Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Coverage Among Pregnant Women: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System

Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, USA.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 2.05). 03/2011; 20(5):649-51. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.2794
Source: PubMed


Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

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    • "An estimated 11.3% of pregnant women were vaccinated in the 2008–2009 flu season [109]. Reflecting substantial public health efforts during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic, 46.6% and 50.7% of pregnant women received seasonal and 2009 H1N1 vaccine, respectively [110]. In subsequent seasons, this increase in coverage has generally been sustained, but has not improved further [111] [112] [113] [114]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnant women and infants are at high risk for complications, hospitalization, and death due to influenza. It is well-established that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces rates and severity of illness in women overall. Maternal vaccination also confers antibody protection to infants via both transplacental transfer and breast milk. However, as in the general population, a relatively high proportion of pregnant women and their infants do not achieve protective antibody levels against influenza virus following maternal vaccination. Behavioral factors, particularly maternal weight and stress exposure, may affect initial maternal antibody responses, maintenance of antibody levels over time (i.e., across pregnancy), as well as the efficiency of transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus. Conversely, behavioral interventions including acute exercise and stress reduction can enhance immune protection following vaccination. Such behavioral interventions are particularly appealing in pregnancy because they are safe and non-invasive. The identification of individual risk factors for poor responses to vaccines and the application of appropriate interventions represent important steps towards personalized health care.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Vaccine
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    • "The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that pregnant women (and women who expect to be pregnant during the influenza season) receive the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination [1] [2]. Yet, vaccination rates among Hispanic and Black/African–American pregnant women are significantly lower than those of whites despite persistently higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations due to influenza [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A suboptimal level of seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant minority women is an intractable public health problem, requiring effective message resonance with this population. We evaluated the effects of randomized exposure to messages which emphasize positive outcomes of vaccination ("gain-frame"), or messages which emphasize negative outcomes of forgoing vaccination ("loss-frame"). We also assessed multilevel social and community factors that influence maternal immunization among racially and ethnically diverse populations. Minority pregnant women in metropolitan Atlanta were enrolled in the longitudinal study and randomized to receive intervention or control messages. A postpartum questionnaire administered 30 days postpartum evaluated immunization outcomes following baseline message exposure among the study population. We evaluated key outcomes using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Neither gain- [OR=0.5176, (95% CI: 0.203,1.322)] nor loss-framed [OR=0.5000, 95% CI: (0.192,1.304)] messages were significantly associated with increased likelihood of immunization during pregnancy. Significant correlates of seasonal influenza immunization during pregnancy included healthcare provider recommendation [OR=3.934, 95% CI: (1.331,11.627)], use of hospital-based practices as primary source of prenatal care [OR=2.584, 95% CI: (1.091,6.122)], and perceived interpersonal support for influenza immunization [OR=3.405, 95% CI: (1.412,8.212)]. Dissemination of vaccine education messages via healthcare providers, and cultivating support from social networks, will improve seasonal influenza immunization among pregnant minority women.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Vaccine
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    • "VC for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines were particularly low (5-7%). In the United States, were influenza vaccination is routinely recommended in all pregnant women, VC was estimated at 51% for seasonal influenza vaccine and 47% for the pandemic influenza vaccine in 2009–2010 [25]. Similarly, a large number of pregnant women in the Netherlands reported to be vaccinated against 2009 influenza A (H1N1): 63% (2993 respondents/ 14529 patients invited to complete an internet survey) [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Three main categories of persons are targeted by the French influenza vaccination strategy: all persons aged 65 years or over, those aged less than 65 years with certain underlying medical conditions and health care workers. The main objective of this study was to estimate rates of influenza immunization in these target groups attending a medical consultation for two consecutive influenza seasons: 2009–2010 (seasonal and pandemic vaccines) and 2010–2011 (seasonal vaccine). Methods A standardized questionnaire was mailed to 1323 general practitioners (GPs) of the Sentinelles Network, collecting data on all patients seen on a randomly assigned day. For every patient, following information was collected: age, gender, BMI, presence of any medical condition that increases risk of severe influenza illness, and vaccination status for the three vaccines mentioned. Results Two hundred and three GPs agreed to participate and included 4248 patients. Overall, in persons with high risk of severe influenza, the estimated vaccine coverages (VC) were 60%, (95% CI = 57%; 62%) for the seasonal vaccine in 2010–2011, 61% (59%; 63%) for the seasonal vaccine in 2009–2010 and 23% (21%; 25%), for the pandemic vaccine in 2009–2010. Among people aged 65 years and over (N=1259, 30%) VC was estimated for seasonal vaccines at 72% (70%; 75%) in 2010–2011 and 73% (71%; 76%) in 2009–2010, and 24% (22%; 26%) for the pandemic vaccine. The lowest seasonal VC were observed in younger persons (<65 years) with underlying medical conditions, in particular pregnant women (<10%) and overweight persons (<30%). Conclusions Our study shows that influenza vaccination coverage among patients of the French Sentinelles general practitioners remains largely below the target of 75% defined by the 2004 French Public Health Law, and underscores the need for the implementation of public health interventions likely to increase vaccination uptake.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Public Health
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