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Nutritional, Medicinal and Industrial Uses of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seeds - An Overview

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Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds have been grown in tropical regions throughout the world since prehistoric times. Sesame seed, a rich source of protein, is one of the first crops processed for oil production. Its non-culinary application includes its use as an ingredient in soap, cosmetics, lubricants and medicines. Sesame seeds also contain two unique substances: sesamin and sesamolin known to have a cholesterol lowering effect in humans and to prevent high blood pressure. Both of these were also reported to increase the hepatic mitochondrial and the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate in experimental animals. Cephalin, a phospholipid from sesame seed has been reported to possess hemostatic activity. The oil has wide medical and pharmaceutical applications. It is mildly laxative, emollient and demulcent. The seeds and fresh leaves may be used as a poultice. Th e antibacterial activity of seeds against Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as well as common skin fungi, such as athlete’s foot fungus has also been well recognized. The oil is also known to maintain high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). Refined sesame oil is rich with antioxidant components like lignans allowing for greater shelf-life of foods plus improving their flavor and taste. In addition to its use as an antioxidant, sesame oil contains a large amount of linoleate in triglyceride form that selectively inhibit malignant melanoma growth. Off -late, the work has also been oriented towards the production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel. The ethno-botanical and medicinal uses of this commercially important, nutritionally rich oilseed need to be explored for better utilization.
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Agriculturae Conspectus Scienti cus | Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4 (159-168)
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Summary
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds have been grown in tropical regions throughout
the world since prehistoric times. Sesame seed, a rich source of protein, is one of
the  rst crops processed for oil production. Its non-culinary application includes its
use as an ingredient in soap, cosmetics, lubricants and medicines. Sesame seeds also
contain two unique substances: sesamin and sesamolin known to have a cholesterol-
lowering e ect in humans and to prevent high blood pressure. Both of these were
also reported to increase the hepatic mitochondrial and the peroxisomal fatty acid
oxidation rate in experimental animals. Cephalin, a phospholipid from sesame
seed has been reported to possess hemostatic activity.  e oil has wide medical and
pharmaceutical applications. It is mildly laxative, emollient and demulcent.  e seeds
and fresh leaves may be used as a poultice.  e antibacterial activity of seeds against
Staphylococcus and Streptococcus as well as common skin fungi, such as athlete’s
foot fungus has also been well recognized.  e oil is also known to maintain high
density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol
(LDL). Re ned sesame oil is rich with antioxidant components like lignans allowing
for greater shelf-life of foods plus improving their  avor and taste. In addition to its
use as an antioxidant, sesame oil contains a large amount of linoleate in triglyceride
form that selectively inhibit malignant melanoma growth. O -late, the work has
also been oriented towards the production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a
viable alternative to the diesel fuel.  e ethno-botanical and medicinal uses of this
commercially important, nutritionally rich oilseed need to be explored for better
utilization.
Key words
Sesamum indicum, health bene ts, biofuel, nutraceutical
Nutritional, Medicinal and Industrial
Uses of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Seeds - An Overview
Kandangath Raghavan ANILAKUMAR ( )
Ajay PAL
Farhath KHANUM
Amarinder Singh BAWA
Biochemistry and Nutrition Discipline, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India
e-mail: anilakumarkr@gmail.com
Received: October 11, 2010 | Accepted: December 15, 2010
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4
160 Kandangath Raghavan ANILAKUMAR, Ajay PAL, Farhath KHANUM, Amarinder Singh BAWA
Introduction
India is one of the major producers of many oilseed crops like
groundnut, mustard, rapeseed, sesame seed, etc. Traditionally,
Indians consume substantial quantity of edible oils mainly as
a cooking medium. Among the oilseed crops, sesame has been
cultivated for centuries, particularly in Asia and Africa, for its
high content of edible oil and protein. It is commonly known as
til (Hind i), hu ma (Chinese), sesame (French), goma (Japanese),
gergelim (Portuguese) and ajonjoli (Spanish).
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the world’s impor-
tant oil crops. Its primary marketable products are the whole
seeds, seed oil and meal. While sesame seeds have been grown
in tropical regions throughout the world since prehistoric times,
traditional myths hold that their origins go back even further.
According to Assyrian legend, when the Gods met to create the
world, they drank wine made from sesame seeds. ese seeds
were thought to have rst originated in India and were men-
tioned in early Hindu legends. In these legends, tales are told in
which sesame seeds represent a symbol of immortality. From
India, sesame seeds were introduced throughout the Middle
East, Africa and Asia. Sesame seeds were one of the  rst crops
processed for oil as well as one of the earliest condiments (de
Carvalho et al., 2001).  ese seeds were brought to the United
States from Africa during the late 17th century. Currently, the
largest commercial producers of sesame seeds include India,
China and Mexico.
Sesame seeds add a nutty taste and a delicate, almost in-
visible crunch to many Asian dishes.  ey are also the main
ingredients intahini’ (sesame seed paste) and the wonderful
Middle Eastern sweet called ‘halvah’. Sesame seeds may be the
oldest condiment known to man dating back to as early as 1600
BC.  ey are highly valued for their oil which is exceptionally
resistant to rancidity. “Open sesame”, the famous phrase from
the Arabian Nights, re ects the distinguishing feature of the
sesame seed pod, which bursts open when it reaches maturity.
e pods are tiny,  at ovals, measuring about 3 mm long. Seed
color can vary, though they are usually beige or creamy white
when husked. Sesame oil, other than its use as cooking medium,
has cer tain industrial applications as it is used to make hair oil,
hydrogenated oil and certain medicines (Salunkhe et al., 1991;
Suja et al., 2004; Quasem et al., 2009). e present review high-
lights the food/nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses
of sesame seeds.
Plant habitat and characteristics
Sesame, a member of Pedaliaceae family, is an annual shrub
with white bell-shaped  owers with a hint of blue, red or yellow
wit h or wit hout bra nches (Martin and L eonard, 1967). It is g rown
for the production of seeds that are rich in oil content. It comes
in a variety of colors, creamy-white to charcoal-black (Fig. 1).
In general, the paler varieties of sesame seem to be more valued
in West and Middle East, while the black varieties are prized in
the Far East. Sesame is found in tropical, subtropical, and south-
ern temperate areas of the world, particularly in India, China,
South America and Africa. It has utmost economical impor-
tance and is primarily grown by small farmers in developing
countries.  e plant grows best in tropical climates, sandy, well
drained soil with hot climate and moderate rainfall. It is propa-
gated by seed sown in spring and takes about four months for the
seeds to ripen fu lly. Sesame is a t ropical herbaceous annual that
grows 1-2 m tall.  e plant has an unpleasant odor.  e leaves
vary from ovate to lanceolate and are hairy on both sides.  e
owers are purple to whitish, resembling foxglove, followed by
3 cm capsules/fruits containing numerous seeds (McCormick,
2001). Each plant may bear 15-20 fruits, which contain 70-100
seeds. It matures in 80–180 days when the stems are cut and
hung upside down for the ripe seeds to fall out to be collected on
mats. Mechanical harvesting is also used, with total worldwide
production of almost four billion pounds annually.
