ArticleLiterature Review
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Triticale (× Triticosecale sp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) is an anthropogenic cereal designed to incorporate the functionality and high yield of wheat (Triticum spp. Linnaeus 1753) and durability of rye (Secale cereale Linnaeus 1753). The potential of triticale has remained largely unrealised, and in the 135 years since A. Stephen Wilson first crossed wheat and rye, triticale has mostly been used as animal feed. Growing demand for food resources has led to an increased interest in triticale development. Efforts to breed cultivars appropriate for baking have met with difficulty, although relatively new approaches to triticale end-use propose greater applicability for human consumption. Further, environmental awareness has generated interest in the use of triticale within biofuel production. We review environmental and genetic effects on triticale yield with a view towards increased demand on a hardy and useful cereal crop. We find triticale could satisfy many of the hopes originally placed upon it, and may be useful in foodstuffs and fuel, but only when growth environment is carefully considered.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Grain filling (69) produces fewer tillers compared to other cereals, but forms a larger root system at early growth stages (López-Castañeda and Richards, 1994;Richards et al., 2007), which favours its adaptability to marginal environments (McGoverin et al., 2011). Triticale was found to be tolerant to salt stress, drought, waterlogging, and to soil compaction (Grzesiak et al., 2017). ...
... However, different factors, such as seeding date, nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and shading can influence the yield of triticale. McGoverin et al. (2011) reported that the forage yield and total nitrogen accumulation increases in triticale with longer vegetative phases, being therefore higher with early sowings. The increase of N fertilisation moderately affected the N uptake of winter triticale, as the N content increased by 37% when the supply was increased from 33 to 99 kg ha -1 (McGoverin et al., 2011). ...
... McGoverin et al. (2011) reported that the forage yield and total nitrogen accumulation increases in triticale with longer vegetative phases, being therefore higher with early sowings. The increase of N fertilisation moderately affected the N uptake of winter triticale, as the N content increased by 37% when the supply was increased from 33 to 99 kg ha -1 (McGoverin et al., 2011). But other studies demonstrated, that the earlier onset of the elongation phase and the longer duration of the spike formation phase leads to higher spike fertility and yield biomass accumulation (López-Castañeda and Richards, 1994;Giunta et al., 2001). ...
Thesis
Intercropping – growing two or more crop species on the same field at the same time– is considered as one of the practices to achieve the goals of sustainable intensification of agriculture. However, as intercropped species may also compete, the challenge of intercropping is to ensure that all crops have sufficient resources at the phenological stages of greatest need, so that competition is minimised and plants are allowed to invest their energy in growth and biomass allocation rather than wasting it to compensate for, or overcome, the harmful effects of competition. The aim of my PhD thesis was to highlight the competition and complementarity interactions in the above and belowground plant parts of cereals (triticale and barley) and field bean intercropped for forage and grain production. The response of the species grown as sole crops and intercrops in the field and in growth boxes, was analysed in terms of forage and grain biomass, N and P yield, and in the changes in plant morphology, partitioning of resources, yield components and functional traits. A three-year field experiment was set up with two intercrop row ratios (1:1 and 2:1 C:Fb) and five sole crops (C50, C70, C100, Fb60 and Fb100), and two fertiliser levels (0 and NP). In parallel, a set of additional experiments was carried out to study above and belowground interactions, and potential ecosystem services in terms of weed development, soil moisture sparing, soil biological activity and insect biodiversity. Moreover, the influence of N fertiliser on P uptake, the facilitation of Zn and Fe uptake in seed, and whether crop rotation was necessary to maintain intercrop performance over time were assessed. The yield advantage of intercropping over sole crops was appreciable, at the vegetative stage, independently of row ratio and fertiliser supply; at the flowering harvest, only under unfertilised conditions; and, at maturity, only with the unfertilised 1:1 IC row ratio. At flowering, the forage yield of intercrops was not affected by fertiliser supply, whereas nitrogen fertilisation improved seed production at maturity. These trends clearly demonstrated that the increase of interspecific competition progressively reduced the benefits of complementarity and facilitation deserved by intercrops. Moreover, investigations performed in semi-controlled conditions and in the field with both triticale and barley, demonstrated that when mineral nitrogen was available in the soil, field bean invested energy in root elongation rather than in supporting nodule growth and activity, and competed with cereals for mineral nitrogen uptake. This suggests that, in cereal-field bean intercrops, the niche complementarity for N uptake is greatly dependent on mineral N availability, and that field bean shaped root architecture in response to the type of N source. It was concluded that both field bean and the two cereals tested were able to adapt to intercropping by modifying their morphology to overcome competition and showed high replacement ability, which means that, although the proportion of the species in the intercrop varies, the overall production of the system remains constant or even increases. In field bean, early competition decreased the number of stems during the vegetative phase as well as the number of pods per stem at the beginning of the reproductive phase, while later competition decreased, in the order, pod growth, pod fertilisation and, finally, seed filling. Regarding the partitioning of biomass in stems, leaves and pods, in all years and with both seed densities, biomass decreased when field bean was intercropped with the cereal. Moreover, the specific stem length – a functional trait used to estimate shoot plasticity in response to competition – was more than 30% higher in intercrops than in sole crops. In barley, spikes showed the largest size in the low-density sole crop (C50), thus demonstrating that both intra (C100) and interspecific interactions (1:1 IC) adversely affected spike development. The morphology of barley spikes showed that competition reduced the number of spikelets, revealing that competition started early, between tillering and stem elongation and, in unfertilised conditions, it also impaired spikelet differentiation. Finally, our results showed that three years of continuous intercropping reduced the proportion of barley, because of lower culm biomass and lower number of spikes, especially in unfertilised conditions. This research proved that cereal-field bean intercropping might also deliver several ecosystem services. Compared to sole crops, intercrops greatly reduced weed development in both fertilised and unfertilised conditions, maintained higher water content in soil in drought periods, and increased C sequestration in the soil. Moreover, field bean flowers were found to attract parasitoids (braconids) active against insects noxious to cereals.
... Triticale has lower SDS-sedimentation volume and mixing properties than hard wheat. However, variation has been reported, meaning there are some improved modern genotypes with comparable properties to bread wheat (McGoverin et al. 2011). Triticale milling removes a significantly greater proportion of protein as compared to that of wheat because most of the removed proteins may be in the outer aleurone layer and pericarp (Serna-Saldivar et al. 2004). ...
... Soluble non-starch polysaccharides, well-known dietary fibers, have become a major subject in modern nutritional science (McGoverin et al. 2011). Dietary fibers are highly viscous and can be fermented to the shorter fatty acid chains. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made self-pollinated cereal crop species developed by crossing wheat (Triticum spp) and rye (Secale cereale). The initial main goal to ‘create’ triticale was to develop a new cereal crop that would combine the superior agro-morphological and end-use quality characteristics of wheat and the adaptability, vigor, and resistance/tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses of rye. Triticale is adapted well to a wider range of environments where wheat is grown; however, under stress conditions, triticale performs better. Triticale has been grown worldwide mainly for grain and forage production. Additionally, triticale is also grown for bio-energy production. Although grain quality of triticale is not satisfactory compared to other small grain crops such as wheat, it possesses good level of resistance to multiple diseases and pests and many useful genes have been successfully transferred to wheat from triticale. Majority of triticale breeding programs worldwide focuses on the improvement of economically important traits such as grain and biomass yield, diseases and pest resistance, quality, and agronomical traits. Several studies have demonstrated that genetic diversity among triticale germplasm is low which is not unexpected. Traditional breeding methods are most commonly used in triticale improvement. Currently, modern breeding approaches, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection, double-haploid (DH), and genetic transformations are being explored to improve triticale. Use of molecular breeding technology and molecular markers are limited in triticale but many molecular markers of wheat and rye are conserved in triticale genome and therefore wheat and rye genomic can be used in triticale improvement. The objective of this chapter is to summarize the current status of triticale production worldwide and provide details on different breeding approaches being used to improve triticale cultivars.
... The idea behind this was that rye has more genes for abiotic stress tolerance which can be combined with higher yield potential of wheat. Although triticale was not adopted by people for a long time but in recent years scientists have found that triticale genotypes have more diversity and stability under changing environmental conditions (Barnett et al. 2006;Kozak et al., 2007;McGoverin et al., 2011) [3,9,10] . Various studies have shown that triticale are more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stress and have better nutritional food and feed quality than wheat (Peña, 2004;Niedziela et al. 2014) [13,12] . ...
... The idea behind this was that rye has more genes for abiotic stress tolerance which can be combined with higher yield potential of wheat. Although triticale was not adopted by people for a long time but in recent years scientists have found that triticale genotypes have more diversity and stability under changing environmental conditions (Barnett et al. 2006;Kozak et al., 2007;McGoverin et al., 2011) [3,9,10] . Various studies have shown that triticale are more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stress and have better nutritional food and feed quality than wheat (Peña, 2004;Niedziela et al. 2014) [13,12] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Triticale is the first man made cereal developed to combine yield potential of wheat with rye. In changing climatic conditions of North Western Plain Zone (NWPZ) of India triticale can be an alternative to wheat if certain shortcomings of this crop are corrected. In this study fourteen genotypes of wheat and triticale are evaluated for genetic variability. Significant variability was found for all the yield attributing traits among these genotypes. High heritability and genetic advance was also noticed for grain yield, biological yield and plant height. Comparison of triticale with wheat genotypes gave an idea that yield potential of triticale can be improved by modifying these genotypes for biological yield, plant height and grain yield itself.
... Nearly 90% of the global output is produced in Europe, mainly Poland (4.08 million Mg), Germany (19.3 million Mg), France (1.38 million Mg) and Belarus (1.02 million Mg) [15]. Due to its high protein content and favorable amino acid profile, triticale grain is used mainly in the feed industry [16][17][18][19] and, to a smaller extent, in the food processing industry [20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. However, the future potential of global triticale grain production will be largely determined by its processing suitability in the baking industry [24,[27][28][29][30][31]. ...
... Triticale grain can be converted to chemicals, biomaterials, biocomponents and energy in biorefineries [38,39]. Triticale is abundant in starch and cellulose, and it can be used in the production of biofuels [20,34], and triticale straw can be directly incinerated [38,40]. Triticale grain can be processed into biogas during anaerobic digestion [41,42], and bioethanol can be obtained from grain [33,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49] and/or straw [35,50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the results of a field experiment investigating the energy efficiency of grain produced by a semi-dwarf genotype of winter triticale at different levels of agricultural inputs. The energy efficiency of winter triticale grain production was evaluated in two low-input and two high-input cultivation practices that differed in the rate of nitrogen fertilizer (split application) and disease control. The energy inputs associated with the production of winter triticale grain at low levels of agricultural inputs were determined to be 14.5 to 14.7 GJ ha−1. Higher levels of agricultural inputs increased the demand for energy in grain production by 25% on average. The energy output of grain peaked (163.3 GJ ha−1) in response to a fertilizer rate of 120 kg ha−1 applied in a split ratio of 50:50 (BBCH 27/32) and two fungicide treatments (BBCH 31 and 39). The energy output of grain from the remaining cultivation regimes was 3–13% lower. The energy efficiency ratio was highest in the low-input cultivation regime with a nitrogen rate of 90 kg ha−1 split into two applications (60 and 30 kg ha−1 for BBCH 27 and 32, respectively), seed dressing with fungicide (thiram and tebuconazole) and one fungicide treatment (azoxystrobin) (BBCH 39).
... Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made, amphiploid species possessing high yield and abiotic stress resistance characteristics (Blum 2014). It is usually used for food production and animal feed as a grain-forage crop (McGoverin et al. 2011;Zhu 2018). High biomass Communicated by Thomas Lubberstedt. ...
