Lipid-lowering treatment in hypercholesterolaemic patients: The CEPHEUS Pan-Asian survey
Cardiology, Cardiac and Vascular Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangnam Ku, Seoul, Korea.
European journal of preventive cardiology
03/2011; 19(4):781-94. DOI: 10.1177/1741826710397100
Treatment of hypercholesterolaemia in Asia is rarely evaluated on a large scale, and data on treatment outcome are scarce. The Pan-Asian CEPHEUS study aimed to assess low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients on lipid-lowering therapy.
This survey was conducted in eight Asian countries. Hypercholesterolaemic patients aged ≥18 years who had been on lipid-lowering treatment for ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited, and lipid concentrations were measured. Demographic and other clinically relevant information were collected, and the cardiovascular risk of each patient was determined. Definitions and criteria set by the updated 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines were applied.
In this survey, 501 physicians enrolled 8064 patients, of whom 7281 were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 61.0 years, 44.4% were female, and 85.1% were on statin monotherapy. LDL-C goal attainment was reported in 49.1% of patients overall, including 51.2% of primary and 48.7% of secondary prevention patients, and 36.6% of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. The LDL-C goal was attained in 75.4% of moderate risk, 55.4% of high risk, and only 34.9% of very high-risk patients. Goal attainment was directly related to age and inversely related to cardiovascular risk and baseline LDL-C.
A large proportion of Asian hypercholesterolaemic patients on lipid-lowering drugs are not at recommended LDL-C levels and remain at risk for cardiovascular disease. Given the proven efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs in the reduction of LDL-C, there is room for further optimization of treatments to maximize benefits and improve outcomes.
Available from: Zeljko Reiner
- "On the other hand, the results of our study are similar to the results of A-SACT survey, which found that approximately 70% of CHD patients did not achieve the LDL-cholesterol target of <2.5 mmol/L ( ~ 100 mg/dL) and approximately 94% of those with very high risk did not achieve <1.8 mmol/L ( ~ 70 mg/dL) (16). They are also partially similar to the results of a recently published CEPHEUS pan-Asian survey, which was performed on a very similar population (apart from the racial differences) according to age, male/female ratio, and CVD risk level (17). In this survey, however, the most commonly used statin was simvastatin, followed by atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. "
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To determine the prevalence and types of persistent dyslipidemia in patients treated with different statins to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as to determine the proportion of high risk patients who did not reach the lipid target values and assess cardiologists' further treatment advice for these patients.
This cross-sectional, observational study recruited 1849 outpatients from all parts of Croatia between January and September 2011 (44.6% women), 19 to 90 years old (average age 63.13) treated with statins for at least 6 months. We analyzed how the potency and type of lipid-lowering treatment were correlated with CVD risk level and achieving treatment goals according to 2007 Joint European Guidelines on CVD prevention.
Most patients (81.3%) were at high risk for CVD. The most frequently used statin was atorvastatin (42.8%), followed by simvastatin (27.6%) and rosuvastatin (22.8%). Only 35.5% patients achieved low density lipoprotein-cholesterol treatment target. Patients treated with more potent statins had better results. A total of 22.3% of patients had high density lipoprotein-cholesterol below 1.0 mmol/L ( ~ 40 mg/dL) for men and below 1.2 ( ~ 45 mg/dL) for women and 46.4% had triglycerides above 1.7 mmol/L ( ~ 150 mg/dL) but there were no significant differences between statins in improving these parameters. Most of the patients on more potent statins were not advised by their cardiologists to change the type or dosage of statin, which was more common in patients on less potent statins.
A considerable number of patients treated with statins did not achieve the treatment goal values. The results were better in patients treated with more potent statins and cardiologists advised them much less frequently to change the type and dosage of statin. There is a need for more intensive treatment, especially for high-risk patients. This could be accomplished by optimizing patients’ adherence, using more potent statins, titrating current statin therapy to higher doses, or using a combined lipid-lowering treatment.
Available from: Albert Marchetti
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Asia is growing at an alarming rate, posing significant clinical and economic risk to health care stakeholders. Commonly, Asian patients with T2D manifest a distinctive combination of characteristics that include earlier disease onset, distinct pathophysiology, syndrome of complications, and shorter life expectancy. Optimizing treatment outcomes for such patients requires a coordinated inclusive care plan and knowledgeable practitioners. Comprehensive management starts with medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in a broader lifestyle modification program. Implementing diabetes-specific MNT in Asia requires high-quality and transparent clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that are regionally adapted for cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors. Respected CPGs for nutrition and diabetes therapy are available from prestigious medical societies. For cost efficiency and effectiveness, health care authorities can select these CPGs for Asian implementation following abridgement and cultural adaptation that includes: defining nutrition therapy in meaningful ways, selecting lower cutoff values for healthy body mass indices and waist circumferences (WCs), identifying the dietary composition of MNT based on regional availability and preference, and expanding nutrition therapy for concomitant hypertension, dyslipidemia, overweight/obesity, and chronic kidney disease. An international task force of respected health care professionals has contributed to this process. To date, task force members have selected appropriate evidence-based CPGs and simplified them into an algorithm for diabetes-specific nutrition therapy. Following cultural adaptation, Asian and Asian-Indian versions of this algorithmic tool have emerged. The Asian version is presented in this report.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES. To evaluate attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals among hypercholesterolaemic patients undergoing lipid-lowering drug treatment in Hong Kong and to identify potential determinants of treatment outcomes. DESIGN. Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING. A single site in Hong Kong, as part of the CEPHEUS Pan-Asian survey. PATIENTS. Subjects with hypercholesterolaemia aged 18 years or above, who had been on lipid-lowering drug treatment for at least 3 months with no dose adjustment for at least 6 weeks. RESULTS. A total of 561 such patients (mean age, 65.3; standard deviation, 9.7 years) were evaluated. Most had major cardiovascular risk factors; 534 (95.2%) of 561 patients had coronary heart disease and 534 (95.4%) of 560 patients had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals set at lower than 70 mg/dL. In all, 465 (82.9%) patients attained their respective low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals. Among 75 patients who had coronary heart disease or equivalent risk, and multiple risk factors with a 10-year coronary heart disease risk of over 20%, 62 (82.7%) attained their respective low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals. Significant predictors of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment included the patient's baseline lipid profile (total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels), blood pressure, and drugs (statin/non-statin) used for treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Hypercholesterolaemic patients undergoing lipid-lowering drug treatment in the present Hong Kong study were able to achieve a very high attainment rate for the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal, despite the fact that most of them had major cardiovascular risk factors.
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