Development Needs of Volunteer Pharmacy Practice Preceptors

Article (PDF Available)inAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education 75(1):10 · February 2011with46 Reads
DOI: 10.5688/ajpe75110 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
To determine the training needs and interests of volunteer pharmacy preceptors. Volunteer preceptors (n=576) were surveyed on various aspects of precepting and their needs related to additional training. Two hundred thirty-six preceptors (40.9%) responded. Preceptors were less confident about enforcing attendance policies, identifying and managing unmotivated or failing students, identifying dishonesty or plagiarism, and handling conflict. While only 29.5% of respondents agreed that having an APPE student decreased their overall workload, approximately half (48.1%) indicated that student pharmacists helped them complete their daily tasks and 67.8% agreed that APPE students extended patient care. Respondents who had received training were significantly more confident than preceptors who had not received training in their abilities to clarify expectations, evaluate a student's knowledge, and foster skills related to critical thinking and problem solving. Training programs for pharmacy preceptors are effective; however, important areas in which additional training is needed or desired were identified among both new and experienced preceptors.
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Development Needs of Volunteer Pharmacy Practice Preceptors
Mitra Assemi, PharmD, Robin L. Corelli, PharmD, and Peter J. Ambrose, PharmD
School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco
Submitted July 19, 2010; accepted September 20, 2010; published February 10, 2011.
Objective. To determine the training needs and interests of volunteer pharmacy preceptors.
Methods. Volunteer preceptors (n5576) were surveyed on various aspects of precepting and their
needs related to additional training.
Results. Two hundred thirty-six preceptors (40.9%) responded. Preceptors were less confident about
enforcing attendance policies, identifying and managing unmotivated or failing students, identifying
dishonesty or plagiarism, and handling conflict. While only 29.5% of respondents agreed that having
an APPE student decreased their overall workload, approximately half (48.1%) indicated that student
pharmacists helped them complete their daily tasks and 67.8% agreed that APPE students extended
patient care. Respondents who had received training were significantly more confident than preceptors
who had not received training in their abilities to clarify expectations, evaluate a student’s knowledge,
and foster skills related to critical thinking and problem solving.
Conclusions. Training programs for pharmacy preceptors are effective; however, important areas in which
additional training is needed or desired were identified among both new and experienced preceptors.
Keywords: advanced pharmacy practice experience, continuing education, faculty development, preceptors
INTRODUCTION
A substantial portion of the doctor of pharmacy
(PharmD) curriculum is devoted to experiential education,
and colleges and schools rely heavily upon preceptors’
knowledge, skills, and experience to help students identify
their learning needs and to develop the competencies re-
quired for practice. Often these preceptors are volunteer
faculty members. To ensure that these pharmacists are pre-
pared for their role as preceptors of introductory and ad-
vanced pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs and APPEs,
respectively), colleges and schools provide faculty develop-
ment programs, as mandated by the Accreditation Council
for Pharmacy Education (ACPE).
1
Preceptor development
programs should ideally assist individual pharmacists with
the integration of clinical practice and precepting, and pro-
vide the knowledge, skills, and resources required to effec-
tively and efficiently mentor and assess student pharmacists
in experiential educational settings. In addition, programs
should provide preceptors with opportunities to meet their
individual/specific learning needs related to both precepting
and academic career development. A comprehensive pre-
ceptor development program also could help colleges and
schools increase preceptor productivity, satisfaction, and
retention.
2
To augment live preceptor development program-
ming, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)
School of Pharmacy developed The Effective Clinical Pre-
ceptor continuing education home-study course in 2004.
This written course provides new preceptors with informa-
tion related to the school’s educational philosophies, cur-
riculum, and policies. The course also provides new and
experienced preceptors with a comprehensive resource for
topics related to effective and efficient clinical teaching,
including managing different adult learning styles, creat-
ing a supportive learning environment, providing effective
feedback, identifying and managing poor student perfor-
mance, and evaluating and assessing students. Since 2004,
preceptors have been required to complete this home study
course to obtain a faculty appointment (paid or volunteer)
with the school.
In contrast to current requirements for continuing
professional education,
3
The Effective Clinical Preceptor
course and the school’s live preceptor development pro-
grams were not developed based on a structured needs
assessment of preceptors. Furthermore, no specific tools
designed to identify the development needs of pharmacy
preceptors have been described in the literature.