... High biomass Communicated by Thomas Lubberstedt. production also makes it a potential energy crop for industrial purposes, as bioenergy and biofuel (McGoverin et al. 2011). The planting area of triticale has continued to grow as demand increases, with major producers including Poland, Germany, Belarus, France, Russia, and China (FAOSTAT 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Key message The genetic diversity and loci underlying agronomic traits were analyzed by the reads coverage and genome-wide association study based genotyping-by-sequencing in a diverse population consisting of 199 accessions. Abstract Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) is an economically important grain forage and energy crop planted worldwide for its high biomass. Little is known about the genetic diversity and loci underlying agronomic traits in triticale. We performed genotyping-by-sequencing of 199 cultivars and mapped reads to the A, B, D, and R genomes for karyotype analysis. These cultivars could mostly be grouped into five types. Some chromosome abnormalities occurred with high frequency, such as 2D (2R) substitution, deletion of the long arm of chromosome 2D or the short arm of 5R, and translocation of the long arms of 7D/7A, the short arms of 6D/6A, or the long arms of 1D/1A. We chose only widely planted hexaploid triticale cultivars (153) for genome-wide association study. These cultivars could be divided into nine distinct groups, and the linkage disequilibrium decay was 25.4 kb in this population. We identified 253 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) on 20 chromosomes, except 7R. Twenty-one reliable MTAs were identified repeatedly over two environments. We predicted 16 putative candidate genes involved in plant growth and development using the genome sequences of wheat and rye. These results provide a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of agronomic traits and will benefit the breeding of improved hexaploid triticale.
... Triticale (× triticosecale Wittmack) is the first hybrid cereal species, obtained from the artificial crossing of wheat (Triticum spp.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) (McGoverin et al., 2011;Oettler, 2005). The nutritional composition of modern triticale cultivars, which contain considerable protein, peptide (lunasin), amino acid (lysine) and starch contents and germinate easily even in adverse conditions, has aroused the interest of the food industries (McGoverin et al., 2011;Nakurte et al., 2012;Zhu, 2018). ...
... Triticale (× triticosecale Wittmack) is the first hybrid cereal species, obtained from the artificial crossing of wheat (Triticum spp.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) (McGoverin et al., 2011;Oettler, 2005). The nutritional composition of modern triticale cultivars, which contain considerable protein, peptide (lunasin), amino acid (lysine) and starch contents and germinate easily even in adverse conditions, has aroused the interest of the food industries (McGoverin et al., 2011;Nakurte et al., 2012;Zhu, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The new triticale cultivars caught the industries attention due to excellent nutritional composition. The rare literature regarding hydration process intensification, coupled with the lack of research regarding the hydration of triticale, motivated this research. This study aimed to evaluate the hydration process intensification of two cultivars triticale. The isothermal operation was done at temperature range of 20–40°C and compared to process intensification using amplitude of 10°C and half‐cycle of 15 min, at an average temperature of 30°C. In parallel to hydration process, the fit of the Peleg model to the experimental data was evaluated and the morphology of the starch granules was observed using SEM images. The hydration temperature did not affect the starch grains morphology. The hydration kinetic was obtained applying the Peleg model, which exhibited a good fit for both operations. The model parameters values (K1 and K2) indicated that the periodic hydration process exhibits a greater water absorption rate and a final higher moisture for both cultivars. The periodic operation reduced the energy consumption of hydration process in approximately 50%, this reduction proves that this operation with temperature modulation is a process strategy highly promising for grains hydration process intensification. Practical Applications Triticale is a hybrid grain that has been drawing attention from various industrial sectors for application in the production of malt, packages, various foods, and ethanol. Thus, an understanding of the hydration kinetics of triticale that has not yet been described in the literature, together with the morphology of the starch grains, is of supreme importance. In view of this, the present work presents the water absorption of triticale when submitted to periodic operation by means of temperature modulation, with the aim of intensifying the hydration process as compared to the conventional operation, in addition to observing any potential morphological alterations in the starch grains. These results assist in the monitoring and control of industrial and academic processes, providing a better understanding of the hydration mechanisms and the morphology of the starch granules of the triticale for a possible inclusion of this cereal in new applications and product development.
... Triticale has lower SDS-sedimentation volume and mixing properties than hard wheat. However, variation has been reported, meaning there are some improved modern genotypes with comparable properties to bread wheat (McGoverin et al. 2011). Triticale milling removes a significantly greater proportion of protein as compared to that of wheat because most of the removed proteins may be in the outer aleurone layer and pericarp (Serna-Saldivar et al. 2004). ...
... Soluble non-starch polysaccharides, well-known dietary fibers, have become a major subject in modern nutritional science (McGoverin et al. 2011). Dietary fibers are highly viscous and can be fermented to the shorter fatty acid chains. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made self-pollinated cereal crop species developed by crossing wheat (Triticum spp) and rye (Secale cereale). The initial main goal to ‘create’ triticale was to develop a new cereal crop that would combine the superior agro-morphological and end-use quality characteristics of wheat and the adaptability, vigor, and resistance/tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses of rye. Triticale is adapted well to a wider range of environments where wheat is grown; however, under stress conditions, triticale performs better. Triticale has been grown worldwide mainly for grain and forage production. Additionally, triticale is also grown for bio-energy production. Although grain quality of triticale is not satisfactory compared to other small grain crops such as wheat, it possesses good level of resistance to multiple diseases and pests and many useful genes have been successfully transferred to wheat from triticale. Majority of triticale breeding programs worldwide focuses on the improvement of economically important traits such as grain and biomass yield, diseases and pest resistance, quality, and agronomical traits. Several studies have demonstrated that genetic diversity among triticale germplasm is low which is not unexpected. Traditional breeding methods are most commonly used in triticale improvement. Currently, modern breeding approaches, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), genomic selection, double-haploid (DH), and genetic transformations are being explored to improve triticale. Use of molecular breeding technology and molecular markers are limited in triticale but many molecular markers of wheat and rye are conserved in triticale genome and therefore wheat and rye genomic can be used in triticale improvement. The objective of this chapter is to summarize the current status of triticale production worldwide and provide details on different breeding approaches being used to improve triticale cultivars.
... Many cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale have high yield and are better environmentally adaptable than winter varieties of wheat. Moreover, many varieties of triticale are more drought tolerant and show better adaptation to acidic soil than wheat [2]. The triticale grain is used primarily as a feed grain [3], although, due to its high nutritive value [4] and good technological suitability, it is becoming increasingly popular for human consumption, for example, in flour production. ...
... was found in the grain of the cultivar Panteon. In the triticale grain investigated, there were differences in the contents of di-ferulic (2) and no differences in the contents di-ferulic (4) isomers, which were respectively 13.0-15.0% and 9.2% to 10.3% of the number of PAs in the grain. ...
Article
Full-text available
The triticale grain has high nutritive value and good technological suitability. Triticale flour can be a valuable raw material for bread-making. The aim of this work was to determine the profile of phenolic acids in triticale grain of selected Polish cultivars and its products. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-PDA-MS/MS) was applied for separation and identification of these constituents. The grain of the examined triticale cultivars contained 13 phenolic acids, of which ferulic acid was determined in the largest amount and was constituted from 42%–44% of the total content of phenolic acids in the grain. In addition, due to the large amounts of ferulic, di-ferulic, and sinapic acids, composition of the phenolic acids fraction in triticale grain of the tested cultivars varied in comparison with that of wheat and rye cultivars. In triticale flour, the number of phenolic acids was nearly 4 times lower than in the grain, as phenolic acids were removed along with bran, in which their proportion was almost 9 times higher than in the grain intended for grinding. The application of bran in the bread recipe resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in the fraction of phenolic acids compared to the bread produced from triticale flour without bran addition.
... Главной идеей при создании тритикале было комбинирование положительных признаков ржи Secale cereale L. (устойчивость к неблагоприятным условиям) и пшеницы Triticum aestivum L. (пригодность к разнообразному использованию в пищевой промышленности). Мировое производство тритикале сохраняет стабильный рост и достигло 15 млн т в 2016 году с общей площадью посевов 4,2 млн га (1), при этом культура имеет как фуражное, так и продовольственное значение (2,3). К недостаткам тритикале, ограничивающим ее более широкое распространение при возделывании на зерно, относится полегание. ...
... Although triticale is an important crop for biofuel production and forage, application of triticale grains in the bakery industry is limited, with no registered cultivars with good bread-making quality [19]. However, with the current growth in the number of health-conscious people, triticale is becoming more attractive as a human food source [20]. In this context, new breeding strategies are needed to improve triticale end-use characteristics and identification of valuable gene variants located in the A and B genomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bread-making quality is a crucial trait for wheat and triticale breeding. Several genes significantly influence these characteristics, including glutenin genes and the wheat bread-making (wbm) gene. World wheat collection screening showed that only a few percent of cultivars carry the valuable wbm variant, providing a useful source for wheat breeding. In contrast, no such analysis has been performed for triticale (wheat (AABB genome) × rye (RR) amphidiploid) collections. Despite the importance of the wbm gene, information about its origin and genomic organization is lacking. Here, using modern genomic resources available for wheat and its relatives, as well as PCR screening, we aimed to examine the evolution of the wbm gene and its appearance in the triticale genotype collection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the wheat Chinese Spring genome does not have the wbm gene but instead possesses the orthologous gene, called wbm-like located on chromosome 7A. The analysis of upstream and downstream regions revealed the insertion of LINE1 (Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements) retrotransposons and Mutator DNA transposon in close vicinity to wbm-like. Comparative analysis of the wbm-like region in wheat genotypes and closely related species showed low similarity between the wbm locus and other sequences, suggesting that wbm originated via introgression from unknown species. PCR markers were developed to distinguish wbm and wbm-like sequences, and triticale collection was screened resulting in the detection of three genotypes carrying wbm-specific introgression, providing a useful source for triticale breeding programs.
... Главной идеей при создании тритикале было комбинирование положительных признаков ржи Secale cereale L. (устойчивость к неблагоприятным условиям) и пшеницы Triticum aestivum L. (пригодность к разнообразному использованию в пищевой промышленности). Мировое производство тритикале сохраняет стабильный рост и достигло 15 млн т в 2016 году с общей площадью посевов 4,2 млн га (1), при этом культура имеет как фуражное, так и продовольственное значение (2,3). К недостаткам тритикале, ограничивающим ее более широкое распространение при возделывании на зерно, относится полегание. ...
... Tritikale se najviše primenjuje kao stočna hrana. Brojna istraživanja ukazuju da tritikale uspešno zamenjuje deo kukuruza, pšenice ili ječma u stočnoj hrani bez negativnih posledica na prirast domaćih životinja, zahvaljujući visokom sadržaju proteina sa visokim sadržajem nezamenljivih aminokiselina, naročito lizina (Milovanović et al., 2007;Đekić et al., 2009;McGoverin et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the influence of varieties and different doses of applied nitrogen on grain yield and protein content of triticale. The experiment was set in the period from 2010 to 2012 in the north of Montenegro, in the vicinity of Bijelo Polje. The research included 5 varieties of winter triticale (Odyssey, Kg-20, Triumph, Rtanj and Tango) originating from different breeding houses and the following varieties of fertilization: control (without fertilization), only nitrogen in the amount of 60 kg ha-1 and nitrogen in the amount of 60 and 90 kg ha-1 in combination with the same amount of phosphorus and potassium (80 kg ha-1). The results of the study showed that the lowest average grain yield was obtained in the non-fertilizing variant - control. The use of fertilizers in all tested varieties has led to a very significant increase in yield in all variants compared to control. The Kg-20 variety had the lowest average yield, and the Tango variety had the highest. The highest average protein content was achieved in the fertilizer variant where only nitrogen was used in the amount of 60 kg ha-1. Among the researched varieties, the Triumph variety had the highest protein content in the grains. The data on the achieved yields and the content of protein in grains, depending on the variety and the used doses of fertilizer, indicate the characteristics of individual varieties and can serve as a criterion for the selection of the most suitable variety for certain agroecological conditions. This is particularly important for cattle-oriented farms, where the main priority is to ensure a sufficient amount of quality food.
