compounds that have positive effects on human health.
... It is abundant in various soybean plants. Among these, Ceratonia siliqua L. (English name: carob) contains much higher amounts of d-pinitol varying from 84.63 to 385.90 g/kg dry weight (9). It has been widely assumed that d-pinitol possesses multiple bioactivities, including anticancer (10), antidiabetic (11), antioxidant (12), hepatoprotective (13), and anti-osteoporosis activities (14). ...
A natural sugar alcohol, D-pinitol, has been reported to be a potential compound for osteoporosis treatment via inhibiting osteoclastgenesis. However, research on the effects of pinitol on osteoporosis in vivo is still limited. The present study investigated the protective effects of pinitol on ovariectomized mice and attempted to elucidate this mechanism in vivo. Four-week-old female ovariectomized ICR mice were employed as a postmenopausal osteoporosis model and treated with pinitol or estradiol (E2) for 7 wk. Thereafter, serum calcium content, phosphorus content, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity (BALP) were measured. Bilateral femurs were isolated, and bone marrow protein was collected through centrifuge. Dry femurs were weighed, while femur length, cellular bones, and bone mineral content were measured. D-chiro-Inositol (DCI) and myo-inositol (MI) content in serum and bone marrow was measured by GC-MS. At the end of experiment, the serum BALP and TRAcP activities of the OVX mice were suppressed significantly by treatment with either pinitol or E2. Femur weight, cellular bone rate, Ca and P content were improved by pinitol or E2. The DCI content of the serum of OVX decreased significantly, although it recovered to some extent after pinitol treatment. Pinitol significantly increased the ratio of DCI to MI in serum or bone marrow protein in the observed OVX mice. Besides, pinitol had no significant effects on osteoblast viability and differentiation. The present results showed that continuous pinitol intake exerts potent anti-osteoporosis activity via elevating DCI content in serum and bone marrow in OVX mice.
... D-pinitol, a 3-methoxy analogue of D-chiro-inositol (DCI), was first isolated and structurally characterized from the pine tree [13]. It is a prominent component in a variety of legumes, especially in Ceratonia siliqua L. (English name: carob) [14]. It has been widely assumed that D-pinitol possesses multiple bioactivities, including anti-cancer [15], anti-diabetes [16,17], antioxidant [18], hepatoprotective [19], and anti-osteoporosis [20] bioactivities. ...
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Diabetic osteoporosis (DO) has been increasingly recognized as an important complication of diabetes. D-pinitol, a natural compound found in various legumes, is known for its anti-diabetic function, but its effect on DO has not been investigated. Two doses of pinitol (50 and 100 mg/kg Bw/d) were administered orally to experimentally induce the DO mouse model for 5 weeks. The results indicated that pinitol suppressed fasting blood glucose levels and tended to enhance impaired pancreatic function. Pinitol also suppressed serum bone turnover biomarkers, and improved dry femur weight, cancellous bone rate, and bone mineral content in the DO mice. Based on the inositol quantification using GC-MS in serum, liver, kidney, and bone marrow, the pinitol treatment significantly recovered the depleted D-chiro-inositol (DCI) content or the decreased the ratio of DCI to myo-inositol caused by DO. In short, our results suggested that pinitol improved glucose metabolism and inhibited bone loss in DO mice via elevating the DCI levels in tissues.
... Carob has a great antioxidant capacity due to its phenolic content. Many studies reported that carob exhibits anti-atherosclerotic, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic and cholesterol-lowering properties (Ruiz-Roso et al., 2010;Tetik et al., 2011;Valero-Munoz et al., 2014;Roman et al., 2017). Altıner and Hallaç (2020) stated that the usage of carob in pasta formulation enriched the ash, protein and dietary fiber levels of pasta. ...