The objective of this study was to survey the school’s
volunteer preceptors to determine their training needs and
desires as they relate to clinical teaching in order to refine
Corresponding Author: Peter J. Ambrose, PharmD,
University of California, San Francisco, 521 Parnassus
Avenue [C-152], BOX 0622, San Francisco, CA 94143-0622.
Phone: 562-933-0289. Fax: 562-933-2348. E-mail:
pambrose@memorialcare.org
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2011; 75 (1) Article 10.
1
The Effective Clinical Preceptor course and to develop and
provide targeted, ongoing continuing professional devel-
opment opportunities.
METHODS
Principles for survey research were verified based on
published best practices.
4,5
A variety of resources were used
to develop domain areas, individual questions, and response
options for the survey instrument. Questions related to the
preceptors’ confidence in precepting students were based
upon learning objectives and content from The Effective
Clinical Precepto r.Questions related to the preceptors’ con-
fidence in evaluating and assessing students were based
on Bloom’s taxonomy of learning.
6
Other sections included
questions on preceptors’ opinions on incorporating student
pharmacists into the workplace, and their experiences and
preferences related to preceptor training. A 5-point Likert
scale (strongly agree, agree, not sure, disagree, strongly
disagree) was used for responses to questions related
to confidence or opinions. Preceptor demographic infor-
mation collected included gender; age; race/ethnicity;
educational degrees or certificates obtained; number of
years in pharmacy practice, at current APPE site, and
precepting UCSF and other students; primary practice
setting; and geographic region of practice. Some demo-
graphic items were modeled after elements from a na-
tional survey of volunteer pharmacy preceptors.
7
Survey Monkey (Palo Alto, CA), a Web-based appli-
cation, was used to develop and administer the survey in-
strument. The survey instrument and study methods were
approved by the UCSF Committee on Human Research.
The survey instrument was pilot tested with a small con-
venience sample of paid and volunteer preceptors and then
further refined based on their feedback.
Once finalized, an e-mail containing a link to the online
survey instrument was forwarded to program directors for
dissemination to volunteer preceptors in 6 regional APPE
programs throughout California. Volunteer preceptors were
defined as individuals who were not employed by UCSF to
teach APPE student pharmacists. Each program director
sent the original e-mail message and 2 follow-up reminders
over a 4-week period in the fall of 2009. Only volunteer
preceptors who had precepted or co-precepted at least 1 stu-
dent over the past 2 years were included in the study. Paid
faculty members who precepted APPEs were excluded.
Respondents who completed the survey were eligible to
enter a raffle for one of two $50 gift cards, however, survey
responses were anonymous.
Survey Monkey tools were used for initial quantita-
tive data analyses. For statistical analysis, responses of
‘strongly agree and ‘agree were combined into a single
‘agree’ category, while responses of ‘not sure,’ ‘strongly
disagree,’ and ‘disagree’ were combined into a single ‘not
sure/disagree’ category. Depending on the sample size
of the outcome variable, Fisher’s exact test or Pearson’s
chi-square test were conducted using Predictive Analytics
SoftWare (PASW) Statistics, 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL)
to determine which demographic variables significantly
influenced preceptor confidence and perceptions. A p value
less than 0.05 was considered significant.
RESULTS
The survey instrument was sent by e-mail to 576 vol-
unteer APPE preceptors. Two hundred forty individuals
responded to the e-mail. Of these, 4 respondents opted
out of the study and 236 completed all or portions of the
survey instrument (overall response rate, 40.9%).
The mean age of the respondents was 40.6 6 9.2 years
(range, 25-70 years), and they had been practicing pharmacy
for an average of 14.1 years (range, 1-44 years). Additional
characteristics of the survey respondents are summarized in
Table 1.
In addition to precepting UCSF students, the majority
of respondents (70.7%) indicated they were current pre-
ceptors for other schools of pharmacy in California, includ-
ing the University of the Pacific (54.9%), the University of
Southern California (53.6%), Western University of Health
Sciences (43.1%), the University of California, San Diego
(15.7%), Touro University (10.5%), and Loma Linda Uni-
versity (8.5%). A smaller percentage (13.7%) indicated
they had precepted students from colleges and schools of
pharmacy outside of California. On average, respondents
reported having 10.4 6 8.0 years of experience as a pre-
ceptor for student pharmacists.