... Triticosecale wittmack) has established itself as an alternative forage because of its expressive nutritional results, similar to traditional forage (Bumbieris Junior et al., 2010). In addition, the gains in higher water efficiency and reduced production cost, when compared to sorghum and maize, should be taken into account when choosing crops such as this one (McGoverin et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of intercropped grass legumes provides a source of sustainable animal production as these vegetables contribute to an increase in forage yield by area, and substitute inorganic nitrogen and other components. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of silages and the yield and milk quality of Holstein cows fed triticale silages in monoculture or intercropped with either oats or legumes. The crops for silage production were triticale (TS), triticale in consortium with forage pea (TSP), and triticale in consortium with oats, forage peas and vetches (TSOPV). The silages showed no differences in dry matter content. The highest crude protein (13.06 %) and ethereal extract content was observed in TSOPV, but in the case of the latter, there was little difference when compared with TS (2.35 and 2.16 %, respectively) although the ash contents of the TSOPV and TSP silages did present a difference compared to TS silage. The neutral and acid detergent fibers (NDF and ADF) and cellulose fractions of TS silage were higher (68.60, 41.46 and 38.19 %, respectively) than those in TSOPV and TSP silages, which also had higher levels of soluble nitrogen, ethanol and acetic acid. Dry matter intake was higher in both TSOPV and TSP, which also provided a higher milk yield (21.19 and 20.45 L cow d−1) compared to that of TS silage (18.74 L cow d−1). Cows fed TS also produced milk with a lower N-ureic content (15.15 mg dL−1). The inclusion of legumes with triticale provided good fermentative quality for silage and increased milk production of cows without altering their concentrations of fat and protein.
... It is the most commonly used as a feed for pigs, poultry and ruminants. In the recent decades, triticale has increasingly been used for bioethanol production (McGoverin et al., 2011). Its application in food and beverage industry is still limited despite the researches which showed its suitability for the production of food (bread, cookies, pasta) and beverages (beer, spirit) (Zhu, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Triticale, a hybrid cereal developed by crossing of wheat and rye, has certain advantages over wheat, such as higher environmental tolerance and higher content of dietary fibers. The application of triticale flour in food industry is limited by poor rheological properties of dough and low gluten strength. Potential application of the hexaploid triticale cultivar “Odisej” for the production of cookies was assessed in this study. Additionally, the values of basic grain quality parameters for “Odisej” were determined, such as hectoliter weight, thousand kernel weight, grain size, protein and wet gluten content, gluten index and falling number. Cookies were prepared from refined and wholegrain triticale flour and their physical properties (dimensions, color, and hardness) and sensory properties were compared to the cookies prepared from refined and wholegrain wheat and rye flour. Cookies manufactured from the refined triticale flour had high spread ratio (diameter/high) value, similar to that of cookies prepared from refined wheat flour. Total sensory score of the cookies manufactured from refined triticale flour was the highest among all samples, indicating that it can successfully be used in cookies production. The quality of wholegrain triticale cookies could be improved by the use of milling technique adequate for the production of wholegrain flour.
... Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR genomes) is a man-made amphiploid hybrid produced from the crossing of female parent hexaploid or tetraploid wheat (Triticum sp.) and male parent rye (Secale cereale L.) . It is mostly used in animal feed and biofuel production (Feuillet et al. 2008;McGoverin et al. 2011;Martinek et al. 2008). Triticale, since its commercialization, has shown good resistance to a wide spectrum of pathogens, especially to rusts . ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, leaf rust and yellow rust caused by the fungi Puccinia triticina Erikss. and P. striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici Eriks and Henn are diseases of increasing threat in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack, AABBRR, 2n = 6x = 42) growing areas. The use of genetic resistance is considered the most economical, effective and environmentally friendly method to control the disease and minimize the use of fungicides. Currently, breeding programs mainly relied on race-specific Lr and Yr genes (R), but new races of the rust fungi frequently defeat resistance. There is a small group of genes that causes partial type of resistance (PR) that are characterized by a slow epidemic build up despite a high infection type. In wheat slow rusting resistance genes displayed longer latent periods, low infection frequencies, smaller pustule size and less spore production. Slow rusting Lr46/Yr29 gene, located on chromosome 1B, is being exploited in many wheat breeding programs. So far, there is no information about slow rusting genes in triticale. This paper showed significant differences between the results of identification of wheat molecular markers Xwmc44 and csLV46G22 associated with Lr46/Yr29 in twenty triticale cultivars, which were characterized by high levels of field resistance to leaf and yellow rust. The csLV46G22res marker has been identified in the following cultivars: Kasyno, Mamut and Puzon. Belcanto and Kasyno showed the highest resistance levels in three-year (2016–2018), leaf and yellow rust severity tests under post-registration variety testing program (PDO). Leaf tip necrosis, a phenotypic trait associated with Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 was observed, among others, to Belcanto and Kasyno, which showed the highest resistance for leaf rust and yellow rust. Kasyno could be considered to have Lr46/Yr29 and can be used as a source of slow rust resistance in breeding and importantly as a component of gene pyramiding in triticale.
... The main non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) constituent in the endosperm cell walls of triticale is pentosans with some β-glucan, such as in wheat and rye. Triticale has limited utilization, primarily as an animal feed (poultry, pigs, ruminants), but it can also be used in baking by supplementing with wheat due to its low gluten content [McGoverin et al. 2011]. Triticale grain has a starch content similar to that of wheat and higher than that of rye (61, 60 and 54%DM, respectively) [USDA 2018]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cereals are the main source of carbohydrates in the human diet, providing the major source of energy and contributing significantly to protein intake. Cereals make up the bigger part of crop production. The chemical composition of cereals depends on agrotechnical factors that affect the quality of grain. Naked oat has the highest protein content. The analysis of crude fat in the grain revealed that the highest values were identified for naked oat and the lowest-in the triticale. The study showed the differences in the profile of amino acids of grain of wheat, triticale, barley and oats. The content and composition of dietary fiber are factors determining the quality of cereal and cereal products. The content of different fiber fractions is also varying in each other cereals. Cereal grain is a source of numerous mineral compounds. Consumption of whole grain cereal products is associated with higher diet quality and nutrient-dense foods.
... In the latest USA agricultural census, 11% of the nation's rainfed triticale grain was grown in the state of Washington [16]. Triticale grain is primarily used as a feed for ruminants, pigs, and poultry as it is a good source of protein, amino acids, and B vitamins [17,18]. Triticale is widely considered to have better tolerance to both saline and low pH soil conditions compared to wheat [19,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is a cereal feed grain grown annually worldwide on 4.2 million ha. Washington is the leading state for rainfed (i.e., non-irrigated) triticale production in the USA. A 9-year dryland cropping systems project was conducted from 2011 to 2019 near Ritzville, WA to compare winter triticale (WT) with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW) grown in (i) a 3-year rotation of WT-spring wheat (SW)-no-till summer fallow (NTF) (ii) a 3-year rotation of WW-SW-undercutter tillage summer fallow (UTF) and (iii) a 2-year WW-UTF rotation, We measured grain yield, grain yield components, straw production, soil water dynamics, and effect on the subsequent SW wheat crop (in the two 3-year rotations). Enterprise budgets were constructed to evaluate the production costs and profitability. Grain yields averaged over the years were 5816, 5087, and 4689 kg/ha for WT, 3-year WW, and 2-year WW, respectively (p < 0.001). Winter triticale used slightly less water than WW (p = 0.019). Contrary to numerous reports in the literature, WT never produced more straw dry biomass than WW. Winter wheat produced many more stems than WT (p < 0.001), but this was compensated by individual stem weight of WT being 60% heavier than that of WW (p < 0.001). Spring wheat yield averaged 2451 vs. 2322 kg/ha after WT and WW, respectively (p = 0.022). The market price for triticale grain was always lower than that for wheat. Winter triticale produced an average of 14 and 24% more grain than 3-year and 2-year WW, respectively, provided foliar fungal disease control, risk reduction, and other rotation benefits, but was not economically competitive with WW. A 15-21% increase in WT price or grain yield would be necessary for the WT rotation to be as profitable as the 3-year and 2-year WW rotations, respectively.
... Triticale is an important crop and can contribute to cropping system sustainability and grain supply [25]. Conventional agriculture prefers intensive production systems that consume large quantities of inputs, such as fertilizers and plant protection products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy use in agricultural production has been increasing faster than in many other sectors of the world economy. Owing to high energy consumption during the production of agricultural inputs, with mineral nitrogen fertilizers in particular, it is often questioned as to whether agricultural production is still energy efficient. The objective of this research was to evaluate the energy efficiency of different intensity systems for the production of semi-dwarf winter triticale cultivar ”Twingo”. Cultivar “Twingo” entered the Polish National List in 2012 as one of the best yielding. For this reason, it was used in this experiment to examine its response to basic agrotechnical factors. The field experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Experiment Station in Tomaszkowo in 2013–2015. Low-input, medium-input and high-input production systems were evaluated. The compared systems differed in nitrogen fertilization rates and the level of fungicide protection. The highest output/input ratio was noticed growing winter triticale in low-input production system. The most energy-consuming operation during winter triticale production in the compared systems was mineral fertilization. The high-input production system was significantly lower energy efficiency than the other systems (6.21, medium-input 5.95, low-input 8.19). The energy return on investment (EROI) ratio was low, but above 1, in all the analyzed technologies (low-input 1.30, medium-input 1.14, high-input 1.15). The energy value of the bioethanol produced was higher than the energy inputs into the production of raw material and its processing. The conversion of winter triticale grain to bioethanol proved that the EROI reached the most favorable value for the low-input production system.
... Over the last three decades the global harvested area of triticale has constantly increased (2,101,405 ha in 1996; 3,662,363 ha in 2006, and 4,157,018 ha in 2016) [1], and the range of uses has also grown. Forage production is the principal end use for this crop, but there are new niches proposed, such as: biofuel production [2,3], baking [4], brewing [5] and food production [6]. As a recent man-made crop, triticale suffers narrow genetic variability for breeders to select upon. ...
Article
Full-text available
Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) in the progeny of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) plants with monosomic substitution of Aegilops kotschyi chromosome 2Sk (2R) were investigated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Chromosome 2Sk of Ae. kotschyi is reported to possess many valuable loci, such as Lr54 + Yr37 leaf and stripe (yellow) rust resistance genes. We used a standard procedure to produce RobTs, which consisted of self-pollination of monosomic triticale plants, carrying 2R and 2Sk chromosomes in monosomic condition. This approach did not result in RobTs. Simultaneously, we succeeded in producing 11 plants carrying 2R.2Sk compensatory RobTs using an alternative approach that utilized ditelosomic lines of triticale carrying 2RS (short arm) and 2RL (long arm) telosomic chromosomes. Identification of molecular markers linked to Lr54 + Yr37 genes in the translocation plants confirmed that these resources can be exploited in current triticale breeding programmes.
... Over the last three decades the global harvested area of triticale has constantly increased (2,101,405 ha in 1996; 3,662,363 ha in 2006, and 4,157,018 ha in 2016) [1], and the range of uses has also grown. Forage production is the principal end use for this crop, but there are new niches proposed, such as: biofuel production [2,3], baking [4], brewing [5] and food production [6]. As a recent man-made crop, triticale suffers narrow genetic variability for breeders to select upon. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hexaploid triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42 chromosomes, AABBRR) is a cultivated hybrid, which combines wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) properties. It has a better ability to be grown on poor soils, compared to wheat. Mainly, triticale is produced for forage feed and bioethanol. Considering the limited diversity of this human-made crop, there is a need to widen its genetic variability, especially to introduce new genes, responsible for agronomic traits, such as resistance to biotic stresses. Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. and stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend are the most destructive foliar diseases of triticale and related cereals. Developing resistant triticale varieties is an important strategy for the control of these diseases. A number of leaf and stripe rust resistance genes have been already introduced into bread wheat from related species using chromosome manipulations. Exploitation of related species conferring desirable loci is the most effective non-GMO way of improving the rust resistance of triticale. The procedure encompasses chromosome doubling of obtained hybrids followed by a number of backcrosses to eliminate unnecessary alien chromatin and to reduce the linkage drag. In this review, we show the recent status of pre-breeding studies, which are focused on transfer of leaf and stripe rust resistance genes from Aegilops species into cultivated triticale using distant crossing and chromosome engineering.
