Serous Endometrial Intraepithelial Carcinoma Arising in Adenomyosis: A Report of 5 Cases
Department of Pathology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists (Impact Factor: 1.67). 04/2011; 30(3):271-81. DOI: 10.1097/PGP.0b013e318200868e
Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (serous EIC) arising in adenomyosis is rare. It may be underrecognized because of its deceiving morphology when embedded in the foci of adenomyosis. Although there is no connection to peritoneal cavity, some cases may be associated with extrauterine disease. It is currently unknown what the etiology for such a disease is. More studies are in need to elucidate the pathogenesis of such a grave malady. We report a series of 5 cases of serous EIC, which may arise in adenomyosis. The 5 cases are in 5 different patients or whom on histopathological examination of their hysterectomy specimens, the finding of adenomyosis involved with serous intraepithelial neoplasia was identified. The finding of interest was the presence of multifoci of adenomyosis; some of those foci were involved in serous EIC. In addition to EIC, lesions of endometrial glandular dysplasia were present in the foci of adenomyosis. To rule out the possibility of endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) invading into the areas of the adenomyosis, all of the 5 uteri were extensively examined. Among the 5 uteri, the eutopic endometirum showed 1 invasive ESC, 2 serous EIC, and 2 benign resting endometrium without any cancer or precancerous lesions. In 1 uterus with ESC, we did not see any direct spatial connection between the invasive component of ESC and the areas of EIC in the foci of adenomyosis. In 2 uteri with serous EIC within the endometrial cavity, there was a distance of at least 0.5 cm between the lesions within the endometrial cavity and the serous EIC in adenomyosis. The remaining 2 uteri showed no evidence of endometrial malignancy in the endometrial cavity, whereas serous EIC was present only in areas of adenomyosis. Clinicopathologic data including characterized immunohistochemical stainings and p53 gene sequence analysis are presented and clinical significance is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of our review was to identify the current information with regard to the pathogenesis and malignant transformation of adenomyosis. The current literature was reviewed by searching MEDLINE/PubMed, using the following keywords: adenomyosis, myometrium, stromal cells, malignant transformation, pathogenesis, etiology, genome-wide and microarray. Early signs of the development of adenomyosis are considered to be the penetration of stromal cells into the inner layer of the myometrium. Adenomyosis smooth muscle cells are developed, possibly, through a remodeling pathway via reactivation of coelomic epithelial cells as a result of estrogen-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition. Smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy are a reflection of a reaction of the surrounding tissue. The development of adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis is a relatively rare occurrence. In our literature review, to date, 44 cases of malignant tumors arising from adenomyosis have been documented. Studies reporting results of genetic abnormalities, epigenetic changes, monoclonal expansion, mutational analysis and the inactivation of specific tumor suppressor genes are very few in this field. In conclusion, adenomyosis can be a precursor of some carcinomas. The exact molecular mechanisms that lead to the malignant transformation are poorly understood.
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ABSTRACT: Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract, partly attributable to chronic estrogen exposure secondary to increased obesity rates. Tumor stage, which in most cases is based on depth of invasion (DOI), is of critical importance in determining if additional treatment is needed. However, the array of invasive morphologies within the spectrum of ECC can make the determination of DOI difficult. Several morphologic patterns of invasion have been described, including diffusely infiltrating irregular glands, "broad front" (or pushing border), adenoma malignum, adenomyosis-like, and microcystic, elongated, and fragmented glands. EEC may often contain a mixture of invasive patterns, which can further complicate evaluation of these common tumors. Recognition of these patterns may lead to more accurate staging, but perhaps more importantly, some patterns may be associated with adverse prognostic features. The purpose of this review is to highlight the various invasive patterns of EEC and note their unique pitfalls and prognostic implications in an effort to improve staging accuracy and treatment and follow-up for the thousands of women affected by this disease each year.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this review article was to evaluate the relationship and the possible etiological mechanisms between endometriosis, leiomyoma (LM) and adenomyosis and gynecological cancers, such as ovarian and endometrial cancer and leiomyosarcoma (LMS). MEDLINE was searched for all articles written in the English literature from July 1966 to May 2013. Reports were collected systematically and all the references were also reviewed. Malignant transformation of gynecologic benign diseases such as endometriosis, adenomyosis and LM to ovarian and endometrial cancer remains unclear. Hormonal factors, inflammation, familial predisposition, genetic alterations, growth factors, diet, altered immune system, environmental factors and oxidative stress may be causative factors in carcinogenesis. Early menarche, low parity, late menopause and infertility have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of these cancers. Ovarian cancers and endometriosis have been shown to have common genetic alterations such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH), PTEN, p53, ARID1A mutations. MicroRNAs have also been implicated in malignant transformation. Inflammation releases proinflammatory cytokines, and activates tumor associated macrophages (TAMS) and nuclear factor kappa b (NF-KB) signaling pathways that promote genetic mutations and carcinogenesis. MED12 mutations in LM and smooth muscle tumors of undetermined malignant potential (STUMP) may contribute to malignant transformation to LMS. A hyperestrogenic state may be shared in common with pathogenesis of adenomyosis, LM and endometrial cancer. However, the effect of these benign gynecologic diseases on endometrial cancer should be studied in detail. This review study indicates that endometriosis, LM, adenomyosis may be associated with increased risk of gynecological cancers such as endometrial and ovarian cancers. The patients who have these gynecological benign diseases should be counseled about the future risks of developing cancer. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between STUMPs, LMS and LM and characteristics and outcome endometrial carcinoma in adenomyotic patients.
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