Urodynamic evaluation of female cats with idiopathic cystitis

Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
American Journal of Veterinary Research (Impact Factor: 1.34). 04/2011; 72(4):578-82. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.72.4.578
Source: PubMed


To compare values of urodynamic measurements of cats with idiopathic cystitis (IC) with previously published data for healthy female cats.
11 female cats with IC.
2 sequential cystometrograms and 2 urethral pressure profiles were obtained for each cat. All tracings were evaluated for evidence of overactive urinary bladder (OAB). Maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP), and functional profile length were recorded.
Only 3 cats had obvious micturition events. None of the 11 cats had evidence of OAB. Although not significant, threshold pressure was lower in cats with IC than in healthy cats (mean ± SD, 89.0 ± 12.0 cm H(2)O vs 75.7 ± 16.3 cm H(2)O, respectively); however, the total volume infused was significantly lower in cats with IC (4.8 ± 2.1 mL/kg vs 8.3 ± 3.2 mL/kg). The MUCP was significantly higher in cats with IC than in healthy cats (158.0 ± 47.7 cm H(2)O vs 88.9 ± 23.9 cm H(2)O, respectively). The MUP was also significantly higher in all portions of the urethra in cats with IC.
No evidence of OAB was identified in any cat evaluated; therefore, medications used to target this abnormality did not appear justified. The high MUCP in cats with IC suggested that α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists or skeletal muscle relaxants may be useful in this disease, and if these data were applicable to male cats, then α(1)-adrenoceptor antagonism may help prevent recurrent obstructive IC. Further studies are indicated to determine the effects, if any, these drugs might have in cats with IC.

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    • "Behavioral, urodynamic, and/or electrophysiological techniques have been used for understanding LUT physiology and pharmacology in conscious [4–8], alpha chloralose-anesthetized [9–19], normal adult [9,17,20–23] and neonatal cats [6,24]. Models of overactive bladder (OAB) [8,11,25,26], stress urinary incontinence (SUI) [10,27], spinal cord injury [7,28–30], and interstitial cystitis [18,31] have also been developed and/or studied in the cat. Many acute OAB [8,11,25,26] and SUI [10,27] models frequently employ bladder irritation, commonly using dilute acetic acid (0.25-0.5%). "
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    ABSTRACT: Time- and vehicle-related variability of bladder and urethral rhabdosphincter (URS) activity as well as cardiorespiratory and blood chemistry values were examined in the acetic acid-induced bladder irritation model in α-chloralose-anesthetized female cats. Additionally, bladder and urethra were evaluated histologically using Mason trichrome and toluidine blue staining. Urodynamic, cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were collected during intravesical saline infusion followed by acetic acid (0.5%) to irritate the bladder. One hour after starting acetic acid infusion, a protocol consisting of a cystometrogram, continuous infusion-induced rhythmic voiding contractions, and a 5 min "quiet period" (bladder emptied without infusion) was precisely repeated every 30 minutes. Administration of vehicle (saline i.v.) occurred 15 minutes after starting each of the first 7 cystometrograms and duloxetine (1mg/kg i.v.) after the 8(th). Acetic acid infusion into the bladder increased URS-EMG activity, bladder contraction frequency, and decreased contraction amplitude and capacity, compared to saline. Bladder activity and URS activity stabilized within 1 and 2 hours, respectively. Duloxetine administration significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency and increased URS-EMG activity to levels similar to previous reports. Cardiorespiratory parameters and blood gas levels remained consistent throughout the experiment. The epithelium of the bladder and urethra were greatly damaged and edema and infiltration of neutrophils in the lamina propria of urethra were observed. These data provide an ample evaluation of the health of the animals, stability of voiding function and appropriateness of the model for testing drugs designed to evaluate lower urinary tract as well as cardiovascular and respiratory systems function.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "ition at the HPA perpetuates the response ( Westropp et al . , 2006 ) . The unrestrained SNS stimulates C - fibers and pain receptors of the bladder , resulting in submucosal edema , vasodilation , increased bladder permeability , smooth muscle contraction , and release of inflammatory mediators ( Lavelle et al . , 2000 ; Westropp et al . , 2006 ; Wu et al . , 2011 ) . These nerve endings also can be stimulated by urine composition ( i . e . , K , Mg , and Ca concentrations ) and acidic pH ( Lavelle et al . , 2000 ) . Although these differences have only been identified in a subset of FIC cats , the management of a cat with FIC includes decreasing animal stress through modifications of physical an"
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical investigations have confirmed the importance of dietary modifications in medical protocols designed to treat and prevent feline lower urinary tract signs (LUTS). The objective of this review is to discuss common medical conditions contributing to feline LUTS, and to present currently utilized and potential preventative dietary modifications. Feline LUTS are a set of clinical conditions with similar symptoms related to inappropriate urine elimination due to a combination of genetics, stress and frustration reactions, environment, and medical condition(s) (e.g., idiopathic cystitis, urolithiasis, urethral obstruction, and urinary tract infection). The main goals of dietary modifications to prevent LUTS are: 1) promote large dilute volumes of urine; 2) decrease the relative supersaturation of urine for specific stone types; and 3) promote healthy bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. The impact of dietary composition, including dietary moisture, protein concentration and digestibility, mineral concentrations (i.e., Na, Cl, Ca, P, and Mg), inclusion of acidifiers and alkalinizing agents, inclusion of vitamin B6, EPA, DHA, gamma-linolenic acid, fiber concentration and characteristics, and oxalate degrading probiotics, on these outcomes is discussed, and dietary guidelines for cats are provided. Because of the complex interaction of diet composition, environment, and animal physiology, there is a need for clinical research linking current recommendations or dietary options for the treatment and prevention of LUTS with physiological outcomes (i.e., decreased RSS and LUTS recurrence). Additionally, for many recommendations (e.g., probiotic administration, EPA, DHA), extrapolation from other species was necessary. Research is needed in feline patients with LUTS on these dietary components.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Animal Science

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