... In human feeding the triticale grains, its flour has been used to compose mixtures with wheat flour for the manufacture of low fermentation products, such as cookies, pizza dough, meatballs, waffles, and cakes (Watanabe, 2016). Triticale has also aroused interest for biofuel production, and it has presented competitiveness when compared with other winter cereals (McGoverin et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) represents one of the main factors, which causes yield, technological and physiological losses in triticale seeds (X Triticosecale Wittmack). This work aimed to rate the variability and identify potential pre-harvest sprouting tolerant sources in triticale genotypes. Based on that, 32 triticale and three wheat genotypes were sown in 2016, 2017 and 2018 growing seasons, in Londrina-PR, Brazil. After the ears harvesting, these were submitted to simulate raining, for sprouting induction, through nebulization in a greenhouse. After nebulization, ears were sun dried, later hand threshed to determain, grain germination percentage (GERM) and hectoliter weight (HW). Additionally, it was determined grains HW of ears, whom were not submitted to nebulization, as well as the whole meal flour falling number (FN). The experiment design was completely randomized design, with two replications, and the experimental unit was made of 20 ears. The data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scott-Knott test. Frontana, ND 674 and Quartzo are a source of tolerance to PHS in wheat. In triticale genotypes, genetic variability was observed for GERM, FN, and HW prior and after nebulization. The triticale genotypes BRS Netuno, BRS Saturno, TCL 15116, X 092181, Tiguera 1 and Tiguera 8, where tolerant towards PHS.
... Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum ssp. used as the female parent) and rye (Secale cereale L. as the male parent) first bred in 1875 [1]. Its name is derived from the Latin terms for its parents, Triticum and Secale. ...
Article
Full-text available
Triticale is a promising food crop that combines the yield potential and grain quality of wheat with the disease and environmental tolerance of rye. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of genotype, environment and crop management on spring and winter triticale yield variability, using data from 31 locations across the whole of Poland, from 2009 to 2017, with the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis. It was found that CART is able to detect differences in spring and winter triticale successful growth. The yield variability of spring triticale was more dependent on the soil quality than winter triticale because of a shorter cycle duration, which increases sensitivity to nutrient supply and weather conditions. Spring triticale also needs to be sown as soon as possible to ensure a successful establishment. A strong dependence of yield variability on the availability of water for the winter triticale was observed. When growing winter triticale in Poland, with periodic excess water especially during autumn and early spring, the use of fungicides and growth regulators should be taken into account.
... Over the past decade, foreign scientists have focused mainly on the biology of Triticale cultivars, their biological safety and development, the origin of hexaploid triticale, industrial production of triticale, its competitiveness with wheat, genomics, and biotechnology [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper features Triticale grain processing. The research involved two Russian cultivars of Triticale grain, i.e. Ramzes and Saur. The authors investigated two schemes of processing these grain varieties into high-quality baker’s grade flour. The first scheme was reduced and included only the processes of breaking and reduction, whereas the second scheme was more advanced and included breaking, purifying, sizing, and reduction processes. The paper gives a thorough description of the processing schemes, their parameters, and milling modes. A detailed analysis proved the high efficiency of the advanced scheme which presupposed the use of sieve purifiers. Their expediency was determined by the specifics of break dunst products at the first, second, and third breaks. The Triticale flour varieties were produced by mixing various flows of the central, intermediate, and peripheral parts of the Triticale grain endosperm. The reduced scheme produced a 40% yield for the Ramzes variety (ash content = 0.70%, according to the State Standard 34142-2017), while the advanced technological scheme resulted in a 63% yield. As for the Saur variety, the advanced scheme produced a total yield of 78.0%, which was 0.6% higher than in the reduced scheme. The advanced scheme resulted in a 46% yield of the T-60 flour variety, which has the lowest ash content among all the varieties of Triticale flour, whereas the reduced scheme failed to produce the flour of this variety. The experiment also involved the first-ever study of the rheological properties of Triticale flour varieties with Mixolab (Chopin Technologies, France). The study revealed significant differences in baking absorption, doughing time, batch, gluten, viscosity, amylase, and retrogradation. The best baking properties were displayed by T-70 and T-80 Triticale flours that were obtained from the central part of the endosperm, both in reduced and advanced processing schemes. However, the advanced scheme proved to be the most effective way of processing Triticale grain into baker’s grade flour
... Flour yield is low in triticale varieties due to wrinkled grain and low hectolitre weight. Just as stated, triticale flour is mixed with wheat and rye flour in certain proportions (50-70%) and used in human nutrition as bread, cake and crackers (Navarro-Contreras et al., 2014;McGoverin et al., 2011). Today, bread can be made entirely from triticale flour by using newly improved varieties and it can be suitable for human nutrition in point of agricultural features. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vermicompost fertilizers have started to attract attention in agriculture last years. Various liquid vermicompost fertilizers are produced and used in agriculture and some of them known as vermiliquer, vermi leachate, vermi tea or vermicast with little differences. This study is aimed to determine the effects of foliar application of liquid vermicompost fertilizer on yield and some yield components on some Turkey triticale varieties under Central Anatolian conditions in Kırıkkale province during the growing period 2014-15 and 2015-16. Six different (control, 75, 150, 250, 350 and 450 cc da-1 ) liquid vermicompost fertilizer doses were applied by the foliar spraying method at the beginning and end of March in both years to the five Turkey triticale varieties (Alperbey, Mikham 2002, Tatlıcak 97, Karma 2000 and Ümranhanım). According to the results, plant height, grain number and grain yield in spike, grain yield per decare, harvest index and protein content results were found to be significant in fertilizer × variety × year interaction. There is also a statistically significant difference between thousand-grain weight and the variety x ertilizer doses interaction, and between varieties and fertilizer doses in terms of spike length. The positive effects of liquid vermicompost fertilizer doses, except 450 cc da-1 , were determined in varieties. It was observed that a satisfactory yield can be obtained from 250 cc da-1 in the absence of nitrogen fertilizers as the top fertilizer. It could be deduced that 250-350 cc da-1 doses of vermicompost fertilizer can be applied in triticale based on varying ecological conditions and varieties in Central Anatolian ecological conditions.
... In this regard, a hybrid human-made from wheat and rye with the name of "triticale" has been suggested as an ideal energy crop [12]. In comparison with other cereal crops, triticale has a higher yield even higher than wheat and lesser nutrient requirements [13]. Furthermore, it is more tolerant of drought and diseases making triticale an economical energy crop in the long term. ...
Article
Despite its advantages, lignocellulosic butanol cannot become a real alternative without processes for obtaining credits from non-cellulosic fraction of lignocellulose. In this study, the process of “cellulosic butanol” was integrated with “hemicellulosic methane” process, i.e., anaerobic digestion (AD), for higher energy return on investment (EROI). Aqueous pretreatment was evaluated as a connecting chain between the processes. The alkaline (1% NaOH), acidic (1% H2SO4), and neutral (autohydrolysis) pretreatments were utilized at 140, 160, and 180 °C for bioenergy recovery from triticale straw. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the straw pretreated by alkaline (180 °C), dilute acid (140 °C), and autohydrolysis (180 °C) and fermentation of the hydrolysates by Clostridium acetobutylicum led to 13.6, 8.5, and 10.2 g/L acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE), respectively. AD of the liquors remained after pretreatment by alkaline, dilute acid, and autohydrolysis led to 83-121, 240-247, and 380-430 mL/g VSS methane leading to more than 60% increase in EROI.
... Therefore, the scientific results for deoxynivalenol contamination in triticale crops in Romania could be extended to cereals cultivated in these countries and integrated at the European level to provide a large-scale picture of deoxynivalenol occurrence in cereals under the influence of the extreme weather events of 2012-2014 and a possible linkage to climate change. The integrated approach is advantageous because these cereals are major components of animal feed and are used in human consumption [1][2][3][4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to evaluate deoxynivalenol occurrence in triticale crops in Romania in years with extreme weather events (2012: Siberian anticyclone with cold waves and heavy snowfall; 2013 and 2014: “Vb” cyclones with heavy precipitation and floods in spring). The deoxynivalenol level in triticale samples (N = 236) was quantified by ELISA. In Romania, the extreme weather events favoured deoxynivalenol occurrence in triticale in Transylvania and the southern hilly area (44–47°N, 22–25°E) with a humid/balanced-humid temperate continental climate, luvisols and high/very high risk of floods. Maximum deoxynivalenol contamination was lower in the other regions, although heavy precipitation in May–July 2014 was higher, with chernozems having higher aridity. Multivariate analysis of the factors influencing deoxynivalenol occurrence in triticale showed at least a significant correlation for all components of variation source (agricultural year, agricultural region, average of deoxynivalenol, average air temperature, cumulative precipitation, soil moisture reserve, aridity indices) (p-value < 0.05). The spatial and geographic distribution of deoxynivalenol in cereals in the countries affected by the 2012–2014 extreme weather events revealed a higher contamination in Central Europe compared to southeastern and eastern Europe. Deoxynivalenol occurrence in cereals was favoured by local and regional agroclimatic factors and was amplified by extreme weather events.
... The actual direction of scientific research is the technology of processing triticale grain into starch [15]. Another direction is the use of triticale bran to produce dietary fiber [16,17] and biomodified products of grain processing of triticale [18,19]. It should be noted that there is currently no industrial production of high-quality triticale flour at existing flour mills in the Russian Federation. ...
... The first triticale cultivars were released in the 1970s [1] and since then the triticale acreage has grown to approximately four million hectares worldwide as of 2019 [2]. Today's grain use is mainly restricted to animal fodder and bioethanol production [1,3,4]. Its biomass is used as fresh fodder [4] and more recently for biogas production due to a promotional policy in the European Union [5][6][7][8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The quantitatively inherited trait plant height is routinely evaluated in triticale breeding programs as it substantially influences lodging and disease susceptibility, is a main contributor to biomass yield, and is required to improve hybrid seed production by fine-tuning plant height in the female and male parental pools in hybrid breeding programs. In this study, we evaluated a panel of 846 diverse Central European triticale genotypes to dissect the genetic architecture underlying plant height by genome-wide association mapping. This revealed three medium- to large-effect QTL on chromosomes 5A, 4B, and 5R. Genetic and physical fine-mapping of the putative QTL revealed that the QTL on chromosome 5R most likely corresponds to Ddw1 and that the QTL on chromosome 5A is likely to be Rht12. Furthermore, we observed a temporal trend in registered cultivars with a decreasing plant height during the past decades, accompanied by an increasing use of the height-reducing alleles at the identified QTL. In summary, our results shed new light on the genetic control of plant height in triticale and open new avenues for future improvement by breeding.
... These features are beneficial for poultry and swine industries, rendering triticale more nutritionally valuable than wheat despite its baking characteristics (Gatel et al. 1985). Triticale can act as a baking supplement with wheat because of its minimal content of gluten (McGoverin et al. 2011). Triticale grain's starch content resembles that of wheat, and it is present in higher quantities than rye's (61%, 60%, and 54%DM) (USDA, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Profitability and plant development are mostly impaired by drought. Triticale (X. Triticosecale rimpaui) is one of the most successful man-made cereals, synthesized to combine unique wheat grain quality with rye's stress tolerance. In this study, T. rimpaui plant was exposed to regular water supply (100% FC) and three stages of water shortage (75%, 50%, and 25% FC). Soil properties and growth characteristics of T. rimpaui in the vegetative growth stage and agronomical parameters at the crop yield stage under different water gradients were determined. The results showed that the soil's pH value significantly decreased to values lesser than control's only under moderate and severe water deficiency-induced stress conditions. Plant growth and plant pigments content reduced gradually with the increase of drought stress conditions to values lower than that of the control's (100% FC). Soluble carbohydrates and free amino acids' shoot contents were not affected significantly by all studied water stress levels compared with the controls. In the grains, carbohydrates significantly decreased only under moderate and severe water stress conditions. Soluble proteins in the shoots and grains were gradually decreased under all studies' drought levels. It was clear that drought stress less affected triticale's yield when crosschecked with vegetative growth.