While 78.4% of respondents had received previous
preceptor training (eg, through residencies/fellowships, live
or written continuing education programs), nearly three
quarters (73.5%) expressed interest in obtaining additional
training. The respondents’ preferences for preceptor devel-
opment topics are listed in Table 2.
The majority of respondents (70.7%) specified inter-
est in attending live preceptor development training pro-
grams. Fewer were interested in self-study Web-based
courses (55.1%), written training programs (43.9%), or
Web-based courses with discussion boards (26.8%). Of
those who selected the live training format, 46.0% pre-
ferred that the training be offered annually, with topics
varying from year to year; while 38.1% preferred multiple
training sessions throughout the year with various topics
that built upon each other to develop precepting skills.
The majority of respondents (71.9%) preferred that live
training programs be offered locally, within their region
of practice; whereas fewer respondents preferred training
programs held in conjunction with state/local professional
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2011; 75 (1) Article 10.
2
association meetings (14.4%) or conducted on the UCSF
campus (13.7%).
The majority of respondents agreed or strongly agreed
that they were confident in their abilities to precept, eval-
uate, and assess student pharmacists (Table 3). Areas in
which respondents were less likely to agree/strongly agree
they were confident in their preceptor abilities included:
identifying a dishonest student (61.9%), determining the
reason(s) why a student may appear unmotivated (61.5%),
identifying plagiarism (58.9%), and identifying factors
(eg, personal crisis, mental illness, substance abuse) that
may be affecting a student’s performance (58.4%). When
responses were stratified by the respondents’ previous
exposure to preceptor training programs, significant dif-
ferences were observed for several areas (Table 4). Re-
spondents who had received formal preceptor training
were significantly more confident in their abilities to clar-
ify expectations, evaluate a student’s knowledge, and foster
skills related to critical thinking and problem solving.
Respondents’ opinions regarding the incorporation
of students into the workplace are given in Table 5. Almost
half (48.1%) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed
that student pharmacists helped them complete their daily
responsibilities. Similarly, approximately two-thirds (67.8%)
agreed or strongly agreed that student pharmacists extend
patient care or pharmacy-related services in the practice
setting. A smaller percentage of respondents (29.5%) agreed
or strongly agreed that having a student decreased the
overall workload in the practice setting; more preceptors
(52.9%) disagreed or strongly disagreed with this state-
ment or were unsure (17.6%). Preceptor perceptions re-
garding the incorporation of students into the workplace
were not significantly different when analyzed by the
primary pharmacy practice setting, prior preceptor train-
ing, or the number of years the preceptor had been prac-
ticing as a pharmacist or pharmacy preceptor.
DISCUSSION
Our school has developed and presented a wide variety
of preceptor development programs to volunteer faculty
members. The topics and content, however, were generally
determined based on the information the APPE program
Table 2. Respondents’ Preferences for Preceptor Development
Topics (n5201)
Topic
Percent of
Responses
a
Engaging and motivating students 69.1
Primer/update on teaching/precepting
strategies
60.2
Questioning students effectively 59.2
Communicating effectively with students
(eg, providing feedback (guidance and
direction) versus assessing (judging)
performance)
48.8
Working effectively with different adult
learning styles (eg, visual, auditory,
kinesthetic)
48.8
Assessing student performance (eg,
knowledge, clinical skills, critical-thinking
abilities, problem-solving abilities,
professionalism)
46.8
Effectively integrating students into day to
day workplace activities
41.8
Identifying and working with students at risk
for not passing
38.8
Other 5.0
a
Categories are not mutually exclusive; therefore totals exceed
100%.
