Phase I Dose-Escalation Study of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 04/2011; 29(15):2020-6. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2010.31.4377
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the tolerability of escalating doses of stereotactic body radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer.
Eligible patients included those with Gleason score 2 to 6 with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 20, Gleason score 7 with PSA ≤ 15, ≤ T2b, prostate size ≤ 60 cm(3), and American Urological Association (AUA) score ≤ 15. Pretreatment preparation required an enema and placement of a rectal balloon. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as grade 3 or worse GI/genitourinary (GU) toxicity by Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events (version 3). Patients completed quality-of-life questionnaires at defined intervals.
Groups of 15 patients received 45 Gy, 47.5 Gy, and 50 Gy in five fractions (45 total patients). The median follow-up is 30 months (range, 3 to 36 months), 18 months (range, 0 to 30 months), and 12 months (range, 3 to 18 months) for the 45 Gy, 47.5 Gy, and 50 Gy groups, respectively. For all patients, GI grade ≥ 2 and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in 18% and 2%, respectively, and GU grade ≥ 2 and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in 31% and 4%, respectively. Mean AUA scores increased significantly from baseline in the 47.5-Gy dose level (P = .002) as compared with the other dose levels, where mean values returned to baseline. Rectal quality-of-life scores (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite) fell from baseline up to 12 months but trended back at 18 months. In all patients, PSA control is 100% by the nadir + 2 ng/mL failure definition.
Dose escalation to 50 Gy has been completed without DLT. A multicenter phase II trial is underway treating patients to 50 Gy in five fractions to further evaluate this experimental therapy.

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Available from: L. Chinsoo Cho, Sep 14, 2015
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    • "This finding can help guide SBRT dose selection, as 35 Gy appears to be just as effective as higher dose SBRT, at least for low- and intermediate-risk patients. We predict that increasing the SBRT dose above 35 Gy will result in increased toxicity without yielding improvement in outcomes; there are now reports suggesting this to be the case (21, 22). We hypothesize that this is due to a sigmoid dose–response curve for prostate cancer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) takes advantage of the prostate's low α/β ratio to deliver a large radiation dose in few fractions. Initial studies on small groups of low-risk patients support SBRT's potential for clinical efficacy while limiting treatment-related morbidity and maintained quality of life. This prospective study expands upon prior studies to further evaluate SBRT efficacy for a large patient population with organ confined, low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods: Four hundred seventy-seven patients with prostate cancer received CyberKnife SBRT. The median age was 68.6 years and the median PSA was 5.3 ng/mL. Three hundred twenty-four patients were low-risk (PSA <10 ng/mL and Gleason <7), 153 were intermediate-risk (PSA 10-20 ng/mL or Gleason = 7). Androgen deprivation therapy was administered to 51 patients for up to 6 months. One hundred fifty-four patients received 35 Gy delivered in five daily fractions; the remaining patients received a total dose of 36.25 Gy in five daily fractions. Biochemical failure was assessed using the phoenix criterion. Results: Median follow-up was 72 months. The median PSA at 7 years was 0.11 ng/mL. Biochemical failures occurred for 11 low-risk patients (2 locally), 14 intermediate-risk patients (3 locally). The actuarial 7-year freedom from biochemical failure was 95.6 and 89.6% for low- and intermediate-risk groups, respectively (p < 0.012). Among patients with intermediate-risk disease, those considered to have low intermediate-risk (Gleason 6 with PSA >10, or Gleason 3 + 4 with PSA <10; n = 106) had a significantly higher bDFS than patients with high intermediate-risk (Gleason 3 + 4 with PSA 10-20 or Gleason 4 + 3; n = 47), with bDFS of 93.5 vs. 79.3%, respectively. For the low-risk and low intermediate-risk groups, there was no difference in median PSA nadir or biochemical disease control between doses of 35 and 36.25 Gy. Conclusion: CyberKnife SBRT produces excellent biochemical control rates. Median PSA levels compare favorably with other radiation modalities and strongly suggest durability of response. These results also strongly suggest that 35 Gy is as effective as 36.25 Gy for low- and intermediate-risk patients.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Frontiers in Oncology