... However, in recent years it has started to be noticed as a suitable raw material for beer production. [14][15][16][17] When compared against rice and corn, this crop has shown a higher starch solubility capacity and higher amino acid levels, which could lead to a wort with a higher fermentation capacity. [18] Recent research has demonstrated that triticale could be a substitute for 25% to 70% of the barley malt used to elaborate beer wort. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the brewing industry, the main raw material is barley malt. Triticale (X. Triticosecale Wittmack) has been evaluated as a base malt. It is recognized as having greater diastatic power than barley, however, curing temperatures similar to 90 °C have not been evaluated nor has their impact on quality. The objective of this research work was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of triticale, wheat, rye, and barley base malts cured at 70 °C and to compare them with each other and with those reported in other studies, to assess the brewing potential of triticale. Additionally, two temperatures (80 °C and 90 °C) were evaluated to observe the effect of a temperature increase on the physicochemical properties of triticale malt. The 70 °C triticale malt characteristics were shown to resemble those of barley and wheat (malt extract and diastatic power). However, in terms of fermentable extract, soluble protein, and viscosity, the malt was unsuitable for brewing. The increase in the curing temperature to 80 °C had a negative impact on diastatic power, extract percentage, and fermentable extract. Overall, triticale has potential as a base brewing malt up to a 90 °C cure temperature, however, parameters such as fermentable extract and viscosity could limit its use.
... In Ukraine, cereals are mainly used as raw material for bioethanol production (Brei end Shchutskyi, 2016). Researchers have proven the prospects for the use of triticale grain for biofuel production, the advantages of which are primarily due to high yields and unpretentiousness to growing conditions (Cristina et al., 2016;Habtamu et al., 2018;McGoverin et al., 2011). In addition, triticale grain contains a lot of starch, which is characterized by increased enzymatic activity, which generally provides better cost-effectiveness of bioethanol production compared to other crops (Abdul et al., 2020;Klikocka et al., 2019;McKenzie et al., 2014;Rybalka, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to evaluate the collection of winter triticale (Triticosecale) by the polymorphism of alleles of Wx genes and the size of starch granules, as well as to establish the relationship between these traits. During research work were used PCR analysis was, infrared spectrometry, light microscopy, and different statistic methods. As a result of the study, it was found the presence of a wild-type allele of the Wx-B1 gene in all studied samples of winter triticale, eight of which had a null-allele of the Wx-A1 gene. The collection samples differed significantly in the size of the starch granules-the limits of variation ranged from 15.4 to 20.0 μm. It was determined that samples with low content of average sizes of starch granules were characterized by greater homogeneity of granulometric structure. However, no significant correlations were found between the size of the starch granules, the starch content, and the allelic state of the Wx-A1 gene. After processing obtained data was selected collection specimens, that could be sources of valuable traits for new varieties suitable for processing into bioethanol.
... This feature is an important product for regions where annual rainfall and irrigation are limited [2]. Triticale grain is mostly used as a feed for ruminants and poultry as it is a source of protein, amino acids, and B vitamins [8] [19]. It is also used as grain, roughage, silage and straw [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the production costs and profitability of the farmers’ triticale production in Corum province. Because it is an important region in Turkey, Corum province was selected as the research area in triticale production. The study’s data were determined by the stratified random sampling method obtained by the questionnaire method from 53 farms producing triticale in the Sungurlu district of Corum province. The production data set includes data for the 2019 year. According to the research findings, the average production cost per decare was calculated to be 290.85 TRY. The share of variable costs was 58.55% within the production costs, and the share of fixed costs was 41.45%. It was determined that the unit sale price of triticale was 0.87 TRY. The gross production value (GPV) of triticale in the region was calculated as 356.44 TRY/da, gross profit 185.73 TRY/da, and net profit 65.16 TRY/da. The unit cost of triticale in the region was 0.84 TRY. The relative profit was determined as 1.22 unit. As a result of the research, as the triticale production areas increase, the fixed costs per decare increase, and the variable costs decrease. The profitability indicators per decare and kilogram sales price increased with the triticale groups’ with.
... according to information provided by the USDA-ARS website. The accessions were derived from China (37), United States (26), Mexico (13), Canada (11), Russia (11), Japan (10), Sweden (10), Poland (9), South Africa (9), India (8), Bulgaria (8), France (7), Spain (7), Australia (6), Germany (6), Hungary (5), Brazil (4), Ukraine (4), Azerbaijan (2), Armenia (1), Ecuador (1), England (1), Italy (1), Morocco (1), and Romania (1). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Key message The genetic diversity and loci underlying agronomic traits were analysed by the reads coverage and genome-wide association study based genotyping-by-sequencing in a diverse population consisting of 199 accessions. Abstract Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) is an economically important grain-forage and energy crop planted worldwide for its high biomass. Little is known about the genetic diversity and loci underlying agronomic traits in triticale. We performed genotyping-by-sequencing of 199 cultivars and mapped reads to the A, B, D, and R genomes for karyotype analysis. These cultivars could mostly be grouped into five types. Some chromosome abnormalities occurred with high frequency, such as 2D (2R) substitution, deletion of the long arm of chromosome 2D or the short arm of 5R, and translocation of the long arms of 7D/7A, the short arms of 6D/6A, or the long arms of 1D/1A. We chose only widely planted hexaploid triticale cultivars (153) for genome-wide association study. These cultivars could be divided into nine distinct groups, and the linkage disequilibrium decay was 25.4 kb in this population. We identified 253 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) on 20 chromosomes, except 7R. Twenty-one reliable MTAs were identified repeatedly over two environments. We predicted 16 putative candidate genes involved in plant growth and development using the genome sequences of wheat and rye. These results provide a basis for understanding the genetic mechanisms of agronomic traits and will benefit the breeding of improved hexaploid triticale.
Article
The dietary fiber (DF) composition, physicochemical and functional properties of triticale dietary fiber (TRDF) and hull-less barley dietary fiber (HUDF) were investigated and compared in this study. Results revealed that triticale soluble dietary fiber (TRSDF) had higher arabinose and xylose contents but lower glucose content than that of hull-less barley soluble dietary fiber (HUSDF). Compared with hull-less barley insoluble dietary fiber (HUIDF), triticale insoluble dietary fiber (TRIDF) had more arabinose and xylose. HUSDF exhibited a smaller particle size and lower viscosity than TRSDF. HUSDF had greater hydroxyl scavenging activity, whereas TRSDF showed higher DPPH radicals scavenging activity. Glucose adsorption capacity, glucose dialysis retardation index, and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of TRSDF were all higher than those of HUSDF. TRIDF and its bound polyphenols demonstrated higher α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than those of HUIDF and its polyphenols. In conclusion, TRDF had better hypoglycemic activities than that of HUDF and the antioxidant activity of TRIDF was lower than that of HUIDF.
Article
Effect of cold hardening on state of antioxidant system (AOS) of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) seedlings of varieties, differed in frost resistance, namely Buket and Raritet (winter, high-frost-resistant), and Alexandra and Pidzymok Kharkovskiy (facultative, less resistant) was studied. In absence of cold hardening, a clear connection between studied indicators of the AOS state and frost resistance of the varieties was not observed. After hardening of seedlings at 2–4 °C for 6 days, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase increased in the high-frost-resistant varieties Buket and Raritet. In less resistant ones—Alexandra and Pidzymok Kharkovskiy—the activity of these enzymes changed less significantly. At the same time, the activity of guaiacol peroxidase increased more noticeably after hardening in these varieties. Hardened seedlings of the Buket, Raritet and Alexandra varieties had significantly higher sugar content than the Pidzymok Kharkovskiy. The proline content in response to cold hardening increased in all varieties, while the absolute values in the varieties Buket, Raritet and Pidzymok Kharkovskiy were significantly higher than in the Alexandra. Cold hardening caused a significant increase in the content of anthocyanins and flavonoids, absorbing in UV-B, in the Buket, Raritet and Alexandra, but not in the Pidzymok Kharkovskiy. The content of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde after a 6-h damaging action of − 7 °C increased in the varieties Alexandra and Pidzymok Kharkovskiy and slightly changed in the Buket and Raritet. In general, a positive relationship was found between AOS activity and frost resistance of hardened triticale seedlings. This relationship was most clearly manifested for indicators of SOD activity and flavonoid content.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. To analyze collection samples by yield and protein and starch content in grain, its particle size distribution and to identify valuable sources for creating varieties suitable for processing for bioethanol. Methods. For evaluation the collection material, field, laboratory, measurement and weight, and mathematical and statistical research methods were used. The analysis of chemical quality indicators of triticale grain was carried out by infrared spectrometry on an Infratec 1241 instrument. The size of starch granules was determined by light microscopy and using the ImageJ computer program. Statistical processing of the obtained research results was carried out with the introduction of the computer program Statistica 6. Results. The results of of studies on the collection of winter triticale by the main signs of suitability for processing on bioethanol are presented. The grain yield in collection samples on average over the years of research ranged from 3.69 to 5.17 t / ha. The best samples were identified - numbers 181, 101, 185, 219 and the variety ’Aristocrat’ with a yield of 5.01–5.17 t / ha. By the high starch content were selected numbers 123 (69.5%), 101 (69.8%) and the varieties ‘Petrol’ (69.0%), ‘Solodyuk’ (70.1%) and ‘Lyubomyr’ (70.3 %). A moderate negative correlation was found between yield and protein content (r = −0.37) and a significant negative correlation was found between starch and protein content (r = −0.64). The analysis of collection samples of winter triticale by grain size distribution of starch was carried out. Maximum size of starch granules in the collection samples ranged from 19.4 to 32.7 microns, the minimum - 9.9 to 15.7 microns, and the average size of the granules range The tailings were 15.4–20.0 μm. Varieties ‘Yasha’ and ‘Mundo’ were distinguished by the smallest average granule size of starch (15.4 and 15.6 μm) and uniformity of particle size distribution. Conclusions. Sources of valuable traits were identified by high productivity, starch content and aligned and fine granule size distribution. A moderate correlation was established between productivity and protein content and a significant negative correlation between starch and protein content.
Chapter
Cereal grains, legumes/pulses, pseudocereals and other seeds provide most of the dietary fiber (DF) for humankind due to their high consumption. In these grains, the DF is primarily found in the outer tissues (pericarp or bran and testa or seed coat). Total dietary fiber (TDF) is affected by type of grain, genetics, growth environment and size and structure of the grain. TDF is also greatly affected by processing. Milling processes aimed towards the production of refined products greatly diminishes the amounts of TDF since most of the fibrous polysaccharides are associated to the bran in cereals and testa in legumes. Research and information on TDF in cereals is relatively significant compared to legumes and other grains. The objective of this chapter is to provide information about DF fractions (total, insoluble and soluble) and their specific components inherent to the anatomy of cereals, legumes/pulses and other grains commonly eaten by the world population. Overall, according to the available data, more updated research is needed to characterize dietary fibers in the aforementioned foods that provide more than 60% of the total caloric intake of humankind.
