Resting heart rate as a tool for risk stratification in primary care: Does it provide incremental prognostic information?
Department of Internal Medicine III, Cardiology, Goethe-University of Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.
European journal of preventive cardiology
02/2011; 19(2):275-84. DOI: 10.1177/1741826710394304
Several selected population-based studies have emphasized the significance of resting heart rate as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. However, there are no data available for using resting heart rate as a cardiovascular risk predictor in contemporary primary care. Thus, the aim of our analysis was to examine the clinical value of the measurement of resting heart rate in a large, unselected population-based cohort of primary care subjects under the conditions of contemporary primary prevention.
Prospective, population-based cohort study.
We examined a subgroup of 5320 unselected primary care subjects free of coronary artery disease from the nationwide, longitudinal Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk Evaluation Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment (DETECT) cohort study, which was conducted from 2003 to 2008.
During the follow-up time of 5 years, 258 events were reported. Elevated resting heart rate was not associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events (HR = 0.75, p = 0.394), cardiovascular mortality (HR = 0.71, p = 0.616) or major cardiovascular events (HR = 0.77, p = 0.376). By cross-sectional analysis, elevated heart rate clustered with markers of the metabolic syndrome, like increased blood pressure (systolic: OR = 5.54, p < 0.0001; diastolic: OR = 3.82, p < 0.0001), elevated fasting plasma glucose levels (OR = 8.84, p < 0.0001), hypertriglyceridaemia (OR = 22.16, p = 0.001), and obesity (body mass index OR = 0.89, p < 0.0001). Assessment of resting heart rate in clinical practice had minimal and non-significant additional prognostic value compared to established cardiovascular risk factors as judged by C statistics (C = 0.001, p = 0.979).
The measurement of resting heart rate in the daily routine of primary care does not provide incremental prognostic information for cardiovascular risk stratification.
Available from: Doyle M. Cummings
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ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Early identification of adolescents at risk for impaired fasting glucose may lead to earlier and more comprehensive evaluation and intervention. Because widespread glucose testing of adolescents is not recommended, community-based tools are needed to identify those who could benefit from further testing. One such tool, developed for adults, was the Tool for Assessing Glucose ImpairmenT (TAG-IT). Our objective was to validate whether a similar tool could be useful for community-based screening of glucose impairment risk among adolescents.
Our study sample consisted of 3,050 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years who had participated in the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Half of participants were female and 40% were nonwhite. NHANES measured fasting glucose and height, weight, and resting heart rate. We used Pearson correlations and regression analysis to determine key variables for predicting glucose impairment. From these measurements, we created a composite TAG-IT score for adolescents called TAG-IT-A. We then applied the TAG-IT-A model to 1988-1994 NHANES data, using linear regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine how well the TAG-IT-A score predicted a fasting glucose at or above 100 mg/dL.
We determined that age, sex, body mass index, and resting heart rate were important predictors of impaired fasting glucose and that TAG-IT-A was a better predictor of impaired fasting glucose than body mass index alone (area under the curve, 0.61, P < .001 vs 0.55, P = .10, respectively). A TAG-IT-A score of 3 or higher correctly identified 50% of adolescents with impaired fasting glucose, while a score of 5 or higher correctly identified 76%.
The TAG-IT-A score is a simple screening tool that clinicians and public health professionals could use to easily identify adolescents who may have impaired fasting glucose and need a more comprehensive evaluation.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a neglected marker in cardiovascular risk factor studies of sub-Saharan African populations. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated RHR and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to investigate any associations between RHR and these risk factors in a rural population in Ghana.Design: Cross-sectional analysis.Methods: A total of 574 adults aged between 18-65 years were randomly sampled from a population register. Data collected included those on sociodemographic variables and anthropometric, blood pressure (BP), and RHR measurements. Within-person variability in RHR was calculated using data from repeat measurements taken 2 weeks apart.Results: Of study participants, 36% were male. Prevalence of casual high BP was 19%. In the population, 10% were current cigarette smokers and habitual alcohol use was high at 56%. As measured by body mass index, 2% were obese and 14% had abdominal obesity. RHR was elevated (>90 bpm) in 19%. Overall, 79% of study participants were found to have at least one CVD risk factor. RHR was significantly associated with age, waist circumference, and BP. Individuals with an elevated RHR had a higher risk (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.15-3.26%, p = 0.013) of casual high BP compared with participants with normal RHR independently of several established CVD risk factors. The regression dilution ratio of RHR was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62-0.89).Conclusions: Significant associations were observed between RHR and several established cardiovascular risk factors. Prospective studies are needed in sub-Saharan African populations to establish the potential value of RHR in cardiovascular risk assessment.
Available from: Antonio Cabrera De Leon
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ABSTRACT: Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies.
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