Conference Paper
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A COMPARATIVE PHENOTYPE AND GENOTYPE STUDY OF THE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE SALMONELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CHICKEN MEAT IN BAKU, AZERBAIJAN AND TYLER, TEXAS, USA Asaf M.Omarov1, Ali Azghani2, Siala Rustamova3, Saida Aliyeva4, Javid Mammadov5 1Khazar University, Life Sciences department, Baku, Azerbaijan 2 The University of Texas at Tyler, Biology department, Tyler, The USA 3Veterinary Scientific Research Institute, Baku, Azerbaijan 4. The ADA University, Baku, Azerbaijan 5 Javid Mammadov, Baku, Azerbaijan Poultry Company INTRODUCTION The modern intensive integrated livestock production systems require regular antibiotics used at farms to maintain animal health and production. The use of antibiotics in food animal production has been implicated as a contributing factor to the emergence of drug resistance in human foodborne pathogens(Davies & Wray, 1997). Certain antibiotics, when given in low, subtherapeutic doses, are known to improve feed conversion efficiency (more output, such as muscle or milk, for a given amount of feed) and may promote greater growth, most likely by affecting gut flora (By Christopher D. Reinhardt, 2013). The regular and irresponsible use of antibiotics in modern veterinary practices is associated with the emergence of different multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. These MDR pathogens of animal origin may be disseminated to humans via the wider environment including food products, sewage, and agricultural system. Salmonella is an important pathogen highly associated with poultry products such as eggs and chicken meat(Velasquez et al., 2018) Salmonella organisms may become resistant to antimicrobials by modifying or inactivating the antimicrobial agent, modifying the antimicrobial target, the action of the efflux pumps, or cell membrane permeability. (Hawe et al., 2022; Mulvey et al., 2006) Genomic events constitute a central process in the mobilization of genetic elements and associated mobile antibiotic resistance antibiotic resistance-encoding genes in different settings (Burrus & Waldor, 2004). The movement of bacteria from the environment to animals and humans (and vice-versa) contributes to an increase in the mobilome (mobile gene pool) (Kav et al., 2012). These genetic exchanges have been significantly reported among human and animal guts (Devirgiliis et al., 2011). Material and Methods The fresh chicken meat was collected from retail markets in the city of Tyler, Texas, and Baku, Azerbaijan. The samples were processed in Dr. Azghani’s Laboratory at the University of Texas at Tyler and the Laboratory of Khazar University, Baku Azerbaijan. TSB, TSA, Mueller-Hinton Agar, and MacConkey Agar were used for Salmonella spp. isolation and counting CFU. Difco Salmonella O antiserum Poly A – I and Vi serum was used as a screening test, PCR (16S) was implemented for conformation. QIAamp ® DNA Mini and Blood kit was used for DNA extraction. Cefotaxime 30ug, Imipenem 10ug, Colistin 10ug, Amoxicillin+Clavulanic acid 20ug/10ug, Aztreonam 30ug, Chloramphenicol 30ug, Sulfamethoxazole+Trimethoprim 23.75ug/1.25ug, Ciprofloxacin 5ug, Gentamicin 10ug antibiotic discs were used for phenotypical identification to AMR ability to isolated Salmonella spp. 16S, blaIMP blaNDM-1 mcr-1 aadB genes are considered a gene of interest, Cyber green Super Mix was used for the recognition AMR genes. International Congress on Natural & Medical Sciences Proceedings book | | September 02-04, 2022 / Ege University, Izmir, Türkiye 18 Results 1. AMR Salmonella spp. was detected in both countries 2. Mobile genetics elements were separated from isolated Salmonella spp. 3. Bacteria isolated from Azerbaijan and Tyler (the USA) demonstrated different phenotypes and genotypes AMR ability 4. Different mobile genetic elements were detected based on phenotype antibiotic resistance variation in Salmonella spp. 5. Various resistance to unique antibiotics were dissimilar for these countries
... Carob has a great antioxidant capacity due to its phenolic content. Many studies reported that carob exhibits anti-atherosclerotic, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic and cholesterol-lowering properties (Ruiz-Roso et al., 2010;Tetik et al., 2011;Valero-Munoz et al., 2014;Roman et al., 2017). Altıner and Hallaç (2020) stated that the usage of carob in pasta formulation enriched the ash, protein and dietary fiber levels of pasta. ...
Conference Paper
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In the study, it was aimed to examine the effect of height, body weight, push-ups, pull-ups in the pull-ups and weightless, 8 and 16 kg weight climbing times, and the relationship between ascent and descent times and Body Mass Index (BMI) of the study groups that trained two different rope climbing techniques.The study model was planned as a pre-post-test quasi-experimental with two experimental groups. A total of 60 male volunteers [Compression Technique (ST), N=30 and Ladder Technique (MT) N=30] individuals were included in the study.In education; Five weeks, three days a week, 50 minutes of technical rope climbing training was carried out, and the relationship between the effect of different strength intensities on climbing times and BMI was examined.In the quasi-experimental planned study, the homogeneity of the groups was ensured according to the pre-test values, and the ST and MT teaching and training program was applied for five weeks.In the measurements taken before the study and at the end of the five-week study; height, body weight, push-ups, pull-ups in the pull-ups and weightless, 8 to 16 kg climbing times were measured.Before processing the obtained data, the entered data was checked in order to work with a complete and correct data set. In the processing of the data, it was examined whether the research variables had a normal distribution. For this, skewness, kurtosis coefficients, histogram graph and Q-Q plot were used.The homogeneity assumption was checked with the Levene test to examine whether the groups were evenly distributed in the hypotheses in which the mean differences in the pre-test values were examined.Since the distribution was normal, Pearson correlation analysis was used for the relationship between T-Test variables and BMI in prepost- test comparisons.As a result of the analyzes made; It was determined that both techniques of climbing significantly increased arm strength, the relationship between climbing and descending times of climbing and BMI was positively correlated with unweighted ascent-descent time in MT, and negatively correlated with 8-16 kg ascent-downhill times; It was determined that there was a negative correlation between ST and unweighted and 8 kg ascent and descent times, and a positive correlation between 16 kg weight ascent and descent times. Keywords: Rope, Climbing, Body Mass Index, Arm Strength, Weight, Duration