Article
Full-text available
Triticale is a cereal crop alternative to wheat, and its incorporation into food products is limited. This work aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and the milling behavior of modern triticale genotypes in order to determine their use in the baking industry. The protein content, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation test, and falling number of triticale genotypes were lower than wheat. The ash content was higher for triticales, while the test weight, starch content, and flour extraction yield were comparable to wheat; but with a considerable variability in the break and reduction flour yield. The studied triticale genotypes can be used in food products that do not require high gluten strength, such as cookies and cakes, as well as cereal bars or extruded cereals, for which ash content and falling number are irrelevant. In addition, the falling number test was not adequate to evaluate the a-amylase activity of triticales and considerable variability in the triticale grain hardness was observed.
Thesis
Full-text available
Triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus.) is a relatively new human-made crop. It is used for both grain harvesting and grazing and is an important contributor to world food security for human beings and livestock. Triticale is ranked as the world’s third most tolerant crop to environmental stresses after rye (Secale cereale L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). While wheat suffers significant yield losses worldwide due to many causes, including weed competition, it is thought that triticale may potentially be used as an alternative competitive cereal to help with weed management in wheat-based farming systems. Weed infestation, including annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin), is one of the major problems in cereal cropping systems. It can cause up to 50% yield losses due to competition with crops, particularly wheat. Although herbicides are commonly effective in controlling many weeds in cereal cropping, the issue of herbicide resistance is an increasing concern around the world, especially for ryegrass. Globally, ryegrass is one of at least 42 weed species that have evolved resistance to more than one mode of action of herbicides. Therefore, weed scientists and grain growers are exploring alternative weed management strategies using cultural practices to minimise the reliance on herbicides for weed control. One of these agronomic practices is the selection of competitive cultivars while other factors such as seed rates, row spacing, seed size and manipulating nutrient and soil moisture regimes are also potentially useful. Crop competitive ability has been studied for cereal crops including wheat, barley and rye, but little work has been done on triticale cultivars. This research aimed to identify varietal differences in competitiveness of several triticale cultivars in comparison with two commercial wheat cultivars. It also aimed to examine management factors that can be manipulated to increase the competitive ability of triticale cultivars against weeds, with a focus on annual ryegrass. Several glasshouse experiments as well as a field trial were carried out at the University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia. In the first experiment, 17 triticale lines and two wheat cultivars were examined to characterise their early growth characteristics. Of those, eight triticale and two wheat cultivars were selected to examine their competitive ability with annual ryegrass in a follow up experiment based on the range of the varietal differences in the first experiment. >>>>>>
Article
Breeding improvement of triticale requires the search for genetic sources for hybridization. Our research aims at identifying high-yielding genotypes of winter triticale and determining the influence of structural elements on this indicator to optimizing selection during the breeding process. In 2014–2018, fifty variety samples of triticale were studied in the North Caucasus Federal Agricultural Research Centre. Soil – ordinary chernozem, medium loamy, medium-thick, low-humus. Black fallow preceded all × Triticosecale Wittmack samples. The experiment was laid having only one replication. The area of the plot was 1 m2. Triticale variety ‘Valentin 90’ served as a standard. We identified 25 medium-yielding and 25 high-yielding varieties. Grain yield in the first group was lower than in the second one and amounted to 784 ± 191 g/m2 and 1024 ± 202 g/m2, respectively. High-yielding samples exceeded the average-yielding ones in the number of spikelets (32.0 ± 2.17 and 31.2 ± 2.18 pieces), grains per ear (69.1 ± 13.0 and 64.5 ± 10.6 pieces) and weight of grain per ear (3.26 ± 0.61 and 3.00 ± 0.61 g). The yield and weight of grain per ear vary significantly (Cv > 20 %). Ear size, number of grains in the ear and spikelet, 1000 grain weight and triticale ear density do not vary much (Cv > 10 %). The most stable trait is the number of spikelets per ear (Cv < 10 %). A weak positive correlation was observed between the yield and number of grains per spikelet (r = 0.18 ± 0.06), yield and ear (r = 0.22 ± 0.06), as well as yield and weight of grain per ear (r = 0.29 ± 0.06). In the group of high-yielding variety samples, there was a reliable weak negative correlation between the yield and number of spikelets per ear (r = −0.32 ± 0.08), between the yield and ear density (r = −0.24 ± 0.09). Grain yield of more than 1.000 g/m2 had the following variety samples – ‘Ugo’, ‘RAH 121/04’, ‘Kitaro’, ‘Tewo’, ‘Ratne’, ‘Slavetne’, ‘Adas’, ‘Dar Belorussii’, ‘Dinamo’, ‘Dinaro’, ‘Liniya 71’, ‘Lamberto’, ‘PRAG 203/1’, ‘Nemchinovsky 1’ and ‘Valentin 90’ (standard).
Article
Triticale is a promising plant ingredient as a source of protein and carbohydrates which is recommended for aquafeed. Therefore, five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to include triticale at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% and fed for Nile tilapia (14.4 ± 0.02 g) for 60 days. The obtained results revealed that no significant linear or quadratic effects were observed on the FBW, WG, and SGR due to using triticale in tilapia diets up to 20% level (P > .05). The FCR was also insignificantly affected by triticale incorporation and represented low values ranged between 1.2 and 1.26 kg diet/kg fish body weight. The body moisture, crude protein, and ash compositions recorded linearly and quadratically insignificant differences among the groups fed varying levels of triticale. However, tilapia fed 20% level of triticale displayed significantly increased ether extract in the whole body (P < .05). The activities of amylase, lipase, and protease were decreased considerably by feeding triticale at 20% (P < .05), whereas tilapia fed triticale at 5, 10, and 15% exhibited insignificant differences with fish fed the control diet. The detected hematological and biochemical blood variables indicated that tilapia fed with or without triticale were in a stable health condition (P > .05). The immunity status revealed insignificant differences among the fish fed varying levels of triticale. However, feeding with triticale increased the activities of SOD and GPx (P < .05), while no differences (P > .05) were shown on the activity of CAT and the concentration of MDA. The incorporation of triticale in tilapia diet did not influence the expressions of IGF-1, FAS, LPL, and myostatin in which probably refers to the regular growth of fish under the current trial conditions (P > .05). In conclusion, the obtained results revealed that using triticale at 5–20% has no adverse effects on the growth performance, blood variables, and immune response of Nile tilapia.
Article
Full-text available
The results of testing (2018–2019) varieties and lines of the spring triticale collection in the south-east of the Republic of Kazakhstan are presented. The study was conducted on 70 samples of domestic and foreign breeding from around the world: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Moldova, Austria, Canada, Argentina, Mexico. The experiment was carried out according to the methodology of the state variety testing of agricultural crops. To identify sources of economically valuable traits of grain, the following indicators were studied: test weight, flour sedimentation, protein and starch content, and falling number. The most valuable samples were identified as the starting material for creating varieties for animal feed and baking. Sources of high test weight (13 samples), sedimentation (five samples), protein content (six samples), starch (eight samples) were selected as the starting material for breeding on grain quality. Based on the assessment of spring triticale collection samples for protein content, flour sedimentation and falling number, the following varieties were selected for baking: Ukro, Korovai Kharikvsky, Addax, No. 7 (Rovnya x Lotos), MX 107. Due to high starch content (above 60%) the following varieties were selected for animal feed: WANAD, Pollmer 2,1,1, Fahad 8-2*2//PTP, Rubik, L 5635, Mieszko, L-105/08, Siskiyou. A positive relationship between starch content and test weight, and a positive correlation of starch content and falling number was revealed. All samples of varieties of spring triticale in the south-east of Kazakhstan formed grain with high falling number in the range of 192–336 s and were rated as first-class grain.
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is a cereal grain with a reduced capacity for bread making but useful as a raw ingredient for cookies baking. Triticale has a high content of lysine, phenolic compounds, arabinoxylans, β‐glucans, and α‐amylase activity. Triticale’s α‐amylase activity was promoted by submitting cookies dough to different time and temperature resting conditions in order to enhance the sweetness of cookies. Findings The level of glucose‐based carbohydrates increased with temperature, but time showed a significantly higher contribution to this variable. Texture showed significant changes in cookies dough, but fracture force showed a non‐significant difference in cookies. Sensory panelists preferred cookies obtained from the dough kept at 65°C for 25 min. Conclusions Sweetness in wheat/triticale cookies increased after a time/temperature in situ enzymatic process using endogenous enzymes, maintaining some texture and sensory properties that can be predicted using the model used. Significance and novelty The manuscript shows the possibility of using triticale flour as a source of endogenous enzymes to increase the sweetness of wheat/triticale cookies when the dough is subjected to previous treatment of dough resting, combining time/temperature conditions.
Article
Increased production of biofuels around the world has resulted in the interest in plant production aimed at producing liquid biofuels. In Poland, special attention should be drawn to triticale due to its low soil and climatic requirements and relatively low cultivation costs. The study material consisted of winter triticale cultivars cultivated of three divisions of the “Danko” Plant Breeding Facility for three years on two levels of agricultural engineering. Parameters characterizing the usefulness of the cereals for bioethanol production, namely, amylolytic activity (expressed by falling number and diffusion in agarose gel), viscosity, C, N, protein and starch content (one year of study) were examined on all the cultivars used in the study. Fertilization, location and the year of study had the greatest impact on the amylolytic activity of the triticale cultivars assessed. The objective of the study was to determine which of the differentiating parameters are most useful for the assessment of applicability of triticale cultivar as the raw material for bioethanol production and the manner in which the assessment is to be conducted.
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in distillers dried grains with solubles derived from corn (C-DDGS), sorghum (S-DDGS), and triticale (T-DDGS) fed to growing pigs. A total of 16 barrows (initial body weight = 23.1 ± 2.03 kg) surgically fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum were divided into 4 groups based on body weight and assigned to a quadruplicated 4 × 2 incomplete Latin Square design with 4 dietary treatments and 2 experimental periods. Three diets containing C-DDGS, S-DDGS, or T-DDGS and a nitrogen-free diet were fed in each experimental period consisting of 5-d adaptation and 2-d ileal digesta collection. Pigs fed S-DDGS had less (P < 0.05) SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, and methionine compared with those fed T-DDGS, which were less (P < 0.05) than the values observed from pigs fed C-DDGS. The SID of arginine, phenylalanine, threonine, and valine in C-DDGS were greater (P < 0.05) than in S-DDGS but were not different from those in T-DDGS. The SID of lysine in C-DDGS was greater (P < 0.05) than in S-DDGS and T-DDGS. In conclusion, AA in S-DDGS were less digestible than those in C-DDGS and T-DDGS.
Article
Full-text available
The mechanisms of low-temperature adaptation of triticale (w Triticosecale Wittm.), an intergeneric hybrid that combining high productivity and frost resistance, are not well understood. In particular, the question remains open about the contribution of secondary metabolites to the functioning of its antioxidant system during the formation of frost resistance. The dynamics of the total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and separately the amount of anthocyanins under cold hardening conditions (6 days at temperature of 2—4 °C) of seedlings of varieties with different frost resistance: Buket and Raritet (winter, high-frost-resistant), and Alexandra (winter, notfrostresistant) and Pidzymok kharkivskiy (facultative, less resistant) were studied. The content of phenolic compounds in non-hardened seedlings of various genotypes differed slightly, only in the Pidzymok kharkivskiy variety was slightly lower compared with other studied genotypes. Hardening caused a slight increase in the total content of phenolic compounds in all studied varieties. The total amount of flavonoids in non-hardened seedlings of various genotypes differed slightly. Six-day hardening led to an increase in the content of flavonoids in the seedlings of all studied varieties by 1.7—1.9 times, with no significant differences between varieties. The content of anthocyanins in the non-hardened seedlings of various varieties was different: it was the highest for the Buket variety, and the lowest for the Pidzymok kharkivskiy variety. During the process of cold hardening, it was increasing and had reached approximately the same values in the varieties Buket, Raritet and Alexandra, however, in the least frost-resistant variety Pidzymok kharkivskiy this index was significantly lower. The conclusion about the contribution of anthocyanins, but not secondary metabolites in general, to the formation of frost resistance of triticale seedlings and the antioxidant defense system at low temperatures was made.