Table 1. Characteristics of Survey Respondents (n5236)
Characteristic No. (%)
a
Gender
Female 148 (66.1)
Ethnicity
Hispanic/Latino 8 (3.6)
Race
Asian 105 (48.2)
Black or African American 3 (1.4)
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander 9 (4.1)
White 94 (43.1)
More than one race 4 (1.8)
Other 3 (1.4)
Degrees or Certification
b
BS or BA 81 (36.2)
MS or MA or equivalent 21 (9.4)
PharmD 211 (94.2)
Doctorate other than PharmD 5 (2.2)
Residency training 130 (58.0)
Fellowship training 13 (5.8)
Other
c
20 (8.9)
Primary Practice Setting
Hospital inpatient 98 (44.5)
Ambulatory care 54 (24.5)
Managed care 20 (9.1)
Community and hospital outpatient 12 (5.5)
Home health and long term care 10 (4.5)
Miscellaneous: pharmaceutical
industry, poison control and other
26 (11.8)
a
Values might not sum to 236 because respondents were not required
to answer all questions
b
Categories are not mutually exclusive; therefore, totals exceed
100%
c
Includes respondents who specified additional certification cre-
dentials (eg, board-certified pharmacotherapy specialist, certified
geriatrics pharmacist)
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2011; 75 (1) Article 10.
3
directors believed preceptors needed. Few programs were
developed based on topics requested by preceptors. For
example, many programs were provided to present the re-
vised curriculum so that the preceptors would be aware of
the changes and learn their new roles and responsibilities.
The primary program and resource for paid and volunteer
preceptors is a written self-study module (The Effective
Clinical Preceptor), which includes important information
about the school and curriculum, the roles and responsibil-
ities of clinical faculty members, effective clinical teaching
strategies, and evaluation of student performance. Ideally,
preceptor development programs should meet the needs
and interests of both the preceptors and the college or
school.
2
This survey was our first attempt to collect infor-
mation from volunteer faculty members to determine their
confidence and abilities to precept student pharmacists,
and to assess their preceptor training needs and interests.
The information obtained will assist us to develop future
preceptor programs.
When developing preceptor training and enrichment
programs, it is important to consider the background and
experience of the preceptors. The majority (94.2%) of re-
spondents had a PharmD degree, and over 60% had re-
ceived residency or fellowship training. Further, almost
80% of respondents had received preceptor training. Some
respondents may not have been aware that The Effective
Clinical Preceptor program for new preceptors was con-
sidered preceptor training. Even among a highly educated
Table 3. Respondents Self-Rated Confidence in Their Abilities to Precept, Evaluate and Assess Student Pharmacists (n5236)
I am confident in my ability to...
Preceptor Response, %
Mean
Score
Strongly
Agree Agree Not Sure Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Tailor the rotation activities to an individual student’s
interests and professional goals
37.7 56.8 4.2 1.3 0 4.3
Clarify expectations (eg, for a given task, daily
responsibilities, deadlines for assignments, student
performance measures)
45.8 52.1 2.1 0 0 4.4
Explain concepts commonly encountered in my practice
setting
61.0 38.1 0.4 0.4 0 4.6
Evaluate a student’s knowledge (eg, signs & symptoms
of sepsis, definition of hypertension; target LDL,
legal requirements for storing a CII substance)
37.7 58.1 4.2 0 0 4.3
Foster skills related to critical thinking 33.1 58.9 7.6 0.4 0 4.3
Foster skills related to problem-solving 34.3 59.7 5.5 0.4 0 4.3
Assess a student’s professionalism in the workplace 58.5 40.7 0.8 0 0 4.6
Appropriately handle a student’s request for time off
in accordance with the School’s attendance policy
36.9 47.5 14.0 1.7 0 4.2
Determine the reason(s) why a student may appear
unmotivated
12.3 49.2 34.3 4.2 0 3.7
Employ strategies that motivate students 15.7 57.2 25.0 2.1 0 3.9
Identify factors (eg, personal crisis, mental illness,
substance abuse) that may be affecting a student’s
performance
14.8 43.6 36.0 5.1 0.4 3.7
Identify a student at risk for not passing the rotation
before the end of the second week
25.0 58.5 14.4 2.1 0 4.1
Develop a plan (eg, corrective action plan with
corresponding timeline) for a student at risk
for not passing the rotation
20.8 55.1 20.3 3.8 0 3.9
Identify a dishonest student 19.1 42.8 34.7 3.4 0 3.8
Identify plagiarism 16.5 42.4 35.6 5.5 0 3.7
Handle a conflict (eg, differences in values, personality
and/or interests) between a student and myself
22.0 61.0 15.3 1.7 0 4.0
Handle a conflict (eg, differences in values, personality
and/or interests) between a student and another
member of the team/staff
20.3 58.9 18.6 2.1 0 4.0
Abbreviations: LDL 5 low density lipoprotein
Response scale range: 15strongly agree to 55strongly disagree
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2011; 75 (1) Article 10.
