Unintended Pregnancy: Worldwide Levels, Trends, and Outcomes
Guttmacher Institute, 125 Maiden Lane, New York, NY 10038, USA. Studies in Family Planning
(Impact Factor: 1.28).
12/2010; 41(4):241-50. DOI: 10.2307/27896274
Unintended pregnancy can carry serious consequences for women and their families. We estimate the incidence of pregnancy by intention status and outcome at worldwide, regional, and subregional levels for 2008, and we assess recent trends since 1995. Numbers of births are based on United Nations estimates. Induced abortions are estimated by projecting from recent trends. A model-based approach is used to estimate miscarriages. The planning status of births is estimated using nationally representative and small-scale surveys of 80 countries. Of the 208 million pregnancies that occurred in 2008, we estimate that 41 percent were unintended. The unintended pregnancy rate fell by 29 percent in developed regions and by 20 percent in developing regions. The highest unintended pregnancy rates were found for Eastern and Middle Africa and the lowest for Southern and Western Europe and Eastern Asia. North America is the only region in which overall and unintended pregnancy rates have not declined. We conclude with a brief discussion of global and regional program and policy implications.
Available from: Olumide Abiodun
- "Sexual behaviour of young people has become a crucial social and public health concern, especially with regard to unintended pregnancies . Africa has the highest rate of intended (136 per 1000) and unintended pregnancy (86 per 1000) worldwide, constituting 41% and 39% respectively of all global intended and unintended preg- nancies. The incidence of unintended pregnancy is quite high in Nigeria, with many of the women turning to abortion to avoid unwanted births[7,8]. "
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ABSTRACT: Unsafe abortions account for nearly one-third of maternal deaths among young people. Women who have an induced abortion are usually literate and less than 30 years old; usually undergraduates with unintended pregnancies. Many of these pregnancies could have been prevented by contraception. The aim of this study was to determine the correlates of uptake of emergency contraception among university students.
Available from: Thomas obinchemti Egbe
- "Reports concerning developing countries indicate an inverse relationship between education level and frequency of adolescent pregnancy and/or childbearing28293031. Regarding marital status, studies in low-income countries reported that most teenage pregnancies occurred within marriage and so did not occasion any social stigma; but our study proved the contrary. "
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Teenage pregnancy is a high-risk condition that requires skilled antenatal care for good outcome. World estimates in 2008 report about 16 million births to adolescent mothers, most of them occurring in low and middle-income countries. In Cameroon, about 12 % of all births are to adolescent mothers. This study determines the prevalence of hospital teenage deliveries in the Buea Health District and compares the delivery outcomes and demographic characteristics between pregnant teenage mothers (14-19) and adult mothers (20-29 years). We also identify factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
We undertook a retrospective study of case files of patients who gave birth in the Buea Regional Hospital during the period 2009-2012, to determine the prevalence of hospital-delivered teenage pregnancies in the BHR. We also undertook a, cross-sectional study to compare the outcomes of 148 singleton adolescent births with 360 adult births in three health facilities in the Buea Health District during the period March 1 to August 31, 2013.
The prevalence of teenage births was 13.3 %. The adverse fetal outcomes imputable to adolescent births were low birth weight (<2,500 g) (OR, 2.79; 95 % CI, 1.28-6.09), preterm babies (<37 weeks) (OR: 1.85; 95 % CI, 1.01-3.41), low 5 min Apgar score < 7 (OR: 1.66; 95 % CI, 0.91-3.0). Adverse maternal outcomes associated with teenage pregnancies were mainly perineal tear (OR, 1.6; 95 % CI, 0.95-2.7). Teenage births were not discovered in any significant way to cause preeclampsia/eclampsia, episiotomy, premature rupture of membranes and caesarean section. Maternal factors like age and gravidity were discovered to lead to adverse fetal outcomes in adolescents, while maternal factors like age, unemployment, marital status and gravidity were, for their part, directly responsible for adverse maternal outcomes in adolescents.
Teenage pregnancies are quite prevalent in the Buea Health District, and hospital delivery common. Adolescent pregnancies are more likely to lead to adverse fetal and maternal outcomes than adult pregnancies.
Available from: Jacob J van den Berg
- "Each year, millions of women across the globe face unmet needs for family planning, negative maternal and child outcomes of unplanned pregnancies, and/or sexually transmitted infections (STIs; including HIV)   . There is a need for contraception, STI prevention, and multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) women will effectively use. "
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ABSTRACT: Intravaginal rings (IVRs) are currently under investigation as devices for the delivery of agents to protect against the sexual transmission of HIV and STIs, as well as pregnancy. To assist product developers in creating highly acceptable rings, we sought to identify characteristics that intravaginal ring users consider when making decisions about ring use or non-use. We conducted four semi-structured focus groups with 21 women (aged 18–45) who reported using an IVR in the past 12 months. Participants manipulated four prototype rings in their hands, discussed ring materials, dimensionality, and “behavior,” and shared perceptions and appraisals. Five salient ring characteristics were identified: 1) appearance of the rings’ surfaces, 2) tactile sensations of the cylinder material, 3) materials properties, 4) diameter of the cylinder, and 5) ring circumference. Pliability (or flexibility) was generally considered the most important mechanical property. Several ring properties (e.g., porousness, dimensionality) were associated with perceptions of efficacy. Women also revealed user behaviors that may impact the effectiveness of certain drugs, such as removing, rinsing and re-inserting the ring while bathing, and removing the ring during sexual encounters. As product developers explore IVRs as prevention delivery systems, it is critical to balance product materials and dimensions with use parameters to optimize drug delivery and the user experience. It is also critical to consider how user behaviors (e.g., removing the ring) might impact drug delivery.
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