Article
Full-text available
The study was carried out with the aim to determination the effects of late-season foliar N application on grain yield and protein content of Triticale. The research was conducted in arid land of Lakes region in Turkey during 2006-2008 growing seasons. The experiment was set up as randomized complete block design with a split-plot design with 3 replications. Triticale cultivars were main plots, the nitrogen were subplots split within main plots. In the study, winter/alternative Triticale cultivars (Tacettinbey, Tatlicak-97 and Karma-2000) were used. Nitrogen was applied as conventional (2 equal amounts at the time of seed sowmg and tillering stage) and late-season foliar N application (1/3 of was applied during sowing, 1/3 at the tillering stage and the rest was applied to foliar at postpollination growth stage). In the study, effects of late-season foliar N application on gram yield and protein content of triticale were observed. Gram yield and protem content of triticale in both years of the study were significantly affected by N application timing. The results showed that the grain yield and grain protein content were higher in late-season foliar N application than conventional N application in both years of the study. Among the cultivars, the highest grain yield and protein content was obtained from Tatlicak-97 (2720 kg ha-1) and Karma-2000 (13.1%) cultivars, respectively. The highest grain yield was determined from Tathcak cultivar x late-season N interaction (2646, 2987 and 2815 kg ha-1, respectively) in both years and average of years. The highest protein content was determined from Karma-2000 cultivar x late-seasonN interaction (13.8, 13.9 and 13.9%, respectively) in both years and average of years. Between grain yield and protein content was determined significant (p≤0.01) and positive connection (r2 = 0.451).
Article
Full-text available
In our studies the highest mean significant yield of spring triticale grain of the Kargo variety was obtained following the application of 120 kg N·ha-1 and after the foliar application of the highest dose of zinc, as compared to the examined lower levels of fertilization. The used variable fertilization with nitrogen applied to the soil and the foliar application of zinc, on average, resulted in a significant increase in the content of total protein in spring triticale grain of the Kargo variety. The values of the most important baking indices determined for spring triticale manifested growing tendencies within the entire range of the applied doses of nitrogen and zinc. On average, the highest significant content of wet gluten was obtained following the application of 120 kg N·ha-1, and of the highest dose of zinc as compared to, respectively, the dose of 80 kg N·ha-1 and to control.
Article
Full-text available
Field grown triticales, wheats and ryes were subjected to an artificial rain gradient with the aim of discriminating among different genotypes on the basis of their tolerance to wetting, measured as change in falling number (FN) and alpha-amylase activity (AA). Below-canopy gravity irrigation throughout the growing cycle ensured stress-free conditions. The rain gradient was created by overhead irrigation from a central water line or line source. Plots were sown perpendicular to the line source and sampled for AA throughout the gradient and over sampling dates. The gradient was also analysed for FN 30 days post physiological maturity (PM+30). Based on change in AA over both the gradient and sampling dates and change in FN at PM+30, genotypes tolerant to wetting were identified. The factors rnost important in conferring tolerance to wetting among triticales were spike angle, thousand-grain weight and FN levels. Whilst the line source offered good discrimination among triticales on the basis of change in FN and AA, it was not effective in distinguishing between wheat and rye lines.
Article
Full-text available
Rye and wheat are the major cereals consumed by people of northern and eastern Europe. However, it has become important to widen the use of cereal products. Attempts have been done to adapt western triticale cultivars to northern growing conditions. Serious investigations of triticale bread commenced as late as in 1997 in Estonia. The first attempts to grow the triticale cultivars Modus, Dato, Presto, SV 92280 in Estonian conditions have been successful. They are productive, resistant to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and with good grain quality.The aim of this work was to investigate the bread-making quality of western winter triticale cultivars grown in Estonia. The following grain quality parameters were estimated: grain protein content, SDS-sedimentation, falling number, water absorption, bread loaf volume.HMW glutenin subunit composition, which was used to predict the baking quality, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate– polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). Seven different alleles were revealed in the set of 12 triticale cultivars. The best cultivars had HMW glutenin subunits 2∗ encoded by the Glu-A1 locus, 7+26 and 7+19 encoded by the Glu-B1 locus.
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY Field experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 to investigate the effects of vari- ous commercial foliar fertilizers containing N, P, K and micro nutrients on yield and yield components of triticale. Yield and yield component values were different among years because of dry season. The results revealed that foliar treatments had sig- nificant positive effect on grain yield, spikelet number per spike, number of grain per spike, 1000 grain weight and harvest index in both years. The most effective foliar fertilizer on yield and yield components during drought stress was Zn-15, a chelated (EDTA) form of zinc. Both NZN and ZnSO4 increased grain yield of triticale under no stress conditions.
Article
Full-text available
Stes of trtiticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) lines from derived the cv. presto with HMW glutenin alllele Glu+D1d (subunits 5+10) translocated from bred wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 1D to chromosome 1R were evaluated for agronomic and grain quality characteristics in 2002-2005. Two different translocation types were used. (a) single translocation 1R.1D5+10-2 where the long arm of 1R carries the wheat segment from 1DL with the Glu-D1d replacing a secalin locus Sec-3, (b) double translocation Valdy where the long arm of 1R has the traslocation 1R.1D5+10-2 and the short arm has a segment from 1DS carrying wheat loci Gli-D1 and Glu-D3. The presence of Glu-D1d wes determined by polyacrylamide gel elctrophoresis (PAGE-ISTA) and DNA markers. The tested lines of triticlae were compared with the check trtitikale cv. Presto and with wheat cultivars of different bred making quality (E-C quality classes). Single translocation 1R.1D5+10-2 reduced grain yield by 16% and valdy translocation by 24% as compared with check cv. presto. Wet gluten content (according to the Petren method) was 12% in both translocation types, 8% in check presto and on average 24% in wheat. Translocations increased thy Zelenyho sedimentation value (Valdy - 27 ml, 1R.1D5+10-2 - 25 ml, cv. Presto - 23 ml). Triticale had a very low Hagberg falling number (FN) of 62-70 s without significant differences, while wheat had on average 301 s. The translocations did not significantly increase loaf volume; however, they improved loaf shape (height/width ratio): Valdy - 0.61, 1R.1D5+10-2 - 0.56, cv. presto 0.44, wheat on average 0.70. The dought was non-stickly in Valdy, slightly sticky in 1R.1D5+10+2 and sticky in cv. presto. Problems low FN for improving bread making quality of triticale are discussed. Higher bread making quality can be influenced by appropriate combination with donors of low alfa-amylase activity.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of radiation conditions and nitrogen (N) availability on triticale were investigated. The relationship between shading (S) and N supply and their effect on the industrial use of triticale flour were studied. Incident radiation/shade conditions affected all the parameters measured. Nitrogen supply influenced yield, protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate-sedimentation index (SDS-SI), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC), cookie factor and diameter of four cookies (D4C). The proportion of proteins of high molecular weight was increased with nitrogen supply and pre-anthesis shade, while post-anthesis shade increased proteins of lower molecular weight. The interaction between variety and N supply was significant for yield, SDS-SI and AWRC. Only yield and specific weight were affected by N × S interaction. Significant effects of the interaction of variety, N supply and shade conditions were observed for specific weight.
Article
Full-text available
Twelve fertile alloplasmic wheat lines, produced by substituting four nuclear genomes of Triticum aestivum into the cytoplasms of T. timococcum Kostoff, T. timopheevi Zhuk., and Aegilops ventricosa Tausch, were examined for cytoplasmic effects on falling number and α-amylase activity during grain development in different environments. Nuclear genome, cytoplasm and environment were important sources of variation for falling number. In one environment, where the plants were exposed to very hot, dry conditions, the levels and patterns of change in α-amylase activity were also significantly affected by the cytoplasm. The data indicated that alien wheat cytoplasms might result in useful additional variation in specific environments where sprouting is a problem.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of different levels of triticale flour on the rheological and sensory characteristics of a range of Turkish flat breads made with blends of triticale with two bread wheat cultivars (Kınacı 97 and Daǧdaş 94) was studied. Wheat flour was replaced with triticale flour at 20, 40, 50, 60 and 80% levels. Bread samples were tested for shape and symmetry, crust colour, crumb colour and structure, mouth-feel, taste and aroma and flexibility. All bread types had high overall sensory scores and they were considered acceptable. Analysis of variance (anova) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Daǧdaş 94 and Triticale blends are more suitable than Kınacı 97 and Triticale blends for bazlama, yufka and lavash production. Results show that Triticale-wheat flour blends can be successfully used for the production of flat breads. Dough and sensory properties of triticale-wheat flour blends were highly cultivar specific and dependent on blend proportion.
Article
Full-text available
Cereal Chem. 79(3):332–339 Flours from advanced lines or cultivars of six triticales and two prime hard wheats, along with triticale-wheat blends, were investigated for mix-ing, extension (excluding blends), and baking properties using microscale testing. Percentage total polymeric protein (PPP) and percentage unex-tractable polymeric protein (UPP) of flours and doughs, including blends, mixed to optimal dough development were estimated using size-exclusion HPLC to determine the changes in protein solubility and association with blend composition (BC), mixing properties, and loaf height. Each triticale was blended with flours of each of the two wheat cultivars (Hartog and Sunco) at 0, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 100% of wheat flour. Nonlinear rela-tionships between BC and mixograph parameters (mixing time [MT], band-width at peak resistance [BWPR], and resistance breakdown [RBD]) were observed. A linear relationship between BC and peak resistance (PR) was predominant. PPP of triticale flours was mostly higher than PPP of wheat cultivars. UPP of all triticales was significantly lower than wheat culti-vars. PPP of freeze-dried doughs was mostly nonsignificant across the blends and showed a curvilinear relationship with BC. The deviations from linearity of MT and PPP were higher in triticale-Sunco blends than in triticale-Hartog blends. UPP of blends was closer to or lower than the lower component in the blend. The deviations from linearity for MT and UPP were greater in triticale-Hartog blends than triticale-Sunco blends. A highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) was observed between BWPR and loaf height. This suggested that BWPR in triticale-wheat flour blends could be successfully used for the prediction of loaf height. Triticale flour could be substituted for wheat flour up to 50% in the blend without dras-tically affecting bread quality. Dough properties of triticale-wheat flour blends were highly cultivar specific and dependent on blend composition. This strongly suggested that any flour blend must be tested at the desired blend composition.
Article
Full-text available
The protein content and falling numbers of five winter triticale cultivars were tested in very different weather conditions (1998/1999–2000/2001) on Stagnic Luvisol soils (WRB classification) in the experimental fields of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University near Tartu (58°23´N, 26°44´E). All cultivars were fertilised with nitrogen fertiliser (NH 4 NO 3) in early spring, using a norm of 0–200 kg N ha -1 (increasing the amonts of fertiliser by 20 kg ha -1). Fertilising with nitrogen after hibernation at the tillering stage in early spring increased the protein content of seeds averaged over years and cultivars by up to 1.57% in dry matter. Protein levels depended most on the cultivar, less on the weather conditions of the growth year and least on the nitrogen fertiliser (the determination indices of a dispersion analysis were 0.35, 0.32 and 0.14, respectively). The yield and protein content were in negative correlation (r = 0,92*). Due to very different weather conditions during the growth period, the figures of the falling number were very different in different years.