4
and trained group of volunteer preceptors, approximately
three quarters were interested in receiving additional pre-
ceptor training. ‘‘Engaging and motivating students’’ was
the most common topic that respondents selected for future
programs, which is provocative given that these preceptors
work with APPE students in their last year of professional
training.
In general, respondents were very confident in their
teaching abilities and responsibilities. They were less confi-
dent, however, in some of their administrative responsibili-
ties as an instructor, such as attendance issues, identifying
dishonesty or plagiarism, and handling conflict. Respon-
dents who had received preceptor training were significantly
more confident than those who had not in their ability to
clarify expectations, evaluate a student’s knowledge, and
foster skills related to critical thinking and problem solving.
This information provides potential topics for future precep-
tor development programs.
Our philosophy has been to inculcate into preceptors
that student pharmacists should be resources to them and
their institutions, and they should be used as ‘pharmacist
extenders’’ during their APPEs. This theme has been in-
corporated in many of the preceptor training programs
that we have conducted. Thus, we had great interest in
the survey questions regarding this issue. Less than half of
the respondents (41.8%) were interested in a future pro-
gram regarding ‘effectively integrating students into
day-to-day workplace activities.’’ While only 29.5% of
respondents agreed or strongly agreed that having an
APPE student in their practice decreased their overall
workload, approximately half (48.1%) indicated that stu-
dent pharmacists helped them complete their daily tasks.
This does not necessarily indicate that having an APPE
student increased their overall workload. In fact, slightly
more than two-thirds (67.8%) of the respondents indi-
cated that student pharmacists extended patient care. A
previous study was conducted at a teaching hospital at one
of our satellite APPE programs and found that student
pharmacists contributed to the productivity of the phar-
macy department by performing 42.5% of the initial pa-
tient work-ups, 34.0% of the patient information and
education episodes, and 24.6% of the in-service programs
for physicians.
8
Based on these findings, the pharmacy
department expanded the APPE program. Other studies
Table 5. Preceptors’ Opinions Regarding the Incorporation of Student Pharmacists in the Workplace (n5227)
Statement
Preceptor Response (%)
Strongly
Agree Agree
Not
Sure Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
Having a student on rotation helps me complete my daily
responsibilities
11.5 36.6 17.6 28.6 5.7
Having a student on rotation decreases the overall workload
in my practice setting
6.6 22.9 17.6 44.1 8.8
Having a student on rotation extends patient care or
pharmacy-related services in my practice setting
17.2 50.7 17.6 12.3 2.2
Response scale range: 15strongly agree to 55strongly disagree
Table 4. Comparison of Preceptors’ Confidence in Their Abilities to Precept Student Pharmacists and Previous Preceptor
Training
a
(n5227)
Training
Agree
(%)
Not Sur e/
Disagree (%) p
b
Foster skills related to critical thinking Yes 93.8 6.2 0.037
No 83.7 16.3
Foster skills related to problem solving Yes 96.6 3.4 0.003
No 83.7 16.3
Clarify expectations (eg, for a given task, daily responsibilities,
deadlines for assignments, student performance measures)
Yes 99.4 0.6 0.032
No 93.9 6.1
Evaluate a student’s knowledge (eg, signs &
symptoms of sepsis, definition of hypertension;
target LDL, legal requirements for storing a CII substance)
Yes 97.8 2.2 0.008
No 87.8 12.2
Abbreviations: LDL 5 low density lipoprotein
a
Includes training received during a pharmacy residency or fellowship or through completion of a live or written continuing education program.
b
Both 1-sided and 2-sided Fisher’s Exact tests were performed.
Response scale range: 15strongly agree to 55strongly disagree
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 2011; 75 (1) Article 10.
5
have reported that student pharmacists participating
in APPEs enhanced care by identifying drug-related is-
sues, suggesting interventions, and documenting patient
outcomes.
9-12
Thus, student pharmacists may be able to
extend patient care by assisting and completing clinical
activities that preceptors may not complete due to time
constraints or other competing priorities. We believe this
is true for non-patient care APPEs as well. When stratified
by practice setting (eg, acute care, community practice,
managed care, etc), there were no significant differences
in the responses regarding the incorporation of students
into the workplace due to the small sample sizes in some
settings. The ability for student pharmacists to serve as
a resource at APPE sites is certainly an advantage to phar-
macy colleges and schools, preceptors, and affiliated
teaching sites. The results from this survey suggest that
we should put further efforts into motivating and training
preceptors to use student pharmacists as a resource in
future preceptor development programs.