Products and cultivation of sesame
Sesame is grown for its seeds and the primary use of the
sesame seed is as a source of oil for cooking.  e young leaves
may also be eaten in stews and the dried stems may be burnt as
fuel with the ash used for local soap making but such uses are
entirely subordinate to seed production (Table 1). e crop of
sesame is commercialized in a number of forms. Most sesame
seeds are processed directly into oil by the grower or within the
producing region but are also sold in various stages of process-
ing, for various uses, such as meal, paste, confections and bakery
products (Salunkhe et al., 1991). Once harvested, the seeds are
cleaned and dried to about 8% moisture and then stored before
crushing.  e seeds are typically crushed intact for the oil.  is,
however, yields a meal that is bitter and somewhat indigestible
due to the presence of the  brous husk. As such the meal is only
useful as cattle feed. e quality of the meal can be improved
by removing the seed coat, dehulling, before crushing (Morris,
2002). In India, where sesame meal is an important food, this
process is a standard feature of an oil extraction plant.  e meal
is remarkable for its high protein content, which again is rich in
methionine and tryptophan. Since these amino acids are miss-
ing from a number of other sources of vegetable protein, such
as soy, sesame meal or our can be added to recipes to give a
better nutritional balance to health food products (Prakash,
1985; Quasem et al., 2009). Dehulling is also important for the
product ion of the ground seed pastes such as tahini and for con-
fectionery uses.  e dehulled seeds are extensively used in the
Figure 1. Sesame seeds
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4
161
Nutritional, Medicinal and Industrial Uses of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seeds - An Overview
ground form where they comprise the base material of tahini,
a paste used as an ingredient in Eastern Mediterranean and
Middle Eastern foods.  e seeds, hulled or dehulled, roasted or
raw are now widely used in the European and North American
bakery industry as a garnish on bread products. Dehulling has
always been a major problem for the sesame industry and a va-
riety of solutions have been sought.  e most basic approach
is largely manual: the skins are rubbed o the wetted seed by
hand. Mechanical techniques now use a similar combination of
wetting and rubbing.
Alkali treatment is also used to strip the hull and this tends
to result in a whiter seed.  e dehulling process, no matter what
the method, always involves wetting the seed, which leads to con-
siderable drying costs. As a result, the price of de-hulled seed is
at least 30% above the natural type (Morris, 2002). Dehulling is
said to reduce the storage ability of the seed, particularly in hot
climates. Only a small proportion of the global sesame harvest
enters International trade. For the most part, the oil is expressed
locally and used locally for cooking or the seeds themselves are
eaten, particularly a er being fried.  e oil is also useful in the
industrial preparation of perfumery, cosmetics (skin condition-
ing agents and moisturizers, hair preparations, bath oils, hand
products and make-up), pharmaceuticals (vehicle for drug de-
livery), insecticides, and paints and varnishes. However, all of
these uses are comparatively insigni cant in terms of the quan-
tities used (Chakraborthy et al., 2008).
Global production of sesame seed, as estimated by FAO (2005),
is 3.15 mn tonnes per year having risen from 1.4 mn tonnes in
the early 1960’s.  e largest producers are China and India,
each with an annua l har vest arou nd 750,000 tonnes followed by
Myanmar (425,000 tonnes) and Sudan (300,000 tonnes).  ese
gures are only rough estimates of the situation as sesame is a
smallholder crop and much of the harvest is consumed locally,
without record of the internal trade and domestic processing.
Global exports of sesame seeds are estimated to have reached
657,00 0 tonnes having risen from 427,000 tonnes in 1988. India
is now the single largest exporter of sesame seed, with exports
of some 180,000 tonnes, with Sudan in second exporting over
138,000 tonnes per year. In 1988 China was the principal ex-
porter in the world (Dogan and Zeybek, 2009; Roy et al., 2009).
Table 2 shows the sesame production and trade worldwide and
Table 3 enlists the major sesame producers (FAO, 2005).
Nutritional pro le of sesame seeds
Sesame oil is highly stable and rarely turns rancid in hot cli-
mates. It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids where the fatty acids
composition is 14% saturated, 39% mono-unsaturated, and
46% poly-unsaturated fatty acids (Toma and Tabekhia, 1979).
Carbohydrates in sesame seed are composed of 3.2% glucose,
2.6% fructose and 0.2% sucrose while the remaining quantity is
dietary  bers.  e nutrient composition of sesame seeds is en-
listed in Table 4 and 5. Also, they have desirable physiological
e ects including antioxidant activity, blood pressure and serum
lipid lowering potential as proven in experimental animals and
humans (Sirato-Yasumoto et al., 2001).  e major protein frac-
tion (globulin) in sesame contains about 95% of 13S globulin
and seems to be a simple, salt soluble, very susceptible to heat
denaturation and similar in subunit structure to soybean 11S
globulin with more hydrophobic properties.  e last property
limits the use of sesame proteins in certain food formulation,
particularly in  uids and beverages, which indicates the need
to modify the functionality of sesame proteins before it can be
Table 1. Products of sesame and its uses
Part used Products Description
Seeds Confectionery and Biscuits Fried seeds bound together with sugar syrup, whole seeds baked into Biscuits, popular in northern
Europe either incorporated into breads or as decorative toppings, a paste of sesame seeds is used as an
ingredient in eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern foods
Oil Varied uses To treat ulcers and burns, low grade oil is used in making soaps, paints, lubricants, and illuminants
Cake Food and feed Protein rich useful supplement, used in some Indian cooking
Region Area
harvested
(milion ha)
Production
(t)
Imports
(t)
Export
(t)
Asia 4.48 2,547 6901 342
Africa 2.80 953 60 422
South America 0.14 79 4 54
Central America 0.13 81 32 37
North America 0 0 54 3
Europe 0.40 2 146 25
Oceania 0 0 8 0
World 7.55 3,662 996 884
Adopted from FAO, 2005
Country Area harvested (ha) Production (t)
China 660 800
India 1850 750
Myanmar 1370 606
Sudan 1700 331
Uganda 210.8 121
Nigeria 165.1 83
Pakistan 135.2 75
Ethiopia 93.1 72
Bangladesh 80.1 55
Central African
Republic
42.1 47
Thailand 63.9 46
Tanzania 104.8 45
Egypt 29.9 41
Guatemala 55.8 39
Chad 95.1 39
Paraguay 67.9 37
Adopted from FAO, 2005
Table 2 . Regional sesame production and trade
Table 3. World’s major sesame producers
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4
162 Kandangath Raghavan ANILAKUMAR, Ajay PAL, Farhath KHANUM, Amarinder Singh BAWA
used in processing of imitated dairy products. Functional prop-
erties re ect the intrinsic physical attributes of the protein as
in uenced by interactions with food components and the pro-
cessing treatments. Sesame is rich in sulfur containing amino
acids and limited in lysine and contains signi cant amounts of
oxalic (2.5%) and phytic (5%) acids (Kapadia et al., 2002). Because
oxalic acid is present in the hulls, decortication can remove most
of it. Decorticated sesame seeds have the following composition:
45-63% oil, 19-31% (averaging about 25%) proteins, about 14%
carbohydrates and about 3% ash. Unlike many oilseeds, sesame
meal is devoid of anti-try ptic compounds. Sesame oil is very rich
in polyunsaturated fat used in margarine production and cooking
oils. Sesame seeds contain two unique substances, sesamin and
sesamolin (Fig. 2) whence during re nement the two phenolic
antioxidants, sesamol and sesaminol, are formed. Both of these
substances belong to lignans and have been shown to possess
cholesterol-lowering e ect in humans (Ogawa et al., 1995; Hirata
et al. 1996) and to prevent high blood pressure and increase vita-
min E supplies in animals (Yamashita et al., 1992; Kamal-Eldin
et al., 1995). Sesame seeds are an excellent source of copper and
calcium. It is also rich in phosphorous, iron, magnesium, man-
ganese, zinc and vitamin B1. A chlorinated red naphthoquinone
pigment possessing antifungal activity, named chlorosesamone
(2-chloro-5, 8-dihydroxy-3-3methyl-2-butenyl)-1, 4- naphthoqui-
none), has been reported from sesame root (Hasan et al., 2000).