... Carob has a great antioxidant capacity due to its phenolic content. Many studies reported that carob exhibits anti-atherosclerotic, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic and cholesterol-lowering properties (Ruiz-Roso et al., 2010;Tetik et al., 2011;Valero-Munoz et al., 2014;Roman et al., 2017). Altıner and Hallaç (2020) stated that the usage of carob in pasta formulation enriched the ash, protein and dietary fiber levels of pasta. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
AMR Salmonella spp. was detected in both countries. Mobile genetics elements were separated from isolated Salmonella spp. Bacteria isolated from Azerbaijan and Tyler (the USA) demonstrated different phenotypes and genotypes AMR ability. Different mobile genetic elements were detected based on phenotype antibiotic resistance variation in Salmonella spp. Various resistance to unique antibiotics were dissimilar for these countries
... It could be directly consumed or used as an ingredient in food formulations such as dairy products (Jridi et al. 2015) and sesame paste (Razavi, Habibi Najafi, and Alaee 2007). Several researchs have focused on the preparation and characterization of carob syrup (Sengül et al. 2007;Tounsi et al. 2017;Tetik et al. 2011;Toker et al. 2013;Dhaouadi et al. 2014;Tounsi, Ghazala, and Kechaou 2020) and date syrup (Batu 2010;Abbès, Kchaou, et al. 2013;Abbès et al. 2011;Abbès, Besbes, et al. 2013;Al-Hooti et al. 2002;Al-Farsi et al 2007), but to our knowledge, there are no scientific studies comparing these two syrups. Therefore, the objective of this work is to compare the aromatic, physico-chemical, nutritional and functional properties of commercial carob and date syrups. ...
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Date and carob syrups are traditional foods produced and consumed in several countries, including Tunisia. Each syrup is characterized by its interesting nutritional and bioactive composition. Several studies have been carried out on the production and characterization of each syrup separately, but this study tends to compare the aromatic, physico-chemical, nutritional and functional properties of commercial carob and date syrups. The results showed a comparable aromatic composition whose major compounds are terpenes (carvone and menthol), a difference in color since carob syrup was characterized by a darker brown color, a nutritional composition rich in sugars and a difference in functional properties since carob syrup had greater emulsifying capacity and antioxidant activity. Thus, the characteristics of carob and date syrups encourage their use in the food industry according to the appropriate product.
This study investigated the effects of adding carob molasses at 5 %, 10 %, and 15 % on physicochemical, rheological, and biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor activities, as well as microbiological and sensory properties of stirred yoghurt samples during the cold storage period. Increasing the concentration of carob molasses increased the content of total solids (TS), titratable acidity, yellowness /blueness values, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic activity, and overall acceptability. Still, it significantly decreased the samples' ash content and water holding capacity. Furthermore, carob molasses concentration significantly affected on the fat content, viscosity, whiteness, redness /greenness values, molds, and yeast counts. In contrast, it had no significant effect on protein content, pH values, and the count of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in the stirred yoghurt containing carob molasses. The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis of stirred yoghurt containing carob molasses showed differences in elemental content among samples. The stirred yoghurt fortified with 15 % carob molasses had the highest overall acceptability in the sensory evaluation and exhibited a higher effect in decreasing the viability of the three tested human tumor cell lines compared to the control and other treatments.
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Pods and seeds from carob Ceratonia siliqua L. trees growing in Ajloun Mountainous forests and rangelands in Jordan were analyzed for their proximate analysis, Ca and P contents, and also the effects of ingestion of seeds by sheep and goat on the germination were investigated. Carob seed has hard seed coat dormancy, and seed scarification increased germination from 10.2% in non-scarified to 85.4% after scarification. Germination percentages for seeds that were ingested by sheep were 73.5, 61.8, 39.3, and 0.0% for ingestion periods of 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours, respectively; whereas, it was 56.8, 79.9, 50.1, 13.7, and 1.1 % for seeds dispersed from goat after 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Carob seeds contained higher amounts of protein, fiber, fat and Ca. than deseeded pods. However, the latter contained more carbohydrates and P than seeds. Carob pods and seeds contained sufficient crude protein and energy to meet the maintenance and lactation requirements of ewes, but Ca and P contents were not adequate by themselves.
