Dose response of bone-targeted enzyme replacement of murine hypophosphatasia

Sanford Children's Health Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Bone (Impact Factor: 3.97). 03/2011; 49(2):250-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.770
Source: PubMed


Hypophosphatasia (HPP) features rickets or osteomalacia from tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency due to deactivating mutations within the ALPL gene. Enzyme replacement therapy with a bone-targeted, recombinant TNSALP (sALP-FcD(10), renamed ENB-0040) prevents manifestations of HPP when initiated at birth in TNSALP knockout (Akp2(-/-)) mice. Here, we evaluated the dose-response relationship of ENB-0040 to various phenotypic traits of Akp2(-/-) mice receiving daily subcutaneous (SC) injections of ENB-0040 from birth at 0.5, 2.0, or 8.2mg/kg for 43days. Radiographs, μCT, and histomorphometric analyses documented better bone mineralization with increasing doses of ENB-0040. We found a clear, positive correlation between ENB-0040 dose and prevention of mineralization defects of the feet, rib cage, lower limbs, and jaw bones. According to a dose-response model, the ED(80) (the dose that prevents bone defects in 80% of mice) was 3.2, 2.8 and 2.9mg/kg/day for these sites, respectively. Long bones seemed to respond to lower daily doses of ENB-0040. There was also a positive relationship between ENB-0040 dose and survival. Median survival, body weight, and bone length all improved with increasing doses of ENB-0040. Urinary PP(i) concentrations remained elevated in all treatment groups, indicating that while this parameter is a good biochemical marker for diagnosing HPP in patients, it may not be a good follow up marker for evaluating response to treatment when administering bone-targeted TNSALP to mice. These dose-response relationships strongly support the pharmacological efficacy of ENB-0040 for HPP, and provide the experimental basis for the therapeutic range of ENB-0040 chosen for clinical trials.

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    • "(For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) dependent upon body site [33]. Craniosynostosis occurs in Alpl −/− mice between two and three weeks after birth. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn-error-of-metabolism disorder characterized by deficient bone and tooth mineralization due to loss-of function mutations in the gene (Alpl) encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Alpl−/− mice exhibit many characteristics seen in infantile HPP including long bone and tooth defects, vitamin B6 responsive seizures and craniosynostosis. Previous reports demonstrated that a mineral-targeted form of TNAP rescues long bone, vertebral and tooth mineralization defects in Alpl−/− mice. Here we report that enzyme replacement with mineral-targeted TNAP (asfotase-alfa) also prevents craniosynostosis (the premature fusion of cranial bones) and additional craniofacial skeletal abnormalities in Alpl−/− mice. Craniosynostosis, cranial bone volume and density, and craniofacial shape abnormalities were assessed by microscopy, histology, digital caliper measurements and micro CT. We found that craniofacial shape defects, cranial bone mineralization and craniosynostosis were corrected in Alpl−/− mice injected daily subcutaneously starting at birth with recombinant enzyme. Analysis of Alpl−/− calvarial cells indicates that TNAP deficiency leads to aberrant osteoblastic gene expression and diminished proliferation. Some but not all of these cellular abnormalities were rescued by treatment with inorganic phosphate. These results confirm an essential role for TNAP in craniofacial skeletal development and demonstrate the efficacy of early postnatal mineral-targeted enzyme replacement for preventing craniofacial abnormalities including craniosynostosis in murine infantile HPP.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Bone
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    ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatasia (HPP), caused by mutations in the gene ALPL encoding tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP), is an inherited systemic skeletal disease characterized by mineralization defects of bones and teeth. The clinical severity of HPP varies widely, from a lethal perinatal form to mild odontohypophosphatasia showing only dental manifestations. HPP model mice (Akp2(-/-)) phenotypically mimic the severe infantile form of human HPP; they appear normal at birth but die by 2 weeks of age because of growth failure, hypomineralization, and epileptic seizures. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of fetal gene therapy using the lethal HPP model mice. On day 15 of gestation, the fetuses of HPP model mice underwent transuterine intraperitoneal injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) expressing bone-targeted TNALP. Treated and delivered mice showed normal weight gain and seizure-free survival for at least 8 weeks. Vector sequence was detected in systemic organs including bone at 14 days of age. ALP activities in plasma and bone were consistently high. Enhanced mineralization was demonstrated on X-ray images of the chest and forepaw. Our data clearly demonstrate that systemic injection of AAV9 in utero is an effective strategy for the treatment of lethal HPP mice. Fetal gene therapy may be an important choice after prenatal diagnosis of life-threatening HPP.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Human gene therapy
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