In another research, three anthraquinones, Anthrasesamones
A, B and C, were isolated from the root of sesame (Fu rumoto et
al., 2003). Anthrasesamone C is a rare chlorinated anthraqui-
none in higher plants.  e total phytosterol content in sesame
seeds is ~400 mg/100 g, which is higher as compared to English
walnuts and Brazil nuts (113 mg/100g and 95 mg/100 g, respec-
tively) (Phillips et al., 2005). Just a quarter-cup of sesame seeds
supplies 74.0% of the daily value (DV) for copper, 31.6% of the
DV for magnesium and 35.1% of the DV for calcium.  is rich
assortment of mi nerals translates into many med icina l proper ties.
Medicinal properties of sesame seeds and
health issues
Sesame oil is mildly laxative, emollient and demulcent.  e
seeds and fresh leaves are also used as a poultice.  e oil has wide
medical and pharmaceutical application. Sesamin has been found
to protect the liver from oxidative damage.  e oil has been used
for healing wounds for thousands of years. It is naturally anti-
bacterial for common skin pathogens such as Staphylococcus and
Streptococcus as well as common skin fungi such as athlete’s foot
fungus. It is anti-viral and anti-in ammatory. In recent experi-
ments in Holland by Ayurvedic physicians, the oil has been used
in the treatment of several chronic diseases including hepatitis,
diabetes and migraines.
Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Sesamum indi-
cum has been tested by acetic acid-induced writhing model in
mice by Nahar and Rokonuzzaman (2009). Acetic acid causes
algesia by liberation of endogenous substances, which then excite
the pain nerve endings (Raj, 1996).  e study concluded that the
extract produced a signi cant writhing inhibition at the doses of
500 mg/kg, which is comparable to the standard drug Ibuprofen
at the dose of 50 mg/kg.
Sesame oil has been found to inhibit the growth of malig-
nant melanoma in vitro and the proliferation of human colon
cancer cells (Smith and Salerno, 1992). In the tissues beneath
the skin, this oil neutralizes oxygen radicals. It penetrates into
the skin quickly and enters the blood stream through the capil-
laries. Molecules of sesame seed oil maintain good cholesterol
(high density lipoprotein, HDL) and lower bad cholesterol (low
density lipoprotein, LDL) (Sirato-Yasumoto et al., 2001).
Table 4. Nutrient composition of sesame seeds
Table 5. Amino acid and fatty acid composition in sesame
seeds
Nutrient Quantity (%)
Moisture 04.0-05.3
Protein 18.3-25.4
Oil 43.3-44.3
Saturated Fatty Acids (% in oil) 14.0
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (% in oil) 39.0
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids (% in oil) 46.0
Ash 05.2-06.2
Glucose 03.2
Fructose 02.6
Sucrose 0.2
Phytosterols 0.4
Figure 2.
Chemical structure of bioactive compounds from sesame
Nutrient Quantity
Amino acid (g/16g N)
Threonine 3.1-3.7
Valine 3.9-4.6
Cysteine + methionine 2.8-4.8
Isoleucine 4.0-4.2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine 6.4-9.6
Histidine 2.7
Tryptophan 1.3-1.5
Lysine 2.6-2.7
Argenine 12.0
Fatty acid (%)
Palmitic acid (16:0) 11.7
Stearic acid (18:0) 05.2
Oleic acid (18:1) 41.4
Linoleic acid (18:2) 39.4
Linolenic acid (18:3) 00.4
Arachidic acid (20:0) 00.4
Behenic acid (22:0) 00.6
Sesamin Sesamolin
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4
163
Nutritional, Medicinal and Industrial Uses of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seeds - An Overview
In an experiment at the Maharishi International College in
Fair eld, Iowa, students rinsed their mouths with sesame oil,
resulting in an 85% reduction in the bacteria which causes gingi-
vitis. As nose drops, sni ed back into the sinuses, sesame oil has
cured chronic sinusitis. As a throat gargle, it kills Streptococcus
and other common cold bacteria. It helps su erers of psoriasis
and dry skin ailments. It is a useful natural UV protector.
Sesame oil is used a er exposure to wind or sun to calm
the burns. It nourishes and feeds the scalp to control dry scalp
dandru and to kill dandru causing bacteria. It has been suc-
cessfully used in the childrens hair to kill lice infestations. It
protects the skin from the e ects of ch lorine in swimming pool
water. Used before and a er radiation treatments, sesame oil
helps neutralize the  ood of oxygen radicals, which such treat-
ment inevitably causes (Cooney et al., 2001). On the skin, oil
soluble toxins are attracted to sesame oil molecules that can
then be washed away with hot water and a mild soap. Internally,
the oil molecules attract oil soluble toxins and carry them into
the blood stream and then out of the body as waste. Used as a
douche mixed with warm water, the oil controls vaginal yeast
infections. Sesame oil absorbs quickly and penetrates through
the tissues to the very marrow of the bone. It enters into the
blood stream through the capillaries and circulates.  e liver
does not sweep sesame oil molecules from the blood, accepting
those molecules as friendly (Chakraborthy et al., 2008). Sesame
oil helps joints keep their  exibility. It keeps the skin supple and
so . It heals and protects areas of mild scrapes, cuts and abra-
sions. It helps tighten facial skin, particularly around the nose
and controls the usual enlargement of pores as skin ages. Sesame
oil helps control eruptions and neutralizes the poisons that de-
velop both on the surface and in the pores. Used on baby skin,
particularly in the area covered by a diaper, sesame seed oil pro-
tects the tender skin against rash caused by the acidity of body
wastes. In the nose and ears, it protects against common skin
pathogens. For school going children, who are in the presence
of other children with colds and sni es, the oil swabbed in the
nose protects against air borne viruses and bacteria (Johnson
et al., 2001; Morris, 2002).
Older men make zinc-rich foods such as sesame seeds as a
regular part of their healthy way of eating in order to contribute
towa rds their bone mi neral densit y. Althoug h osteoporosis is o en
thought to be a disease for which postmenopausal women are at
highest risk, it is also a potential problem for older men. Almost
30% of hip fractures occur in men, and one in eight men over
age 50 will have an osteoporotic fracture. A study of 396 men
ranging in age from 45-92 found a clear correlation between low
dietary intake of zinc, low blood levels of the trace mineral, and
osteoporosis at the hip and spine (Hyun et al., 2004).
e bene cial e ects of phytosterols are so dramatic that they
have been extracted from soybean, corn and pine tree oil and
added to processed foods, such as “butter”-replacement spreads,
which are then touted as cholesterol-lowering foods (Takashi et
al., 2003). It is not necessary to settle for an imitation “butter”
when sesame seeds are a naturally rich source of phytosterols
and cardio-protective  ber, minerals and healthy fats as well.
Sesame seeds have the highest total phytosterol content (400-413
mg/100 g), and English walnuts and Brazil nuts the lowest (113
mg/100 g and 95 mg/100 g, respectively). Phytosterols are be-
lieved to reduce blood levels of cholesterol, enhance the immune
response and decrease risk of certain cancers.
Many health bene ts of sesame may be attributed to its lig nan
especially sesamin (Jeng and Hou, 2005). Sesamin binds to and
activates a receptor in the body called Peroxisome Proliferator-
Activator Receptor Alpha (PPARalpha). PPARalpha is highly
expressed in muscle, liver, kidneys and heart and is involved in
the regulation of lipid metabolism, speci cally the transcription
of genes involved in the â-oxidation of fatty acids and lipogen-
esis. Activation of PPARalpha increases gene expression of the
fatty acid oxidation enzymes and decreases gene expression of
lipogenic enzymes. In other words, sesamin increases the fat
burning process and decreases the storage of fat in the body
(Penalvo et al., 2006). is compound is also e ective in pre-
venting an increase in the serum triacylglycerol level following
ethanol consumption in the rat (Akimoto, 1993).