Pinitol and chino-inositol exert insulin-like effect by mediating post-receptor signaling pathway. Total chino-inositol concentrations, including pinitol, chino-inositol, and their derivatives, were determined in 115 natural and food materials to identify economical sources for mass production of pinitol. Carob pod, Bougainvillea, soy whey, and soybean oligosaccharides were rich sources of chino-inositol. Pinitol was isolated from soy whey and carob pod, considered as economically viable sources, by chromatographic separation using activated carbon. Soy and carob pinitols had same chemical structure as that of reference pinitol based on HPLC and NMR results. Oral administration of soy pinitol and carob pinitol (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased blood glucose at 2-6 hr in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest pinitol isolated from soy whey and carob pod could be beneficial in controlling blood glucose in animal model of diabetes mellitus.
The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by immobilized S. cerevisiae cells on the mineral kissiris was investigated. The optimum conditions for carob pod extract fermentations were pH 3.5 ‐ 6.5, temperature 30°C and initial sugar concentration of 250g/l. A maximum ethanol concentration (64.5g/l), ethanol yield (28.3%) and sugar utilization (94%) was achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 250, 200 and 250g/l, respectively. In repeated batch fermentations, the immobilized S. cerevisiae cells on kissiris retained their ability to produce ethanol for 30 days.
Carob pods contain about 200–500 g/kg of total sugars, a higher content of sugar than is present in beet or cane, which is below 200 g/kg. In the present paper a sugar syrup (concentrate solution of several sugars) from carob pods has been obtained with a concentration of sugars near 580 g/kg, 62° Brix and 93% of purity. Extraction and purification techniques were performed. From the results of the extraction researches it can be concluded that a 10 column system connected in series is the most advantageous for efficiency and automation of the sugar extraction reaching a yield of at least 90%. In the purification technique a discontinuous treatment followed by purification in several types of columns connected in series have been studied in order to obtain a transparent and colourless extract.
The crystal and molecular structures of d-pinitol and l-quebrachitol were determined from low temperature x-ray diffraction data. Pinitol crystallizes in an orthorhombic system, P212121 (Z=4), with unit cell dimensions of a=6.8345(8) Å, b=9.3233(10) Å, and c=12.8911(14) Å. Quebrachitol crystallizes in a monoclinic system, P21 (Z=2), with unit cell dimensions of a=6.6289(4) Å, b=7.1895(4) Å, c=8.6843(5) Å, and β=90.5690(10)°. No unusual bond lengths or valence angles are present within either structure. Both rings are in chair conformations, with the majority of the pendent groups in equatorial orientations. As found for many compounds with multiple hydroxyl groups, the structures have extensive networks of hydrogen bonds. Both structures have infinite chain sequences of hydrogen bonds incorporating the O-1 and O-4 hydroxyl groups and finite chain sequences incorporating the other hydroxyl groups.
Methodology for measurement of phenolics in fruit juices using HPLC separation and diode array detection is presented. Quantitation of phenolic acids and flavonol glycosides was achieved with minimum sample preparation. Procyanidin quantitation, however, required removal of interfering compounds with Sephadex LH-20 minicolumn chromatography. Good reproducibility and high recoveries (up to 92.3%) were achieved in procyanidin isolation. The methods were used to study the effect of SO2, enzymatic clarification, fining, bottling, concentration, and storage on the phenolic composition of Thompson Seedless grape juice. SO2 addition during processing resulted in higher levels of phenolic acids and procyanidins, but it had no apparent effect on the quercetin glycoside composition. Oxidation of caftaric acid to 2-S-glutathionylcaftaric acid was evident in juices processed both with and without SO2. Enzymatic clarification caused hydrolysis of caftaric, coutaric, and quercetin derivatives, but it showed no effect on the 2-S-glutathionylcaftaric acid. Procyanidins demonstrated sensitivity to the heat applied during bottling and concentration. Storage of concentrates for 9 months at 25°C led to the formation of (hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) (up to 33.5 mg/L), extensive oxidation of cinnamics, and total loss of procyanidins and quercetin glycosides. Colorimetric measurement of phenolics showed no correlation with the HPLC quantitation.
In the food industry, carob powder is used as a cocoa substitute. It consists primarily of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) in addition to tannins, fibers, etc. D-(+)-Pinitol (3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol), myo-inositol, and D-(+)-chiro-inositol were isolated from a fermented water extract of carob powder. The concentration of pinitol ranged from 5 to 7.5% of the dry weight of the powder as determined by GC. myo-Inositol and chiro-inositol were minor components with concentrations of 0.5 to 1% and 0.1%, respectively. As pinitol is not present in cocoa powder, it can be used as a natural marker of carob adulteration of cocoa powder. Further investigations, including GC-MS, revealed traces of ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-mositol), sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol), and bornesitol (1-O-methyl-myo-inositol) to be present in a fermented water extract of carob powder in addition to sorbitol.