Article
Full-text available
Cereal Chem. 81(2):188–193 Amylose content in wheat endosperm is controlled by three Wx loci, and the proportion of amylose decreases with successive accumulation of Wx null alleles at the three loci. The proportion of amylose is believed to influence end-use quality of bread and Asian noodles. The objectives of this study were to determine influence of the allelic difference at Wx-B1 locus on bread quality, bread firmness, and white salted noodle texture in a spring wheat cross segregating for the Wx-B1 locus and in a set of advanced spring wheat breeding lines differing in allelic state at the Wx-B1 locus. In addition, we examined the relationship between amylose con-tent and flour swelling properties on bread and noodle traits. Fifty-four recombinant inbred lines of hard white spring wheat plus parents were grown in replicated trials in two years, and 31 cultivars and breeding lines of hard spring wheat were grown in two locations. Bread and white salted noodles were processed from these trials. The presence of the Wx-B1 null allele reduced amylose content by 2.4% in a recombinant inbred popu-lation and 4.3% in a survey of advanced breeding lines and cultivars compared with the normal. The reduced amylose was accompanied by an average increase in flour swelling power (FSP) for the Wx-B1 null group of 0.8 g/g for the cross progeny and 2.3 g/g for the cultivar survey group. The Wx-B1 allelic difference did not affect flour protein in cross progeny where the allelic difference was not confounded with genetic background. Bread from the Wx-B1 null groups on average had increased loaf volume and was softer than the normal group for the cross progeny and cultivar survey group. The Wx-B1 allelic difference altered white salted noodle texture, most notably noodle springiness and cohesiveness where the Wx-B1 null groups was more springy and more cohesive than the normal groups for both sets of genetic materials. Flour protein was more highly related to loaf volume than were FSP or amylose. Both flour protein and FSP were positively related to noodle textural traits, but especially noodle spring-iness and cohesiveness.
Article
Winter triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) could be more widely grown as a forage, grain, or cover crop in the US Corn and Soybean Belt, but research needed to establish best management practices is limited. This study was conducted to determine the amount of N fertilizer needed to optimize triticale productivity and to quantify the amount of N taken up following either corn (Zea mays L.) silage or soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.]. The response of winter triticale grown near Ames and Lewis, IA, to four N fertilization rates (0, 33,66, 99 kg N ha(-1)) applied in mid-March was evaluated for the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 growing seasons. Maximum dry matter and grain yields were produced with 33 kg N ha(-1) at Ames and no N fertilization at Lewis. Maximum N concentrations of triticale dry matter were generally produced with 99 kg N ha(-1). Nitrogen uptake by winter triticale was mostly complete by early May and was 39 to 133 kg ha(-1) without N fertilization. Nitrogen uptake increased with each 33 kg ha(-1) increment of additional N fertilizer, totaling 98 to 192 kg ha(-1) for 99 kg N ha(-1). The results of this study suggest forage and grain yields of winter triticale grown after corn silage or soybean in the midwestern USA can be maximized by applying 33 kg ha(-1) N fertilizer. For N rates of 0 to 99 kg ha(-1), winter triticale captured 47 to 82 kg N ha beyond that supplied as fertilizer.
Article
A brief history of the wheat-rye hybrid triticale is provided, and an as complete as possible list of published names referring to this taxon is annotated with nomenclatural details. Only 2 of 6 generic names and 2 of 33 specific names appear to be valid and legitimate. The correct nothogeneric name for plants derived from Triticum × Secale crosses is × Triticosecale Wittmack ex A. Camus. No correct name at species level is available for the commonest crop triticales. It is recommended that crop triticales be named by appending the cultivar name to the nothogeneric name, e.g. × Triticosecale 'Newton'.
Article
An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of the inclusion of triticale (cv. Usgen 19) in the diets of pigs, on certain metabolism and production parameters. Three diets were formulated on an iso-nutrient basis (approximately 13.9 MJ kg(-1) dry matter (DM) metabolizable energy, 17.2% crude protein, 1.00% lysine, 0.69% methionine and cystine and 0.23% tryptophan on a DM basis) so that maize meal was substituted by increasing levels of triticale meal (0%, 33% and 67%). In a metabolism and nitrogen (N) balance study with 18 SA Landrace x Great White boars, DM digestibility, apparent N digestibility, digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents were largely independent of the substitution of maize by triticale. Apparent N retention tended (P less than or equal to 0.09) to be better on the triticale-containing diets. The diets were evaluated according to a 2 (sex) x 3 (diet) factorial arrangement of treatments in terms of dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), in a growth study with 13 SA Landrace x Large White pigs per diet. Mean (+/- SE) initial live mass of the pigs was 23.4 +/- 0.3 kg. Pigs were fed ad libitum. The experiment ended when the pigs were slaughtered at a live mass of 90.6 +/- 0.2 kg, and carcass characteristics were determined. Daily DMI of pigs decreased linearly (P less than or equal to 0.01) by 198 (SE(b)= 71) g day(-1) per unit substitution of maize by triticale. Daily gain was similarly affected, with a corresponding linear (P less than or equal to 0.01) decline of 95 (SE(b)= 34) g day(-1). The substitution of maize with triticale up to 67% did not affect FCR significantly; the mean FCR was 2.72 kg DMI required per kg live mass gain. Mean dressing percentage, eye muscle area or back fat thickness did not differ significantly between diets (means of 80.5%, 38.8 cm(2) and 17.6 mm), although pigs on the 100% maize diet tended (P less than or equal to 0.07) to have thicker back fat than pigs on the triticale diets. Efficiency was thus largely unaffected by the substitution of maize by triticale. Triticale may therefore be used to substitute maize up to 67% provided that the lower DMI and resultant poorer growth rate is taken into consideration.
Article
The extent of genotype and location effects on chemical composition and nutritive value of grains fed to animals was surveyed. The review covered the winter cereals (wheat, barley, oats, and triticale), the summer cereals (sorghum and maize), and the pulses (field pea, lupins, faba beans, and chickpea) when fed to cattle, sheep, poultry, pigs, rats, and mice. The bulk of the literature does not meet the statistical criteria required to differentiate genotype and environment effects. When the criteria were satisfied, significant genotype differences were shown to exist for chemical composition in wheat, barley, triticale, and sorghum, for nutritive value as determined by methods in vitro in wheat, barley, oats, triticale, and sorghum, and in vivo for wheat, barley, triticale, sorghum, and maize. Valid comparisons across grain species are few, but in vitro gas production ranks wheat > oats > barley. Significant location, year, genotype × location, genotype × year, and genotype × location × year effects were reported for nutritive value for some grains. Wheat feeding trials with poultry indicate that environment can affect apparent metabolisable energy (AME) as much as, if not more than, genotype. A greater range in nutritive value appears to exist in barley than in wheat. The information is unclear in the case of triticale, where despite some reports claiming that grain of this species has high lysine content, the difference does not appear to translate to improved performance in animals. Insufficient studies exist for oats despite it being one of the most widely used on-farm feed grains. No examples could be found of studies with rye. The most thoroughly researched grain has been sorghum, which is principally grown in developed countries for feeding to livestock. Here, some definitive studies have been conducted to define the extent of genotype, location, and genotype × environment interaction effects. Scope exists to enhance the nutritive value of sorghum by breeding through modification of endosperm composition, tannin content, and improved protein digestibility. Variation in endosperm composition in maize due to simply inherited mutations provides the opportunity to improve its nutritive value. This review indicates that before any plant breeding is undertaken for feed grain quality, a better understanding of what determines nutritive value and the relative importance of genotype and environment in modulating these factors is required.
Article
Because of their cold tolerance and double-cropping potential, small grains such as triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) and rye (Secale cereale) can play an important role in sustainable agriculture in Tennessee. A grazing trial was conducted to evaluate TRICAL-336 (triticale), Maton (rye) and Kentucky-31 fescue (control) for meat goats. Maton and TRICAL-336 were 78 and 74% higher in crude protein, 33 and 44% lower in acid-detergent fiber, and 49 and 51% lower in neutral-detergent fiber, respectively, than Kentucky-31. Net energy, total digestible nutrient, relative feed value, Ca, Mg, K and P contents were also significantly higher (P < 0.01) for Maton and TRICAL-336. Average daily gain and live weight gain per ha of does grazing Maton (74.0 g d−1 and 12.38 kg ha−1) and TRICAL-336 (78.9 g d−1 and 11.77 kg ha−1, respectively) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of Kentucky-31 does which lost weight (−19.4 g d−1 and −2.6 kg ha−1, respectively) during the same period. Boneless major retail cut yield was 23 and 37% higher in favor of Maton and TRICAL-336, respectively, while boneless shoulder, boneless leg, loin and rack weight were 30, 35, 69 and 37% higher for TRICAL-336 and 17, 19, 22 and 61% higher, respectively, for Maton than for Kentucky-31. Hot carcass weights and chilled carcass weights were higher for Maton by 28 and 20% and for TRICAL-336 by 32 and 30%, respectively, than Kentucky-31. Slaughter weight, height to the cross, carcass length, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, thoracic circumference, blood concentration of creatine kinase, glucose, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, Ca, Na, K, monocyte, red blood cell, hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly higher (P < 0.05) for TRICAL-336 and Maton.
Article
Autumn-sown cereals are a very important source of nutrients for livestock. Moreover, the harvesting of the entire plant at milk-dough stage makes a double-cropping approach possible resulting in higher yields per unit area.Of the various winter cereals, triticale is particularly interesting due to its quality–quantity potential as whole-plant silage. Given the broad range of triticale cultivars available today and the important role played by the environment on the nutritional value of forages, the present study was undertaken to establish the adaptability of modern cultivars to different locations for high quality whole-plant production at two growing stages.Our results indicate the yield potential of triticale as silage both in irrigated or in rainfed Mediterranean areas. Regarding quality of the forage the best performance was recorded in Sardinian environments where plant growth was characterised by a gradual temperature increase.Thus, in Mediterranean areas, triticale could represent a viable source of livestock feed during the summer period offsetting the dearth of fresh forage typical in these environments.
Article
The following grain characteristics: protein, arabinoxylan and dietary fibre content, viscosity and water holding capacity of wheat, rye and triticale of different ploidy levels were studied as to their effect on body weight gain (BWG), feed to gain ratio (FCR), apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter digestibility (DMD) and apparent protein retention (APR) in young broiler chicks fed isograin and isoprotein diets based on these cereals. Highly significant correlations (p≤0.01) were found between physicochemical and biological quality indicators when all cereals were taken into account. A negative response of chicks to triticale was obtained only when chicks were fed diets containing the tetraploid forms, while the nutrition parameters of chicks fed diets containing the octo- and hexaploid triticale, with rye genome shares of 1:3 and 1:2, did not differ (p≥0.05) from those fed a wheat diet. Rye diets yielded the lowest BWG, AMEn and DMD and the poorest FCR. The results indicate that as long as the share of the R genome is a minor component of the total triticale genome pool, its antinutritional effect is masked by the wheat genome. The results also indicate that hexaploid triticale can constitute the sole cereal component in the diets of young broiler chicks.
Article
Cereal Chem. 73(6):779-784 The quality of flours obtained from 10 triticale cultivars and its use- with flours exhibiting low protein content, high prolamine percentage fulness in the manufacture of cookies were studied. Factors affecting with a high proportion of species with a molecular mass =34 kDa, low cookie quality were also analyzed. The results obtained show that triti- glutenin content with a low proportion of species with a molecular mass cale flours are suitable for cookie manufacture. Best quality is related
Article
Seed of four triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.) cultivars, two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, and one rye (Secale cereale L.) cultivar were harvested at 4-day intervals from 6 to 42 days post-anthesis. Alpha-amylase activity was determined in the embryo, pericarp, aleurone, and endosperm of the seed. In all cases, the α-amylase activity in the embryo was low. The pericarp activity reached a maximum in all samples at approximately 10–15 days post-anthesis. Aleurone and endosperm activity remained low throughout the development period in all but one triticale cultivar. In triticale cultivar 6A 190, the aleurone and endosperm α-amylase activity remained low until approximately 20–25 days post-anthesis, at which point the activity increased to levels normally associated with sprouted grain. Light microscopic examination of the 6A 190 at 10 days post-anthesis showed that the starch in the inner portion of the pericarp was digested. At 22 days, all pericarp starch had disappeared. Specific lesions in the endosperm and aleurone cells were observed beyond 22 days. Areas of the endosperm where starch damage due to α-amylase could be seen were often associated with regions possessing necrotic tissue located between the aleurone and endosperm. In some areas, aleurone cells were completely absent.