Fat is mainly oxidized in mitochondria and peroxisomes of
skeletal muscle cells and the liver. Activation of PPARalpha by
sesamin increases fat oxidation in these organelles by increas-
ing the expression levels of enzymes involved in â-oxidation of
fatty acids (Sirato-Yasumoto et al., 2001). As its name suggests,
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activator Receptor causes the crea-
tion of additional peroxisomes which in turn lead to more fat
oxidation. In addition, sesamin increases the expression of the
mitochondrial enzyme carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)
that is rate limiting enzyme in â-oxidation of fatty acids. It car-
ries fatty acids across the membrane into the mitochondria by
binding to them. Increased expression of CPT allows more fatty
acids to be transported into the mitochondria where they can be
oxidized. PPARalpha activation also increases uncoupling pro-
teins (UCPs) which decrease the e ciency of mitochondria. As
a result of that amount of energy needed to produce the same
amount of energy increase. Wasting calories would lead to a
greater caloric expenditure and therefore fat loss.  rough in-
creasing the expression of enzymes involved in â-oxidation and
increasing UCPs, PPARalpha activation by sesamin increases
the rate and capacity of cells to burn fat (Sawada et al., 2001;
Kushiro et al., 2002).
Apart from increasing the fat oxidation, sesamin has also
been proven to decrease lipogenesis by decreasing lipogenic en-
zymes of liver. Sesamin has been shown to decrease the lipogenic
gene expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1
(SREBP-1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase,
that means less fat is esteri ed in the liver and therefore less fat
synthesis (Ide et al., 2003). e e ect of sesamin on enzymes
involved in catabolism and anabolism of fatty acids has been
summarized in Table 6.
Ketogenesis occurs when fatty acid oxidation is increased
to a point where the liver cannot metabolize all the fatty acids
for energy. Excess acetyl-CoA (generated through catabolism
of fat, glucose and amino acid) is converted to ketone bodies in
the liver and released into the blood-stream for use by other tis-
sues especially the brain. Ketogenesis is very important process
during low carbohydrate diets because the brain uses only glu-
cose as fuel. When glucose is low, the brain will turn towards
ketone bodies for its energy. Sesamin has been shown to increase
the production of ketone bodies.
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4
164 Kandangath Raghavan ANILAKUMAR, Ajay PAL, Farhath KHANUM, Amarinder Singh BAWA
Increased production of ketone has protein-sparing e ect as
less amino acids are needed to create ketones eventually spar-
ing muscle mass while dieting (Fukuda, 1998 and 1999). Besides
these metabolic regulations, sesamin supplementation provides
many health bene ts also. Sesamin has been shown to be antihy-
pertensive and an antioxidant. It increases the recycling of vita-
min E, improves liver functions and provides protection against
alcohol induced oxidative stress. Sesamin decreases cholesterol
levels while increasing HDL levels. Anti-in ammatory activity
of the sesamin has also been reported (Ide et al., 2003).
Several allergic reactions to sesame are becoming increasingly
frequent, especially among young children and can sometimes
results in anaphylaxis. Because sesame is o en a ‘masked aller-
gen especially in restaurant meals, the risk of severe reaction
is signi cant. People allergic to sesame characteristically avoid
sesame seeds and oils, but accidental exposures do occur o en.
Sesame oil is one of the few vegetable oils being used unre ned
in food applications. As a result it is hazardous to those allergic
to the seed proteins. Just 3 ml of sesame oil is enough to induce
an allergic reaction. Non-IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to sesame
is reported by Stern and Wuthrich (1998). A person with no per-
sonal or familial history of allergic or atopic disorders got re-
current anaphylactic reactions a er ingestion of sesame and no
evidence of an IgE-mediated mechanism was found.
Food and industrial uses of sesame seeds
ere are many foods with sesame as an ingredient.  e food
uses of sesame have been enlisted in Table 7. Europeans use it
as a substitute for olive oil. Sesame oil is an excellent salad oil
and is used by the Japanese for cooking  sh. Aqua hulled sesame
seeds undergo a special hulling process which produces a clear
white seed.  ese seeds are washed, dried and used on hamburg-
er buns.  is special process makes the seeds to stick to the bun
while maintaining a white color a er baking. Nearly 35% of the
imported crop from Mexico is purchased by McDonalds to pre-
pare sesame seed buns.  e seeds are also used on bread and then
eaten in Sicily. In Greece, seeds are used in cakes, while in Togo
and Africa the seeds are a main soup ingredient. Mechanically
hulled sesame seed enriches bakery and candles and is also the
base for the creamy, sweet wholesome tahini. Sesame  our has
high protein content, high levels of methionine and tryptopha n
and 10-12% sesame oil. Sesame seeds contain three times more
calcium than a comparable measure of milk.
Re ned sesame oil has antioxidant properties allowing for
its greater shelf-life for use in the food industry. Roasted sesame
oil resists rancidity due to the antioxidants formed during seed
roasting and the particular roasted sesame  avor improves taste
of fried products. African countries use the seeds as spice, seed
oil, frying vegetables and meat, eaten raw or fried and used in
confections such as candy and baking. Other products sold in
US grocery and health stores with sesame seed as an ingredi-
ent include sesame crackers, honey pu ed kasha, sesame blue
chips, unhulled sesame seed and sesame seed candy. Many rec-
ipes contain sesame seeds as an ingredient such as sesame seed
sprouts, sesame spread, tanferine and sesame, sesame seed cook-
ies, hummus, sesame seed bagels, sesame granola, sesame broc-
coli rice, sesame mustard sauce, ginger sesame chicken, sesame
pastry, sesame seed sauce and sesame green beans. Sesame meal
is excellent feed for poultry and livestock.
Table 6. E ects of sesamin on enzymes involved in
catabolism and anabolism of fatty acids
Table 7. Culinary uses of sesame seeds
Enzymes Nature of activity
Catabolism of fatty acids (â-oxidation)
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase Activation
Acyl-CoA oxidase Activation
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase Activation
3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase Activation
2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase Activation
Ä3, Ä2 - enoyl-CoA isomerase Activation
Anabolism of fatty acids (lipogenic activity)
Fatty acid synthase Inhibition
ATP-citrate lyase Inhibition
L-Pyruvate kinase Inhibition
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Inhibition
Food Country
Sesame cakes, wine and brandy Biblical Babylon
Bread stick, cracker, salad and cooking oil Worldwide
Raw, powdered and roasted seed India
Substitute for olive oil Europe
Bread Sicily
Cakes Greece
Soup, spice and seed oil Africa
Salad and fish oil Japan
Confectionery China
Sesame seed buns, chips United States
Severa l industrial uses have been compiled for sesame (Table
8). African people use sesame to prepare perfumes and cologne
has been made from sesame  owers. Myristic acid from sesame
oil is used as an ingredient in cosmetics. Sesamin has bacteri-
cide and insecticide activities plus it also acts as an antioxidant
that can inhibit the absorption of cholesterol and the produc-
tion of cholesterol in the liver. Sesamolin also has insecticidal
properties and is used as a synergist for pyrethrum insecticides
(Morris, 2002). Sesame oil is used as a solvent, oleaginous ve-
hicle for drugs, skin so ener and used in the manufacture of
margarine and soap. Chlorosesamone, obtained from roots of
sesame, has antifungal activity (Begum et al., 2000).
Today, energy demand is increasing while world fossil energy
resources are increasingly depleted.  e vegetable oil is potentially
able to replace mineral oil in future. In the early days of diesel
engines, vegetable oils were tested (their original compositions
unchanged) as a possible motor fuel but the idea never took hold
owing to incompatibility problems such as deterioration of the
oil with time, high viscosity, and fouling of the engine. Recently
the biodiesel route has been reactivated for a number of reasons
like: (a) it has been found that vegetable oil can be transformed
via esteri cation into a product that is much more adequate as
a diesel fuel than the original oil itself; (b) a wide variety of veg-
etable oils can be used as raw material for transesteri cation;
this has led to the idea that biodiesel production could be a way
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4
165
Nutritional, Medicinal and Industrial Uses of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seeds - An Overview
to extend the role of agriculture (more jobs created and reduced
nancial burden for petroleum imports in developing countries).