Approximately 70% of respondents indicated that
they preferred live preceptor development courses, and
that they preferred them to be held locally. This is impor-
tant feedback for the regional APPE program directors
who have conducted many local programs and workshops
already. The advantage of this is not only convenience
but also the ability to network with other local preceptors
and faculty members. Videoconferencing technology also
could be used to extend preceptor training by providing
interactive programs to APPE sites throughout the state.
Limitations of this study include the response rate
of 40.9% and the small sample sizes when we stratified
the data by the number of years the respondent had been
precepting and by the practice setting. Nonresponse bias
prevented us from drawing conclusions regarding the vol-
unteer preceptors as a whole. However, the response rate
was significantly higher than that for other preceptor surveys
reported, including the annual preceptor survey conducted
by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
(AACP).
13,14
CONCLUSION
This study describes how one school determined their
preceptors’ training needs and desires related to clinical
teaching. We found that preceptors had less confidence
and desired additional training in the following: working
effectively with different learning styles, engaging and
motivating students, and communicating with and ques-
tioning students effectively. Preceptors who had received
previous training were more confident in clarifying ex-
pectations, evaluating a student’s knowledge base, and
fostering skills related to critical thinking and problem
solving. Despite the imperative that feedback from pre-
ceptor needs assessments be used to shape continuing fac-
ulty development programs, no prior published description
of tools, processes, or results was available. Future precep-
tor development programs should address identified needs
and desires and be formatted to reach the largest possible
audience based on their preferences for format and venue
of continuing professional development programs.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This study was funded, in part, by the Vince Isnardi
Opportunity Fund as a gift to the School of Pharmacy at
the University of California, San Francisco. The authors
wish to thank and acknowledge Aimee Dawson, PharmD,
and Carolyn Victoria, PharmD, who at the time of the
study were student pharmacists who contributed to the
survey project. In addition, the authors would like to thank
Ronna Mallios, PhD, for her contributions to statistical
analysis of the data.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of a comprehensive preceptor development program. A comprehensive preceptor development program was designed that included live and recorded online programming, a preceptor manual, a preceptor newsletter, live events (local and regional), and one-on-one practice site visits. Over 5,000 evaluations (1,900 pre-implementation and 3,160 post-implementation) of preceptor performance were completed by students. Students rated preceptors higher in items related to providing helpful midpoint and final evaluations after program implementation. Over 1,000 Web-based preceptor development activities were completed by preceptors from 2007 to 2011. Preceptors felt activities enhanced their current knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values, and more than 90% felt the core development activities would improve their current practice. A comprehensive approach to preceptor development that offered a variety of development and training opportunities received positive evaluations from preceptors and resulted in improved student evaluations of preceptors. A comprehensive development program should be made available to preceptors to foster their continuing professional development.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012
  • Full-text · Article · Aug 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Many changes in pharmacy education have occurred in the past decade resulting in a need for faculty education. The increasing number of pharmacy schools, larger number of junior faculty, expanding use of technology in teaching, and the changing generation of pharmacy students has allowed educators to reassess their teaching practices. The purpose of this survey was to access faculty's preferences toward faculty development and determine needs based on faculty characteristics, including degree, rank, duration of appointment, and division.MethodsA survey was distributed to 58 faculty members at the School of Pharmacy.ResultsMore than half of the faculty responded to the survey (n = 34, 58%). Faculty members responded that their preferred needs for faculty development centered on teaching. Doctorate of Pharmacy faculty desired development in ability-based learning and establishing authority with students. New faculty members expressed a need for more instruction in manuscript writing and developing a research focus, while more experienced faculty members desired instruction in planning workshops and labs. Tenure track and nontenure track faculty had the most variability in their preferences toward faculty development. Tenure track faculty preferred more growth in the areas of research and development and nontenure track faculty desired more development relating to student issues. Both expressed a desire for more instruction in the areas of teaching.Conclusions Characteristics of faculty members should be analyzed when developing faculty development programs.
    Article · Oct 2012
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