Obesity—United States, 1988-2008
The prevalence of obesity in the United States has increased substantially since the 1960s. From 1976--1980 to 2007--2008, obesity prevalence increased from 15% to 34% among adults and from 5% to 17% among children and adolescents. Substantial differences exist in obesity prevalence among racial/ethnic groups, and these differences vary by sex and age group.
Available from: Alexandre Lebel
- "Income has been found to be negatively associated with obesity, for women , , but non-significant or even positive for men . Racial disparities have been observed in the USA only, with higher prevalence among the Black population , . "
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Reported associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are inconsistent depending on gender and geographic location. Globally, these inconsistent observations may hide a variation in the contextual effect on individuals' risk of obesity for subgroups of the population. This study explored the regional variability in the association between SES and BMI in the USA and in Canada, and describes the geographical variance patterns by SES category.
The 2009–2010 samples of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used for this comparison study. Three-level random intercept and differential variance multilevel models were built separately for women and men to assess region-specific BMI by SES category and their variance bounds.
Associations between individual SES and BMI differed importantly by gender and countries. At the regional-level, the mean BMI variation was significantly different between SES categories in the USA, but not in Canada. In the USA, whereas the county-specific mean BMI of higher SES individuals remained close to the mean, its variation grown as SES decreased. At the county level, variation of mean BMI around the regional mean was 5 kg/m2 in the high SES group, and reached 8.8 kg/m2 in the low SES group.
This study underlines how BMI varies by country, region, gender and SES. Lower socioeconomic groups within some regions show a much higher variation in BMI than in other regions. Above the BMI regional mean, important variation patterns of BMI by SES and place of residence were found in the USA. No such pattern was found in Canada. This study suggests that a change in the mean does not necessarily reflect the change in the variance. Analyzing the variance by SES may be a good way to detect subtle influences of social forces underlying social inequalities.
Available from: Jana van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
- "A study assessing data collected between 1997 and 2003 reported that the prevalence of obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, varied between 6% and 20%, with higher prevalence in Central and Eastern European countries and lower values in France, Italy, and some Scandinavian countries . Among U.S. adults, obesity (BMI ≥ 30) prevalence has increased from 15% in the early 1970s to the most recent estimate of 34% in 2009–2010 [4,5]. Similar patterns are seen in other countries and were shown to be comparable across different age, ethnic, educational and income groups . "
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ABSTRACT: Not all obese subjects have an adverse metabolic profile predisposing them to developing type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The BioSHaRE-EU Healthy Obese Project aims to gain insights into the consequences of (healthy) obesity using data on risk factors and phenotypes across several large-scale cohort studies. Aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) in ten participating studies.
Ten different cohorts in seven countries were combined, using data transformed into a harmonized format. All participants were of European origin, with age 18-80 years. They had participated in a clinical examination for anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Blood samples had been drawn for analysis of lipids and glucose. Presence of MetS was assessed in those with obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2) based on the 2001 NCEP-ATPIII criteria, as well as an adapted set of less strict criteria. MHO was defined as obesity, having none of the MetS components, and no previous diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.
Data for 163,517 individuals were available; 17% were obese (11,465 men and 16,612 women). The prevalence of obesity varied from 11.6% in the Italian CHRIS cohort to 26.3% in the German KORA cohort. The age-standardized percentage of obese subjects with MetS ranged in women from 24% in CHRIS to 65% in the Finnish Health2000 cohort, and in men from 43% in CHRIS to 78% in the Finnish DILGOM cohort, with elevated blood pressure the most frequently occurring factor contributing to the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The age-standardized prevalence of MHO varied in women from 7% in Health2000 to 28% in NCDS, and in men from 2% in DILGOM to 19% in CHRIS. MHO was more prevalent in women than in men, and decreased with age in both sexes.
Through a rigorous harmonization process, the BioSHaRE-EU consortium was able to compare key characteristics defining the metabolically healthy obese phenotype across ten cohort studies. There is considerable variability in the prevalence of healthy obesity across the different European populations studied, even when unified criteria were used to classify this phenotype.
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ABSTRACT: Clinicians are routinely challenged in their management of cancer patients because of the complexities of obesity and diabetes that are often found as comorbid conditions. Although attention has been given to optimizing treatment planning for these patients, less attention has been given to manage their obesity and diabetes. This suggests that newer, comprehensive approaches must be developed for the treatment of cancer patients as a 'whole' rather than as a single disease. While the specific pathologies of each are unique, years of research have indicated intimate molecular links between these chronic diseases. The contribution of sedentary lifestyles and poor dietary habits is recognized; however, the precise molecular links are still not well-explored. In addition, emerging evidence suggests the important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development and progression of several diseases, yet their roles in linking obesity, diabetes and cancer are only now beginning to be recognized. It is hoped that miRNAs will serve as novel biomarkers and molecular targets for cancer therapy in patients with comorbid conditions. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathobiology of obesity, diabetes and cancer, and document molecular roles of miRNAs linking cancer with obesity and diabetes.
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