Biodiesel is produced through transesteri cation, a process
in which organically derived oils are combined with alcohol
(ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst to form et hyl
or methyl ester (Zhang et al., 2003). Biodiesel can be blended
wit h diesel fuel or used 100% direct ly in an engine. Biodiesel can
be derived from agricultural crops or sources such as palm oil,
coconut, soybean, peanut, castor, sesame, rape seed oils, waste
vegetable oils, or microalgae oils. Biodiesel is physically simi-
lar to petroleum diesel but has the merit of being derived from
natural, renewable sources. A blend of 20% biodiesel with 80%
petroleum (B20) can be used in all diesel-burning equipment,
including compression-ignition engines and oil heat boilers,
without modi cations.
Very recently, Ahmad et al. (2010) has prepared biodiesel
from sesame oil by its transesteri cation with methanol in the
presence of NaOH as catalyst and maximum yield of 92% was
achieved at 60°C.  e fuel properties of sesame biodiesel (100%)
such as speci c gravity @ 60/60°F was 0.887,  ash point 110°C,
pour point -18°C, kinematic viscosity @ 40°C 5.77, cetane number
53, and sulfur contents 0.0083. Engine fueling with sesame bio-
diesel and its blends (B20%, B10%, and B5%) in terms of fuel
consumption, e ciency, and power outputs appeared to have
equal performance compared to mineral diesel.  ere is no ob-
vious change in engine power output even at 100% biodiesel.
It was also observed that the environmental performance of
sesame biodiesel was superior to that of mineral diesel.  is
study supports the production of biodiesel from sesame seed
oil as a viable alternative to the diesel fuel. Sesame and other
oil crops are a promising new energy supply sources.  e po-
tential of some plant oils that can be used to produce biodiesel
has been presented in Table 9.
Nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical uses of
sesame
Many nutraceutical uses of sesame have been summarized
in Table 8. Using decorticated sesame seeds, sesame milk has
been prepared.  e newly developed products o er a family of
dairy analogues, which can be declared as health foods that can
be used as dairy substitutes or extenders (Jihad et al., 2009).
Sesame lignans have antioxidant and health promoting activities
(Nakai et al., 2003). Feeding sesame lignans to rats have shown
to reduce Fe2+ induced oxidative stress. Compared with those
fed with groundnut oil, sesame oil fed rats had lower levels of
hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, serum glutamate
oxaloacetate transaminase activities and serum glutamate pyru-
vate transaminase activities.  e level of these enzymes indicates
protection against Fe2+ induced oxidative stress (Hemalatha et
al., 2004; Hu et al., 2004).  e antioxidant and free radical scav-
enging activities of sesamol using a nanosecond pulse radiolysis
technique have been reported by several scientists (Unnikrishnan
et al., 2005; Juan et al., 2005). A good free radical scavenging
potency of antioxidants from sesame cake extract has also been
reported (Shyu and Hwang, 2002; Suja et al., 2004). Antifungal
activity toward Cladosporium fulvum of Chlorosesamone, hy-
droxysesamone and 2,3-epoxysesamone was established in a
study by Hasan et al. (2001). Sesame seed consumption increas-
es plasma γ-tocopherol and enhances vitamin E activity, which
is reported to prevent cancer and heart diseases (Cooney et al.,
2001). Sesamin is thermostable and remains at 90% of the orig-
inal level a er roasting (Abe et al., 2001) indicating its viability
for food and non-food applications.  e total phenolic content
(TPC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, free radical
scavenging capacity, inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL)
cholesterol and metal chelating capacity of extracts of whole
black and whole white sesame seeds and their hull fractions in
80% aqueous ethanol were investigated. Results demonstrated
considerable antioxidant activity of sesame products tested es-
pecially black sesame hulls (Shahidi et al., 2006). Cephalin from
sesame seed has hemostatic activity. Historically,  ber is used
as an antidiabetic, antitumor, antiulcer, cancer preventive, car-
dioprotective and laxative. Fiber ranges from 27,100 to 67,000
Table 8. Industrial, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical uses of
sesame seeds
Table 9. Yields of biodiesel from common crops
Uses Phytochemicals of
sesame
Industrial
Antifungal Chlorosesamone
Bactericidal and insecticidal (synergist for
pyrethrum insecticides)
Sesamin and sesamolin
Cosmetics and soap Myristic acid
Nutrceutical
Antioxidant and Inhibiting cholesterol
production
Lecithin and lignans
Reducing hepatic steatosis Lecithin
Cardioprotective Fiber and sesame oil
Enhanced Hepatic (mitochondrial and
peroxisomal) fatty acid oxidation
Sesamin and sesamolin
Skin softener Sesame oil
Hemostatic acativity Cephalin
Decreased dermatitis Lecithin
Pharmaceutical
Treatment of nasal mucosa dryness, blurred
vision, dizziness, anxiety, head ache and
insomnia
Sesame oil
Oleaginous vehicle for drugs and laxative Sesame oil
Hypoglycaemic Flavonoids
Inhibition of malignant melanoma Linoleate in triglyceride
form
Cancer preventive Myristic acid
Source Biodiesel yield (barrels per year
per square mile)
Cotton 382
Soybean 542
Sesame 807
Safflower 905
Tung oil tree 1091
Sunflower 1113
Peanuts 1233
Rapseed 1385
Olives 1407
Jojoba 2116
Jatropha 2204
Coconut 3131
Oil palm 6927
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 75 (2010) No. 4
166 Kandangath Raghavan ANILAKUMAR, Ajay PAL, Farhath KHANUM, Amarinder Singh BAWA
ppm in the seed with up to 166,000 ppm in the leaf. Lecithin
of sesame seeds, ranging from 58 to 395 ppm, possesses anti-
oxidant and hepatoprotective activity. It is also likely e ective
for reducing hepatic steatosis in long term parenteral nutrition
patients and a successful treatment for dermatitis and dry skin
(Jellin et al., 2000).  e antihypertensive and protective e ect of
sesamin against renal hypertension and cardiovascular hyper-
trophy is also reported (Kita et al., 1995; Matsu mura et al., 1995
and 2000). Flavonoids from S. indicum were e ective in raising
the hemoglobin levels in rats (Anila and Vijayalakshmi, 2000).
e e ects of ethanolic extract of sesame coat on oxidation of
LDL and production of nitric oxide in macrophages were inves-
tigated.  e results showed that extract in the range of 0.01–0.8
mg/ml markedly inhibited copper-induced LDL oxidation and
H2O2 induced cell damage that implies that ethanolic extract
could exhibit a protective action on biomolecules and genera-
tion of in ammatory mediators in vitro (Wang et al., 2007).
Several pharmaceuticals uses have also been identi ed from
sesame (Table 8). Myristic acid has cancer preventive capabil-
ity and is found in sesame seed ranging from 328 to 1,728 ppm.
Sesame oil is used as a solvent for intramuscular and has nutritive,
demulcent, and emollient properties and has been used as a laxa-
tive. Sesame  ower extract possess tumor inhibiting e ect. e
e ect of alcohol extract from Sesamum indicum ower on tumor
growth in tumorigenic mouse and on weight of immune organs
showed inhibiting e ect on tumor growth and had not distinct
e ect on weight of thymus and spleen in mice (Chakraborthy
et al., 2008). A study conducted on rat liver denotes that sesame
profoundly a ects hepatic fatty acid oxidation and serum triacyl-
glycerol levels (Sirato-Yasumoto et a l., 2001).  erefore, consump-
tion of sesame rich in lignans results in physiological activity to
alter lipid metabolism in a potentially bene cial manner. In an-
other study it has been suggested by the researchers that hot-wa-
ter extract of defatted sesame delayed glucose absorption which
had a reductive e ect on the plasma glucose concentration of
genetically diabetic mice (Takeuchi et al., 2001).
