Case series: Diffusion weighted MRI appearance in prostatic abscess
DIFFUSION: weighted MRI (DWI) is a novel technique that analyzes the diffusion of water molecules in vivo. DWI has been used extensively in the central nervous system. Its use in body imaging is on the rise. In the prostate, it has been used in the evaluation of prostatic carcinoma. We present DWI findings in two patients of prostatic abscess.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "TRUS can be used initially and easily to make a diagnosis of prostatic abscess. The most common TRUS finding is one or more hypoechoic areas with well-defined and thick walls containing thick liquid fluid . TRUS can be interpreted variously in other conditions such as neoplastic processes, cystic lesions, or granulomas. "
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ABSTRACT: Prostatic abscess is an uncommon urologic disease but has a high mortality rate if not treated properly. Furthermore, diagnosis and proper treatment of prostatic abscesses remains a challenge for physicians. Therefore, we compared data on conservative treatments, transurethral resection of prostatic abscess, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle aspiration in 52 cases over a 10-year period.
The records of 52 patients diagnosed with prostatic abscess by computed tomography at Gangnam Severance Hospital between January 2000 and September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were discharged when their leukocytosis had normalized and they had been free of fever for 2 days. Multivariate regression analysis was done to determine independent risk factors for the length of hospitalization.
At the time of diagnosis, the average age of the 52 patients was 61.3 years (range, 33 to 81 years), the average volume of the prostate was 56.3 ml (range, 21 to 223 ml), the average prostate-specific antigen was 18.54 ng/ml (range, 2.0 to 57.0 ng/ml), and the average abscess size was 3.8 cm (range, 2.1 to 5.5 cm). All patients were treated with parenteral antibiotics during their hospital stay with intravenous antibiotics (fluoroquinolone monotherapy or 3rd-generation cephalosporin in combination with an aminoglycoside). Of 52 patients, 22 had diabetes mellitus (42.3%), 19 had hypertension (36.5%), and 7 (13.5%) had paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. The most common symptoms were fever (47, 90.4%), perineal discomfort (43, 82.7%), dysuria (40, 76.9%), and urinary retention (29, 55.8%). Prostatic abscesses were treated by conservative treatment (11 cases), transurethral resection of prostatic abscess (23 cases), and TRUS-guided needle aspiration (18 cases). The average hospitalization stay was 17.5 days (range, 6 to 39 days); that of conservative treatment patients was 19.1 days (range, 9 to 39 days). Patients treated by transurethral resection of prostatic abscess and TRUS-guided needle aspiration stayed 10.2 days (range, 6 to 15 days) and 23.25 days (range, 18 to 34 days), respectively. Of the 18 cases who underwent needle aspiration, prostatic abscesses recurred in 4 cases (22.2%) within 1 month after patient discharge. The 2 patients subjected to conservative treatment died due to sepsis. We found no independent factors that affected the average hospitalization period.
Patients with prostatic abscess treated by transurethral resection of the prostate had a significantly shorter hospitalization length compared with needle aspiration.
Available from: Meinrad Beer
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ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is helpful for detection of brain abscess and pelvic abscess in adults. In the present study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of DWI in children and young adults with abdominal and soft tissue abscess formations.
Seventeen patients (11 females, aged 13 ± 6 years) with suspected abdominal or soft-tissue abscess underwent routine MRI including free-breathing DWI and contrast-enhanced T1w imaging. Seventeen random age-matched patients with non-purulent abdominal fluid collections served as controls. Mean apparent diffusion coefficent (ADC) was measured for abscess, muscle, liver, spleen and kidney tissue as well as for cerebrospinal fluid, urine and free abdominal fluid.
All fluid collections were identified on diffusion-weighted images. Thirteen of 14 confirmed abscess formations showed an ADC < 1.0 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s with a mean value of 0.80 ± 0.38 mm(2)/s. One tuberculous soft-tissue abscess had a higher ADC of 1.85 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. Ring enhancement on T1w imaging was seen in three non-purulent fluid collections. There were no false-positive findings in the control group.
Diffusion-weighted MRI is highly sensitive for abscess and may add specificity to contrast-enhanced T1w imaging of ring-enhancing fluid collections. DWI with free-breathing rapid image acquisition and without the need of intravenous contrast application constitutes a particularly useful choice in pediatric imaging.
Available from: Francois Cornud
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ABSTRACT: The authors report the diffusion and contrast-enhanced MRI appearance of five cases of granulomatous prostatitis (GP), non-specific (two cases) and infectious post-Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy (three cases, with a tubercular abscess in two of them). All patients had raising PSA levels and abnormal DRE. History of BCG therapy or acute prostatitis was present in four patients. Multiparametric MRI (T2W-MRI, DW-MRI and DCE-MRI) was performed before biopsies. Diagnosis was confirmed by TRUS-guided biopsies in four cases and by transurethral resection in one case. MRI showed a tumor-like appearance in three cases, an abscess-like appearance in one case and a combined tumor/abscess-like appearance in one case. Extraprostatic fat was infiltrated in three patients, simulating T3a disease. Histologically, caseous necrosis was found when MRI showed abcedation. Demonstration of occult tubercular abscesses in post-BCG GP may have therapeutic implications and MRI is useful prior to surgical or interventional drainage of large caseous abscesses.
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