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    • "Feasibility results for the use of hypofractionated SBRT in prostate cancer have been reported by our group [25], as well as others [26-28]. These early results are promising, though the application of SBRT for prostate adenocarcinoma is too recent a development to allow long term comparisons of efficacy with established treatment methods. "
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with early stage prostate cancer have a variety of curative radiotherapy options, including conventionally-fractionated external beam radiotherapy (CF-EBRT) and hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Although results of CF-EBRT are well known, the use of SBRT for prostate cancer is a more recent development, and long-term follow-up is not yet available. However, rapid post-treatment PSA decline and low PSA nadir have been linked to improved clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare the PSA kinetics between CF-EBRT and SBRT in newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer.Materials/methods: 75 patients with low to low-intermediate risk prostate cancer (T1-T2; GS 3 + 3, PSA < 20 or 3 + 4, PSA < 15) treated without hormones with CF-EBRT (>70.2 Gy, <76 Gy) to the prostate only, were identified from a prospectively collected cohort of patients treated at the University of California, San Francisco (1997-2012). Patients were excluded if they failed therapy by the Phoenix definition or had less than 1 year of follow-up or <3 PSAs. 43 patients who were treated with SBRT to the prostate to 38 Gy in 4 daily fractions also met the same criteria. PSA nadir and rate of change in PSA over time (slope) were calculated from the completion of RT to 1, 2 and 3 years post-RT. The median PSA nadir and slope for CF-EBRT was 1.00, 0.72 and 0.60 ng/ml and -0.09, -0.04, -0.02 ng/ml/month, respectively, for durations of 1, 2 and 3 years post RT. Similarly, for SBRT, the median PSA nadirs and slopes were 0.70, 0.40, 0.24 ng and -0.09, -0.06, -0.05 ng/ml/month, respectively. The PSA slope for SBRT was greater than CF-EBRT (p < 0.05) at 2 and 3 years following RT, although similar during the first year. Similarly, PSA nadir was significantly lower for SBRT when compared to EBRT for years 2 and 3 (p < 0.005). Patients treated with SBRT experienced a lower PSA nadir and greater rate of decline in PSA 2 and 3 years following completion of RT than with CF-EBRT, consistent with delivery of a higher bioequivalent dose. Although follow-up for SBRT is limited, the improved PSA kinetics over CF-EBRT are promising for improved biochemical control.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Radiation Oncology
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    • "Over the last five years, multiple reports on the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for organ-confined prostate cancer have been released, reporting excellent biochemical control with mild toxicity, with up to six years of followup [10-15]. These studies, using 4–5 fractions of 7–10 Gy and tighter margins than standard radiotherapy, appear to take advantage of the lower α/β ratio of prostate cancer cells compared to normal tissues. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) has excellent control rates for low- and intermediate-risk prostate carcinoma.The role of SBRT for high-risk disease remains less studied. We present long-term results on a cohort of patients with NCCN-defined high-risk disease treated with SBRT. We retrospectively studied 97 patients treated as part of prospective trial from 2006-2010 with SBRT alone (n = 52) to dose of 35-36.25 Gy in 5 fractions, or pelvic radiation to 45 Gy followed by SBRT boost of 19-21 Gy in 3 fractions (n = 45). 46 patients received Androgen Deprivation Therapy. Quality of life and bladder/bowel toxicity was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC) and RTOG toxicity scale. Median followup was 60 months. 6-year biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was 69%. On multivariate analysis, only PSA remained significant (P < 0.01) for bDFS. Overall toxicity was mild, with 5% Grade 2-3 urinary and 7% Grade 2 bowel toxicity. Use of pelvic radiotherapy was associated with significantly higher bowel toxicity (P = .001). EPIC scores declined for the first six months and then returned towards baseline. SBRT appears to be a safe and effective treatment for high-risk prostate carcinoma. Our data suggests that SBRT alone may be the optimal approach. Further followup and additional studies is required to corroborate our results.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Radiation Oncology
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