Sesamin, one of the major components of lignan of sesame
seeds, has received a great deal of interest regarding its poten-
tial as a hypocholesterolemic agent, especially a er the positive
results reported by Hirata et al. (1996) in humans. A clear hy-
pocholesterolemic e ect elicited by sesamin (alone or in com-
bination with vitamin E) was reported in studies conducted in
rats (Sugano et al., 1990; Hirose et al., 1991; Nakabayashi et al.,
1995; Kamal-Eldin et al., 2000) or in cultured rat cells (Umeda-
sawada et a l., 1994).  e oil was used during the 4th century by the
Chinese as a remedy for toothaches and gum diseases. Other uses
of sesame include the treatment of blurred vision, dizziness, and
headaches.  e Indians have used sesame oil as an antibacterial
mouthwash, to relieve anxiety and insomnia. A recent clinical
trial proved that sesame oil was signi cantly more e ective for
treating nasal mucosa dryness due to dry winter climate than
isotonic NaCl solution (Johnson et al., 2001). In addition, sesame
oil contains large amounts of linoleate in triglyceride form that
selectively inhibited malignant melanoma growth (Smith and
Salerno, 2001).  e leaves are rich in a gummy matter and when
mixed with water form rich bland mucilage that is used in the
treatment of infant cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, cataract and
bladder troubles. If taken internally it prevents hair loss and
graying, convalescence, chronic dry constipation, dental caries,
osteoporosis, sti joints, and dry cough. It has marked ability to
increase milk production in nursing mothers (Chevallier, 1996).
Externally it is used to treat hemorrhoids and ulcers (Chopra et
al., 1986).  e seed are rich in high calories so overweight peo-
ples should use them very cautiously (Uzun et. al, 2007).  e oil
is laxative and also promotes menstruation. Table 10 provides
additional ethno-botanical uses of sesame.
Conclusion and future scope
Sesame plant being easy to grow is well suited for cultiva-
tion in crop rotation. is plant is one of the plants where the
oil content in seed is high.  is produce is not only in use for
culinary purposes, but also in various applications such as in-
dustrial, engineering, and pharmaceutical.  e ethno-botanical
and medicina l uses of this commercial ly important, nutritionally
rich oilseed need to be explored for better utilization. Sesamin
possess the capacity to increase the fat burning process and de-
crease the storage of fat in the body by modifying the gene ex-
pression of the fatty acid oxidation enzymes. It has potential
application in the development of nutraceuticals for weight re-
duction. O -late, the work has also been oriented towards the
production of biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alter-
native to the diesel fuel.
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... Sesame is an essential oil producing crop otherwise called the 'Queen of oil' owing to the quality of oil it produces (Adu-Gyamfi et al. 2019). Sesame is the most identified member among the family Pedaliaceae (Singh et al., 2015) with the cultivated specie (Sesamum indicum L) been reported as having 2n =26 chromosome number (Anilakumar et al., 2010). Cultivation of sesame are mostly in Africa, particularly the tropical region, Asia, and the southern temperate regions of the world. ...
... Cultivation of sesame are mostly in Africa, particularly the tropical region, Asia, and the southern temperate regions of the world. (Anilakumar et al., 2010). Sesame seeds which is commonly used in soups has a high nutritive value with about 18-25% protein and 13.5% carbohydrates, in addition to its higher oil content of 44-58%, in comparison to other oil seed crops (peanut, soybean and rapeseed. ...
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Sesame seed, commonly called benniseed, is among the most valued seeds and seed oil with significant nutritional and medicinal uses to an everyday man. Nigeria is ranked the 3 rd largest in (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivation. Rated the worlds healthiest food as well as its cash crop values, cultivations by farmers in the region are still mostly based on heterogenous landraces which are less productive but harbours useful genes needed for further improvement. The diversity of 45 landraces sampled from three states out of the six geo-political zones of North Central (Nasarawa), North Eastern (Bauchi), and North Western (Kano states) in Nigeria where sesame is commonly cultivated was assessed using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. Phylogenetic relations were determined using UPGMA cluster analysis, multivariate grouping and polymorphic information content (PIC) were calculated using standard procedures. Primers SEM8, SEM9 and SEM10 gave 100% polymorphism. The landraces were grouped into six clusters depicted in the dendrogram and this was at a similarity coefficient of 67%. Var01 (KBi1) collected from Bichi LGA of Kano state was genetically distinct from all others at a dissimilarity coefficient of 0.33. The values in the polymorphic information contents was in the range 0.137 for (SEM9) to 0.712 (SM8). Primer SM8 was most informative with the highest PIC (0.712). This study revealed that the 45 sesame landraces sampled from three northern states in Nigeria constitute six major genetic clusters which grouped all into 25 landraces basically distributed around the northern regions of Nigeria.
... It is a dense source of protein (w25%), and oil (w55%) (Onsaard, 2012), also noted for its high antioxidant activity (Medina-Vera et al., 2021). Sesame protein is rich in sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine); however, it is deficient in lysine (Anilakumar et al., 2010). Also, sesame oil has a nutritional quality and is mainly composed of palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), oleic (18:1), and linoleic (18:2) fatty acids (Were et al., 2006). ...
... Hemp fat is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (80e90 g/100 g) viz., a-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. These fatty acids provide prostanoids and leukotriene with antithrombotic, antivasoconstrictive, and anti-inflammatory properties, making it a prominent ingredient of new commercially available health food products (Andre et al., 2016). Moreover, hemp seeds contain a dense composition of bioactive components with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) being the most predominant bio-functional component. ...
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Plant-based beverages are gaining popularity among consumers who are seeking alternative and environmentally sustainable options to traditional dairy drinks. The food industry is therefore developing a range of affordable, convenient, desirable, nutritional, and sustainable plant-based milk alternatives. This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on fundamental processing steps to convert plant material into plant-based beverages, what are processing challenges for different plant sources, how to overcome these challenges and potential quality deficiencies, and what are the opportunities to maximize textural, nutritional, and sensory aspects of plant-based beverages.
... The oil is used as raw material to produce paints, margarine and varnishes (Nyiatagher and Ocholi, 2015). It is used in pharmacology (Anilakumar et al., 2010) and in industries with products such as perfumes, cosmetics for the skin, hair oils and soaps. Sesame oil can be used in the manufacturing of soaps, paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, and insecticides. ...
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Introduction: Sesame is an important cash crop that can be grown with limited resources. In recent decades it has drawn interests of many researchers and developers. This study analyzed the economics of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) produced in northern region of the Republic of Benin. Methods: Structured questionnaire was used to gather primary data from 120 farmers who made up the sample size and were chosen using a multistage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, profitability analytical tools, multiple regression analysis and Likert scale rating technique. Profitability analytical tools were used to assess the economic performance of the sesame production; a multiple regression model was used to analyze factors that determine the output of the production in the study area; a 5-point Likert scale rating technique was utilized to rank the production’s challenges according to farmers’ observations. Results: The findings revealed that sesame ismainly produced in sole cropping system and in rotation with other crops. The net farm income analysis showed that sesame farming was a profitable venture in the study area. The study also showed that factors like age, household size, crop rotation, and capital input influence the revenue of sesame production. While age, household size and capital input have a beneficial and significant influence on the farms’ net revenue from sesame produce, crop rotation has a negative effect on it. Amongst the various constraints identified, themost significant ones are access to labor and land, uneven ripening, lack of storage facilities and access to improved seed. Discussion: Based on these results, authorities in agricultural sector should develop and promote this value chain at the national level as it will greatly boost the country’s economy.
... Essential fatty acids have been associated with brain development, retinal function and nervous system function. Particularly, body fats is an endocrine gland that is involved in the production of signaling molecules for the prevention of fat accumulation in heart, muscles, pancrease, and any other body tissues [25]. ...
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Oilseeds have been cultivated from antiquity with increasing demand in agricultural industries world trade. Many economies such as Malaysia depend largely on oilseed crops which are grown primarily for the edible oil production; and for additional meal fraction arising from the seed. The meal is rich in protein and used for animal feed. Recent developments in research have posited oilseeds as a viable source for the production of biodiesel. In the tropics, most of the oilseeds are underutilized; and interest in its mass production and utilization are lacking. Some other seed such as neem seeds, pawpaw seeds, Jatropha curcas L. seeds, etc. have not been put to use in tropical countries leading to subsistence production and their applications in other areas. The oilseed crops could be used either for human, animal or for industrial purposes. There is need to increase the volume of production of these oils in tropical countries through improved quality farming techniques that would encourage breeding in other to meet up with increasing demands. Notably, there are many conventional methods that have been used to increase oilseeds yields. However, the adoption of each technology improvement should be sustainable, while other unknown oilseeds should be discovered for increased utilization.
... Sesamum indicum L., currently known as sesame is from the family of Pedaliaceae. It is greatly used for various medicinal, nutritional and industrial applications [6][7][8]. Sesame seeds have been shown to be effective as antioxidant [9,10], antimicrobial [10], hypolipidemic [11], hepatorenal protective [12], antidiabetic [13], anti-inflammatory [14] and analgesic [15]. It has been recently reported that sesame seeds exhibit a potential to protect from COVID-19 disease [16]. ...
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The present considers the encapsulation of Sesamum indicum L. seeds oil obtained by means of the supercritical CO2 extraction technique in new polymethyl methacrylate based nanoparticles and investigates the in vitro antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition effects. The activity of the formulation to inhibit carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (i.e. α-amylase and α-glucosidase), cholinesterase (i.e. acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) and urease involved in the management of diabetes, Alzheimer and ulcer, respectively, was investigated. Round nanoparticles with a mean size of 259 ± 4 nm, a zeta-potential (ζ) of +78 ± 4 mV, and an efficiency of encapsulation of 99 ± 1% were obtained. A high antidiabetic effect with IC50 around 77.72 and 53.6 μg⋅ mL⁻¹ towards α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively) and moderate antiurease and anti-Alzheimer activities with IC50 equal to 130.74, 62.21 and 77.73 μg mL⁻¹ towards acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and urease, respectively, were observed. This study contributes to the development of an effective approach to enhance sesame seeds oil stability and efficiency, provided drug carriers for hydrophobic oil drugs.
... Recent studies showed that some medicinal plants are regarded as good sources for traditional medicines and from these plants many of the modern medicines are produced [31]. Nevertheless, the utilization of plants in medicine is basically based on its biologically active compounds, which have numerous therapeutic properties including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiin ammatory, and anti-hypercholesterolemic [32,33]. Therefore, different studies have been devoted to assess the secrets of plants. ...
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Objective zinc plays an important role in insulin's biosynthesis and storage. Consequently, its deficiency may have a deleterious impact on the progression of diabetes and associated consequences. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of Hawthorn “Crataegus Azarolus” on blood biochemical parameters, tissue zinc status, and oxidative stress biomarkers in streptozotocin diabetic rats fed zinc insufficient diet. Methods Thirty-two males albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 2 groups were fed zinc-sufficient diet (One non-diabetic and the other diabetic), while the others 2 groups of diabetic rats were fed zinc insufficient diet. One non-treated group and the other treated with the extract of Crataegus Azarolus (150mg/kg Body weight). Body weight and food intake were recorded regularly. After 4 weeks of dietary manipulation, fasting animals were scarified Results zinc deficiency feed decreased body-weight, insulin, zinc tissues (femur, liver, kidney, and pancreas), glutathione concentrations, lactic dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. It was also noticed that inadequate dietary zinc intake increased concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, lipid peroxidation levels, and transaminases activities. However, oral administration of hawthorn extract ameliorated all the previous parameters approximately to their normal levels. Conclusion the present study showed that Crataegus Azarolus supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant, and it can be a natural source for the reduction of diabetes development caused by zinc deficiency.
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Unlabelled: Cercospora sesami is a plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in sesame plants worldwide. In this study, genome sequence assembly of C. sesami isolate Cers 52-10 (MCC 9069) was generated using native paired-end and mate-pair DNA sequencing based on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The genome assembly of C. sesami is 34.3 Mb in size with an N50 of 26,222 bp and an average GC content of 53.02%. A total number of 10,872 genes were predicted in this study, out of which 9,712 genes were functionally annotated. Genes assigned to carbohydrate-active enzyme classes were also identified during the study. A total of 80 putative effector candidates were predicted and functionally annotated. The C. sesami genome sequence is available at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank, and other associated information is submitted to Mendeley's data. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-023-03468-4.
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The flaxseed-sesame paste (FSP) was prepared by mixing the heat-treated flaxseed and sesame seeds in different proportions and grinding them in a colloid mill to obtain a FSP. In this study, flaxseed was added to sesame paste (SP) at different addition to assess its effect on the rheological properties, textural properties, and particle size. The effect of flaxseed addition on lipid oxidation and volatile aldehydes and ketones during storage of SP was investigated by accelerated oxidation experiments (63°C, 60 days). Notably, the addition of all different additions of flaxseed increased the linolenic acid content, and also enhanced the hardness, cohesiveness, and viscosity of SP. However, it increased the rate of lipid oxidation in SP during storage, mainly in the form of higher acid value (AV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The content of volatile aldehydes and ketones from lipid oxidation increased significantly with storage time. It was found by using cluster analysis that mixing flaxseed with SP at a ratio of 20 g/100 g had little effect on its storage stability, the sample had a higher overall quality than the addition of 40 g/100 g flaxseed, and its linolenic acid content was 18.7 times higher than that of the SP. Collectively, the results indicated that the addition of flaxseed at an appropriate proportion might be a feasible way to prepare the functional formulated SP. graphical abstract Fullsize Image
Article
In Ethiopia, sesame is number one oilseed crop in terms of export value, but with low value addition practice. This research aimed to determine effect of varieties and pre-oil extraction treatments on yield and quality of the oil. Results showed that yield varied from 47.1 to 57.5% with iodine value (IV) from 106 to 113 g/100 g, free fatty acid (FFA) 0.47 to 1.36%, and peroxide value (PV) of 0.66 to 7.04 meq O2/kg. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid were the major fatty acids in the oil and characterized by high unsaturated (80–85%) and less saturated (15–20%) fatty acids. All pre-oil extraction treatments increased the oil content, with minor effects on color, FFA, and PV as compared to the oil from the raw seed. However, roasting enabled to extract better oil yield with low PV and less constitutes of FFA.
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A field experiment was conducted in the Field Laboratory of Agrotechnology Discipline in Khulna University to evaluate the effect of row spacing on the yield and yield contributing characters of sesame during Kharif season, 2007; using the varieties (V1 = T6, V2 = Batiaghata local Til and V3 = BINA Til) and the row spacings (S1 = 15 cm, S2 = 30 cm and S3 = 45 cm). Yield were significantly influenced by the varieties and row spacings. The highest seed yield was produced by the variety BINA Til while the lowest was by the variety Batiaghata local Til and the highest seed yield was produced by row spacing 30 cm while the lowest was by row spacing 45 cm. Seed yield was well correlated with capsules plant and seeds capsule .-1-1
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Effect of sesamin, a sesame lignan, on the hepatic fatty acid metabolism was examined in the rat. Increase of the dietary level of sesamin progressively increased the mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate. Mitochondrial activity almost doubled in rats fed a 0.5% sesamin diet. Peroxisomal activity became more than 10 times higher in rats fed a 0.5% sesamin diet, compared to those fed a sesamin-free diet. Dietary sesamin also markedly increased the hepatic activity and mRNA levels of various fatty acid oxidation enzymes. In contrast, dietary sesamin decreased the hepatic activity and mRNA abundance of lipogenic enzymes. This was associated with the down-regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, a transcriptional factor that regulates the lipogenic enzyme gene expression. Dietary sesamin significantly decreased the triacylglycerol secretion accompanying the increase in ketone body production by the perfused rat liver. It is apparent that sesamin affects the fatty acid metabolism and lipoprotein production in the liver, and hence lowers the serum lipid levels. We also developed several sesame lines with seeds containing sesamin and sesamolin at twice the concentration of conventional cultivars. Compared to a conventional cultivar, these lignan-rich sesame seeds increased the hepatic fatty acid oxidation rate and lowered the serum triacylglycerol level in the rat. Therefore, it is considered that enrichment of the lignans potentiates the characteristics of sesame in improving human health.
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The effects of temperature on germination and endo-beta-mannanase activity in seeds of Sesamum indicum was investigated. The minimum germination temperature (Tmin) lies between 12.8°C and 13.2°C while the maximum temperature (Tmax) is located between 45.5°C and 46°C. Germinabilities are statistically not different from estimated viability (88%) between 18.8°C and 43.2°C. The Mann-Whitney test indicated the interval 31.9°C to 35.1°C as the optimum temperature (Topt) range for germination rate. When seeds incubated at temperatures at or below the Tmin and close to or above the Tmax were transferred to 30°C, those incubated at lower temperatures achieved high germinability. On the other hand, the higher the pre-incubation temperature above Tmax, the lower the germinability achieved near Topt. Seed endosperm cell wall was found to contain mannose as the main monosaccharide. An increase in endo-beta-mannanase activity in the micropylar endosperm prior to seed germination was observed only at supra-optimum temperature.
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Sesame oil is commonly used as antioxidant. Sesamin (SA) and sesamolin (SO) are major lignans (a non-fat constituent) in sesame seed oil, inhibit 5-desaturase activity and cause accumulation of dihomo-- linolenic acid (DGLA), a precursor of 1-series prostaglandins, and the decreasing production of proinflammatory 2-series prostaglandins and 4-series leukotrienes. Diets supplemented with SA and/or SO, lower serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 but elevate IL-10 in mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Mice fed with sesame seed oil have a 65% survival rate after cecal ligation and puncture as compared with the 20% survival in the controls. SA and SO inhibit the IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- and nitric oxide (NO) productions from microglia under LPS stimulation. The protective effects of SA/SO to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury have been attribute to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The antioxidant activities of SA/SO are identified in their methylenedioxyphenyl moieties that can be changed into dihydrophenyl (catechol) moieties. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mediators of a variety of pathological processes, including inflammation and ischemic/hypoxic injury, the ROS scavenging moiety may contribute as an important component to prevent cells from the free radical injury. Hypoxia or HO-induced cell injury are related with activated MAPKs and caspase-3 activities. Evidence suggests that the protective effects of SA and SO on hypoxic neuronal cells are related to suppression of ROS generation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In addition, SA/SO significantly reduce LPS-activated p38 MAPK. Specific inhibitors of MAPKs dose-dependently inhibit NO and cytokine productions in LPS-stimulated microglia. Therefore, the inhibition of NO and cytokine productions may partly due to the reduction of LPS-induced p38 MAPK signal pathway by SA and SO.
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A lignan mixture from sesame salad oil containing episesamin and sesamin as major components was fed to rats. Lignans at the dietary level of approximately 0.2% tended to decrease plasma and liver cholesterol levels with an accompanying increase in the fecal excretion of neutral steroids, particularly when the dietary fat source was evening primrose oil containing γ-linolenic acid. There was a decreasing trend in the specific activity of Δ5-desaturase in liver microsomes whereas that of Δ6-desaturase tended to increase, in particular in rats fed with safflower oil. The proportion of dihomo-y-linolenate increased in response to the reduction of Δ5-desaturation activity, and that of docosapentaenoate (n-6) decreased in liver phosphatidylcholine in both groups of rats, suggesting that tignans interfered with various steps of linoleate metabolism. However, the production by the aorta of prostacyclin and by platelets of thromboxane A2 was not influenced by lignans. Thus, episesamin and/or sesamin functioned as a regulator of cholesterol and linoleate metabolism in rats.
Article
The protein α-globulin fromSesamum indicum L. has been characterised for its size and shape using αarious chemical, physico-chemical and hydrodynamic properties. The protein has an S20,w 0 of 12.8, D20,w °f 4.9 × 10-7 cm2/sec and a partial specific αolume of 0.725 ml/g in the natiαe state. The intrinsic αiscosity of the protein was determined to be 3 0 ml/g indicating it to be globular in shape. The molecular weight of the protein as determined by αarious approaches in analytical ultracentrifugation αaries from 2.6–2.74 × 105. The molecular weight from sedimentation equilibrium yields a αalue of 2.74 × 105 in the natiαe state and a αalue of 19000 in the dissociated and denatured state in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. The eαaluation of frictional ratios using Stokes radius and results from electron microscopy confirms the protein to be globular in shape. The protein consists of at least 12–14 subunits. The eαaluation of hydrophobic parameters and energetics of interaction of subunits indicate that the protein is stabilized predominantly by hydrophobic interactions.
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Since sesamin influences the metabolism of essential fatty acids, its effects on cholesterol metabolism and on the incorporation of linoleic acid were studied by using cultured rat artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Cholesterol synthesis from acetate was inhibited by sesamin in SMCs, and the distribution of incorporated linoleic acid in the lipid and phospholipid subfractions was altered by sesamin in rat hepatocytes.
Article
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of seed pelleting in a variety of sesame types on yield and yield factors. In this study, it is suggested that with the help of seed pelleting, it will be possible to achieve a better planting, and subsequently, to acquire an increase in the yield and its elements. In this research, Muganli-57, Ozberk-82 and Golmarmara type seeds were used, which are all officially registered and commonly used seed kinds in Turkey. Two types of planting were utilized: 1- the traditional planting method used worldwide, 2- alternative sensitive method. In the sensitive method, the pelleted sesame seeds treated with a special pelleting mixture had a diameter of 3 mm or larger. These pelleted sesame seeds were planted with a pneumatic spacing planter. This study was done in Adnan Menderes University, Agricultural Faculty, Research and Practice Centers located in Menderes Plain and in the field of the plant production center of Dalaman. The arable field trials were done in two locations with a split plot trial method with three replications. In this study, the height of the plants (cm), number of lateral branches (lateral branches plant(-1)), number of capsules per plant (capsule plant(-1)), height of first capsule (cm), number of plants harvested per square meter, yield (kg ha(-1)) and thousand kernel weight (g) were analyzed for both pelleted and nonpelleted sesame seeds. As a result, the pelleted sesame seeds improved the yield significantly compared to the normal sesame seeds. It was found that the pelleted sesame seeds had a mean yield value of 1976.3 kg ha(-1), whereas the nonpelleted sesame seeds had a mean yield value of 1243.2 kg ha(-1). Statistically significant differences exist between the pelleted and non-pelleted seeds in terms of the height of the plants (cm), number of lateral branches per plant (branch plant(-1)), number of capsules per plant (capsule plant(-1)), height of first capsule (cm), number of plants harvested (plant/ m(2)), yield values (kg ha(-1)) and thousand kernel weight (g).